INTRODUCTION One of the biggest problem,countries faces today is over population.according to Robert Thomas Malthus in his populatipon theory that the increase in population is bigger than the increase of the production of food and other necessities wich in the coming years can result to a wide famine,crisis and malnutrition cause by over population.Acc. To Malthus that the best and easiest way to minimize the fast increasing population is Birth Control .
BIRTH CONTROL <ul>Does not mean stoping to have children.It is a a practice,in having a children only when the couple s want them and can best take care of them.It is a freedom to choose for themselves the number of children they want and the time or spacing of births as they wish. </ul>
Methods of Birth Control ABSTINENCE: It is almost 100 percent effective in preventing pregnancy. This means your vagina stays penis free – no sexual intercourse. There is still a chance that a female can become pregnant if two people get too close and sperm finds its way through the fallopian tubes and to the egg. Be careful and at all times keep some clothes on.or in short no sex at all.
METHODS OF BIRTH CONTROL <ul><li>A.Natural method
>this method requires a woman to know her menstrual cycle so she can determine her safe periods. </li></ul>
>pertains to close cheaking & recording of daily temperature should be from 0.2 to 0.5 degree at the time of evaluation. </li></ul>
RHYTHM METHOD A woman practices rhythm, or natural family planning, by learning to recognize the days she is fertile, and not having sex before and during those days. The rhythm method does not work for all couples. Women who have regular menstrual cycles and who are very careful about when they have sex usually find it to be effective. Women who have irregular cycles and who are not so careful often end up becoming pregnant. How Does It Work? Methods include keeping track of changes in body temperature and vaginal discharge (fluid from the vagina) to pinpoint which days you are fertile. Ask your doctor how best to use the rhythm method.
3.Withdrawal Method >refer to withdrawing the penis from the vagina before an ejaculation or orgasm occurs.it is the oldest method of contaception.
Others <ul><li>A.Artificial methods or contaception
>this metod includes chemical consumption,surgical operation ande bloking of gametes. </li></ul>
Types of Artificial Method 1.Condoms: They are up to 90 percent effective.. Condoms reduce the risk of pregnancy and the chance of catching a sexually transmitted disease.
2.THE PILL: The Pill is the most popular type of birth control. There are many different brands of The Pill and they come in packs of 21 or 28 pills. One pill is taken every day. The first 21 pills have a combination of synthetic estrogen and progesterone hormones. The Pill stops ovulation, preventing the ovaries from releasing eggs. The Pill also thickens cervical mucus, making it harder for sperm to enter the uterus. The hormones in the Pill prevent fertilization. The last 7 pills of a 28-day pack have no hormones and are called spacer pills. The Pill is 92-99.7% effective as birth control.
Intrauterine Device (IUD) A small object that is inserted through the cervix and placed in the uterus to prevent pregnancy. A small string hangs down from the IUD into the upper part of the vagina. The IUD is not noticeable during intercourse. IUDs can last 1-10 years. They affect the movements of eggs and sperm to prevent fertilization. They also change the lining of the uterus and prevent implantation. IUDs are 99.2-99.9% effective as birth control.
INJECTIONS: DEPO-PROVERA, the most common injection administered, is 99 percent effective. A shot is injected every three months by a health care professional. It costs approximately $30 to $65 per shot.
IMPLANTS: Implants are up to 99 percent effective , but there are larger risks involved with having an implant of something such as Norplant. The implant can work up to five years, costing between $500 and $900 with a $100 to $300 removal fee. Six implants are placed in the upper arm.
Vaginal Ring (NUVARING) A thin, transparent, flexible ring that you insert into the vagina yourself to provide contraception protection. Leaving the Vaginal Ring in for 3 weeks, it slowly releases estrogen and progestin hormones into the body. These hormones stop ovulation and thicken the cervical mucus, creating a barrier to prevent sperm from fertilizing an egg. Worn continuously for three weeks followed by a week off, each Vaginal Ring provides one month of birth control. The Vaginal Ring is 92-99.7% effective as birth control.
....................................................... Cervical cup: its a device that usually put into the cervix before doing an intercourse.its a very hastle method.
Failure rates for birth control methods when used correctly (Number of pregnancies per 100 women per year) Male condom alone 11 Female condom alone 21 Diaphragm with spermicide 17 Cervical cap with spermicide 17 to 23 Spermicide alone 20 to 50 Oral contraceptives 1 to 2 Contraceptive patch* 1 to 2 Vaginal contraceptive ring 1 to 2 Hormone shots less than 1 Hormone implant less than 1 IUD less than 1
This methods are now widely used in different places worldwide. Through using this methods the fast increasing population is minimized.