Information Retrieval for Research, from AU Library, BSS
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Information Retrieval for Research, from AU Library, BSS

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The slides are from our AU Library course for Ph.D. students at Aarhus University, BSS

The slides are from our AU Library course for Ph.D. students at Aarhus University, BSS

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  • Appetizers to go home and work indepthIn this first part before lunch we are going to focus on methods and tools – and not so much practical searches and so on …For that we have made the workshop this afternoonDuring this mornings lecture – maybe have a think about what you want to focus on in the workshop
  • Even though you are not doing a literature review its a good idea to make a precise documentation of your search process / search strategy – as it is useful in you general considerations reg. methodological choicesAt the end of the day we would like you to make your own personal to do list
  • Pind 5: given todays knowledge explosion - it is all about making informed choices (Holbrook, 2007, s.4)Do you have any questions or comments – so far …
  • Building on a study on american and australian examination reports – it shows that that the LR has a ”make it or a break it” factor – a good LR is indicative of scholarshipAnd three groups of demands are identified1. Coverage is mentioned in 70% of the reports as a crucial factor. you need to know which shoulders you are standing on – in regard to be capable of making your new contribution to the field.And you need to know the body of literature – as to have a good ground … it is the grounds for making informed choices about what you are going to include or exclude in your study2. - in that the ability to engange with the literature in the field is indicative of scholarship3. Correct use of references – about being professional – Professionalism and authoritative tone of voice ….Shows scholarship Eg show that you know all of the material but that your scope of the research has made you indlude this and this and this – and exclude that and that and that ……..
  • So … to make sure that you get good coverage is to use different search techniques – and using them wisely. coverage – to get the best possible starting point for getting a good coverage – Or as it says in the article distributed: “a range of search techniques are required to comprehensively identify social science literature” s.121If you have read the article … it is not enough just using one search techniwueWe are focusing on the four:Conv. SS – citation searches & reference lists – and identifying and assessing core journals.This is what could be called “formal” Info retrieval – where you can work systematically – whereas the others could be said to be more informal – and maybe working intuitively … building on your own network and knowledge about the field.The more focussed you get in on the different aspects of your phd – the more focused you can search the databases – and here conventional subject search comes into play and here it is you have to sepnd your time effectively. Another important serch technique is the citation searches and Ditte will explore the possibilities and the challenges of this later on And of course you should be aware of all of the other techniques as well along the way …Se Littell s.56 Bl.a. Hand searching ~ browsing / core journalss.57-58  sources of gray literature (government, working papers, conference proceedings, organisationer etc. - not controlled by commercial publishers)
  • You can probably talk about different stages or phases in a phd project – and this is just one way of looking at it – and this is just a really rough outline.Most important point being that you can probably benefit from looking at IR as a process – it goes back and forth – You cannot make the one perfect “conventional subject search” that covers all of your phd – and then say – that’s it! Now I can move on … to the real work. It is an ongoing process. You have to be in touch with your material in an ongoing process.In the beginning ……..It is an integrated part of your project – that is inter …. With your research design and the development of your researchSo keep track of what you are doing – and that is to say: keep it simple – and make documentation of what you are doing We are going to present tools that can help you with that.Encyclopedias ~ background information
  • Papaio …. S. 116:terms within social sciences is often ambiguous & changes constantlyAnd why is it a good idea to do this??pind 2: maybe you have to use a different search term in Scopus – if you are used to search Ebscohost or Proquest – because the database coverage is different …Dittes Example: the importance of synonymes – pitfalls across research fields:
  • Online program called popplet – easy to use …Here is an example of a master thesis – where the initial rq was something like this … I don’t remember the exact title … - the first thing is to think of related terms and different kinds of spelling – like this – and then I started searching some Q&D searches for this
  • Next thing I did some brainstorming of different aspects of choosing a partner– there is probably a lot more …!the thing to think about in regard to performing searches is – that the words inside your groups Here I ‘ve got my two main search terms – in all other forms of the word and synonyms etc. But around those main search terms I have a lot of other facets – or aspects of this subject … which could be relevant for the project– and then I got inspired along the way from searching databases – and found those related terms – from subject terms in the databases and so on … which might be relevant for me … – there are all of those possible aspects of this … and of course this is in the exploratory stage – from here I would have to choose which aspects I will focus on … and search those more focused in the databasesAnd why is it a good idea to do this??
  • Now try for yourselves – if you have already started this – maybe it can be refined empty popplet for those who want to write …Opsamling Hvis nogen allerede har lavet mindmap: ”man er aldrig færdig”; [quote DSS] OPSAMLING  vis søgehistorie og fortæl om overvejelser
  • Opsamling: Is it difficult – did this method work for you?The next step is to choose which databases to search – again a matter of choices think about database coverage, types of publications – and could you benefit from using a vendor – searching across several databases at the same time disadvantage – not to be able to use thesauri – but check them out before!
  • So again just a few words on this – do it step by step – to be able to adjust …Sorting / filteringresults from your exclusion / inclusion criteria.But be careful not to have too strict criterias (not in the initial phase anyway) that make you ignore studies that could be interesting.“… sometimes we encounter studies that raise issues not yet considered.” Littell et al. s.61
  • Creating a profile – you can modify searches, create alerts etc.

Information Retrieval for Research, from AU Library, BSS Information Retrieval for Research, from AU Library, BSS Presentation Transcript

  • Information Retrieval for Research Gina Bay, Ditte Schjødt Svensson AU Library, BSS1
  • Purpose  Enhance the efficiency of the search process in the beginning of a research project  Methods & tools for  Working systematically  Meeting the demands for a good literature review  Making informed choices Gina Bay, Ditte Schjødt Svensson AU Library, BSS 2
  • Agenda  Search techniques – an overview  Stages in a systematic literature review  Conventional subject searching  Building search strategies (keyword mapping)  Reference lists & Citations  Choosing the right databases?  Identifying core journals  Managing Information  Your own personal to do list  Workshop Gina Bay, Ditte Schjødt Svensson, AU Library, BSS 3
  • At the end of the day, you will…  Be acquainted with several search techniques  Have a toolkit for developing your own search strategies  Be aware of different ways of organising your literature, information and notes  Have an idea of how you can benefit from a reference management tool  Think of information retrieval & management as one of many methodological choices Gina Bay, Ditte Schjødt Svensson, AU Library, BSS 4
  • Examiner comments on literature reviews:  Coverage Breadth, depth, up to date, comprehensive, thorough, selects literature wisely. This means you have to use severeal search techniques  Use and application Coherence, concise, critical appraisal, synthesises makes connections between the literature and findings.  Accuracy Correct and consistent presentation of references. (Holbrook 2007; Lovitts 2007) Gina Bay, Ditte Schjødt Svensson AU Library, BSS 5
  • Search techniques Gina Bay, Ditte Schjødt Svensson AU Library, BSS 6 Papaioannou et al. 2009
  • Stages in information retrieval  Exploratory phase  ”Quick & Dirty”: internet searching, reference lists, encyclopedias, literature reviews, browsing, core journals, experts & colleagues, social media, serendipity …  Focused phase  Systematic: Conventional subject searching, citation searching, reference lists, social media, grey literature, serendipity …  Organising literature  Organising your information – eg using reference management tools Gina Bay, Ditte Schjødt Svensson AU Library, BSS 7
  • Conventional subject searching - searching databases using keywords / subject terms  Build a search strategy that describes: ”…the databases used, the reasons for their use and the … words used in the keyword searches.” (White, 2011) Gina Bay, Ditte Schjødt Svensson AU Library, BSS 8
  • Building a search strategy - keywords  Identify the main keywords for your thesis  Brainstorm:  Think of related terms, synonyms, acronyms, antonyms, narrower terms, broader terms etc.  ”Keyword mapping”  organise your keywords into the different aspects of your project  Combine keywords in Boolean searching using truncation Gina Bay, Ditte Schjødt Svensson AU Library, BSS 9
  • Why do this?  To improve your search vocabulary to be sure that you won’t miss important material  ”terms within social sciences is often ambiguous and changes constantly” (Papaioannou et al. 2009)  To keep track of different keywords for different aspects of you project  you may need different types of knowledge in different stages of you project.  you might have to use different databases for different aspects Gina Bay, Ditte Schjødt Svensson AU Library, BSS 10
  • Keyword mapping - example  ”How do people choose their partner?” Gina Bay, Ditte Schjødt Svensson AU Library, BSS 11
  • Example: Gina Bay, Ditte Schjødt Svensson AU Library, BSS 12
  • Example: Gina Bay, Ditte Schjødt Svensson AU Library, BSS 13
  • Keyword mapping – group keywords in themes  Identify the main keywords for your thesis  Brainstorm on the different aspects of your project:  Synonyms / Antonyms  Acronyms  Broader terms  Narrower terms  Related terms etc.  Organise your keywords into groups Gina Bay, Ditte Schjødt Svensson AU Library, BSS 14
  • Search strategy - choosing databases  Searh strategy - choosing databases: ”…the databases used, the reasons for their use and the … words used in the keyword searches.” (White, 2011) Gina Bay, Ditte Schjødt Svensson AU Library, BSS 15
  • Choosing relevant sources to search  Coverage:  Eg subject, years, geography, languages  Types of publications: books, journals, academic / public )  Specific databases or vendors  Ebscohost (Business Source Complete, Communication & Mass Media Complete, Academic Search Elite)  Proquest (ABI/Inform, Econlit, Psycinfo, Eric, Sociological abstracts)  Scopus / Web of Science Gina Bay, Ditte Schjødt Svensson AU Library, BSS 16
  • Types of publications Academic sphere Public sphere News articles Journals from professions Academic articles ’Popular’ books Academic books Infomedia, Factiva Lexis Nexis Databases, Ebscohost Proquest etc. Search, Bibliotek.dk Worldcat etc. Academic depth Reaction time 17 Gina Bay, Ditte Schjødt Svensson AU Library, BSS Slide: © Nicolaj Veje Pedersen
  • Search history  Keep track of your searches  You can combine your searches in the Search History  divide your searches into parts / clusters  Create a profile Gina Bay, Ditte Schjødt Svensson AU Library, BSS 18
  • Create profiles in the databases: Gina Bay, Ditte Schjødt Svensson AU Library, BSS 19
  • Summing up Stages of information searching for a systematic literature review Gina Bay, Ditte Schjødt Svensson AU Library, BSS Exploratory searching •Background information •Browsing •Reference lists/citation searching •Quick’n’Dirty querying •Internet searching Subject searching: •Group keywords (synonyms, acronyms, antonyms) •Choose relevant sources to search systematically •Combine facets in Boolean searching – combine different facets ASSESS RESULTS – ADJUST SEARCH - REITERATE Organising literature in e.g. EndNote, RefWorks or other reference management software Put up Alerts, to be notified on new articles Project Moulding Stage Literature Collection Stage Literature Management Stage Use MULTIPLE sources When reading and analyzing pay attention to: Authors/Journals/”Schools of thought”/Sources (databases, conferences, publishers, institutions)/Keywords/Search vocabulary Identify: Authors/Journals/”Schools of thought”/Sources (databases, conferences, publishers, institutions)/Keywords/Search vocabulary Supplement with: •Internet Searching •Browsing •Reference/Citation Searching •Asking Colleagues/other researchers 20
  • Start your personal to-do-list - and take a few minutes to reflect on your outcome What I need to do know  Brainstorm for …  Get time to…  Check citations for …  Check out the database…  Ask the librarian…  …  …  … Gina Bay, Ditte Schjødt Svensson AU Library, BSS 21
  • References:  Hart, C. (1998). Doing a literature review : Releasing the social science research imagination. London: Sage Publications.  Holbrook, A., Bourke, S., Fairbairn, H., & Lovat, T. (2007). Examiner comment on the literature review in ph.D. theses. Studies in Higher Education, 32(3), 337-356.  Jesson, J. K., Matheson, L., & Lacey, F. M. (2011). Doing your literature review : Traditional and systematic techniques. Los Angeles, Calif.: SAGE.  Littell, J. H., Corcoran, J., & Pillai, V. K. (2008). Systematic reviews and meta-analysis. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  Lovitts, B. E.,1960-. (2007). Making the implicit explicit : Creating performance expectations for the dissertation. Sterling, Va.: Stylus Pub.  Papaioannou, D., Sutton, A., Carroll, C., Booth, A., & Wong, R. (2010). Literature searching for social science systematic reviews: Consideration of a range of search techniques. Health Information & Libraries Journal, 27(2), 114-122  White, B. (2011). Mapping your thesis: The comprehensive manual of theory and techniques for masters' and doctoral research Aust Council for Ed Research. Gina Bay, Ditte Schjødt Svensson AU Library, BSS 22
  • Article databases Proquest – Social Sciences http://ez.statsbiblioteket.dk:2048/login?url=http://search.proq uest.com.ez.statsbiblioteket.dk:2048/?accountid=14468 In Proquest you might find it useful to search simultaneously across several databases in Business and Social Sciences. You can choose this from the subject areas icons or from the database list. Scopus http://ez.statsbiblioteket.dk:2048/login?url=http://www.scopus .com/scopus/ Scopus is the largest abstract and citation database, covering 15,000 peer-reviewed journals from more than 4,000 international publishers, including coverage of over 1,000 Open Access journals, 500 Conference Proceedings and over 125 Book Series adding to 33 million records. Gina Bay, Ditte Schjødt Svensson AU Library, BSS 23