Gil Acosta and  Jeff Wheatley ED443G: Adaptive and Assistive Technology in Special Education November 13, 2008 Dr. Cyrus
Objectives :  By the end of the presentation, you will be able to: <ul><li>Know the two ways TBI occurs. </li></ul><ul><li...
Definition:  <ul><li>(IDEA) TBI is an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in tota...
Prevalence: Of 1.4 million cases of TBI in the U.S. annually: Among children 0-14, TBI results in an estimated: <ul><li>50...
TBI Characteristics: COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL <ul><li>Poor Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced Concentration and Attention Span <...
TBI Characteristics: Physical <ul><li>Limb Weakness  </li></ul><ul><li>Poor Balance </li></ul><ul><li>Speech Problems </li...
Source: CDC
Two Ways TBI Can Occur : Closed Brain Injury Open Brain Inj ury <ul><li>There is a penetration or open head injury to the ...
Prevention <ul><li>Wear seatbelts </li></ul><ul><li>Buckle up children in child safety seats; booster seat for children th...
Assessment/Diagnosis (Tests indicated below can assess from mild to severe TBI)‏ <ul><li>Glasgow Coma Scale Score: measure...
Early Intervention <ul><li>Family is Key </li></ul><ul><li>Most cases identified before 6 months of age </li></ul><ul><li>...
Teaching Tips <ul><li>Symantic Feature Analysis- helps student organize learning </li></ul><ul><li>Functional Behavioral A...
Transition <ul><li>Community Presence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration into workplace, residential and recreational setti...
Collaboration <ul><li>Family and Individual </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-Disciplinary Teams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General & Sp....
Partnership with Family & Community <ul><li>Services and programs for all individuals with low incidence disabilities must...
Assistive Technology <ul><li>Cognitive Aids </li></ul><ul><li>Communication Aids </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptive Toys </li></ul...
Video Clips <ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bwNnwi87GzM </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-jMlfNwgOe...
Questions <ul><li>In what ways can we improve our community to better assist anyone with low incidence disabilities (TBI)?...
References <ul><li>Brain Injury. Retrieved September 28, 2008. From Brain Injury Wales Website: http://www.braininjurywale...
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Very Low Incidence Disabilities.Tbi

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Very low incidence disability-TBI Tramadic Brain Injury

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Very Low Incidence Disabilities.Tbi

  1. 1. Gil Acosta and Jeff Wheatley ED443G: Adaptive and Assistive Technology in Special Education November 13, 2008 Dr. Cyrus
  2. 2. Objectives : By the end of the presentation, you will be able to: <ul><li>Know the two ways TBI occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and apply different ways of preventing or reducing the chances of TBI. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand ways in which educational, social and community needs are fulfilled for those afflicted with TBI. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Definition: <ul><li>(IDEA) TBI is an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment or both. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Layman’s” Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>TBI is an injury to the head that can be caused “externally” or “internally.” And can affect a person’s cognitive, behavioral, and/or physical abilities. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Prevalence: Of 1.4 million cases of TBI in the U.S. annually: Among children 0-14, TBI results in an estimated: <ul><li>50,000 die </li></ul><ul><li>235,000 are hospitalized </li></ul><ul><li>1.1 million are treated and released from hospital emergency rooms </li></ul><ul><li>2,685 deaths </li></ul><ul><li>37,000 hospitalizations </li></ul><ul><li>435,000 emergency visits </li></ul>On Guam there is one case of TBI (GPSS)‏
  5. 5. TBI Characteristics: COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL <ul><li>Poor Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced Concentration and Attention Span </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty Solving Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Mood Changes: Possibly including irritability or anger </li></ul><ul><li>Restlessness </li></ul><ul><li>Over Emotional </li></ul>
  6. 6. TBI Characteristics: Physical <ul><li>Limb Weakness </li></ul><ul><li>Poor Balance </li></ul><ul><li>Speech Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Disrupted Sleep Patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory Problems (headaches, poor sense of smell, visual disturbances, poor or heighten hearing)‏ </li></ul>
  7. 7. Source: CDC
  8. 8. Two Ways TBI Can Occur : Closed Brain Injury Open Brain Inj ury <ul><li>There is a penetration or open head injury to the skull </li></ul><ul><li>There is a penetrating injury to the brain </li></ul><ul><li>No penetrating injury to the brain; no break in the skull </li></ul><ul><li>Can occur from the rapid back and forth movement or shaking of the brain within the skull </li></ul><ul><li>Can occur due to poor health, disease, or neurological problem </li></ul>
  9. 9. Prevention <ul><li>Wear seatbelts </li></ul><ul><li>Buckle up children in child safety seats; booster seat for children that weigh 40 lbs. </li></ul><ul><li>Never drive under the influence of drugs or alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Wearing a helmet for adults and/or children when: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Riding a bike, motorcycle, snowmobile, or </li></ul><ul><li>ATV 2. Playing contact sports like football or ice hockey 3 . When riding a horse </li></ul>
  10. 10. Assessment/Diagnosis (Tests indicated below can assess from mild to severe TBI)‏ <ul><li>Glasgow Coma Scale Score: measures the severity of a TBI </li></ul><ul><li>CT Scan (Computerized Tomography): can detect physical changes in the brain </li></ul><ul><li>MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) Scan: produces a high resolution image of the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Angiogram: injection of a dye into an artery checks blood flow to the brain </li></ul><ul><li>EEG (Electroencephalograph): measures electrical activity in the brain </li></ul>
  11. 11. Early Intervention <ul><li>Family is Key </li></ul><ul><li>Most cases identified before 6 months of age </li></ul><ul><li>Receive more federal funding than other children with special needs </li></ul><ul><li>Fully inclusive preschool programs </li></ul>
  12. 12. Teaching Tips <ul><li>Symantic Feature Analysis- helps student organize learning </li></ul><ul><li>Functional Behavioral Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul>
  13. 13. Transition <ul><li>Community Presence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration into workplace, residential and recreational settings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Community Based Instruction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional skills occur in real community settings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>College Participation </li></ul>
  14. 14. Collaboration <ul><li>Family and Individual </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-Disciplinary Teams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General & Sp.Ed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AT Specialists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SLP's </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OT's </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PT's </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Partnership with Family & Community <ul><li>Services and programs for all individuals with low incidence disabilities must be a part of the community. </li></ul><ul><li>Professionals must provide support for each and every family and the decisions they encounter. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Assistive Technology <ul><li>Cognitive Aids </li></ul><ul><li>Communication Aids </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptive Toys </li></ul><ul><li>Aids to Augment Hearing </li></ul><ul><li>Feeding Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Alternate Computer Access </li></ul><ul><li>Visual Aids </li></ul><ul><li>Aids to assist with walking, dressing, and other activities of daily living </li></ul>
  17. 17. Video Clips <ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bwNnwi87GzM </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-jMlfNwgOeU </li></ul>
  18. 18. Questions <ul><li>In what ways can we improve our community to better assist anyone with low incidence disabilities (TBI)? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we, as educators, support the individual and the family affected by low incidence disability (TBI)? </li></ul><ul><li>What can we provide, as community members, to assist any individual with a disability? </li></ul>
  19. 19. References <ul><li>Brain Injury. Retrieved September 28, 2008. From Brain Injury Wales Website: http://www.braininjurywales.com/brain_injury.html </li></ul><ul><li>Smith, Deborah (2007), Introduction to Special Education: Making a Difference 6 th Edition. Pearson Education, Inc </li></ul><ul><li>What is Brain Injury? Retrieved September 28, 2008. From the Center for Disease Control Website: http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/tbi/TBI.htm </li></ul><ul><li>TBI Facts and Stats. Retrieved September 28, 2008. From the Nero Skills website: http://neroskills.com/tbi/facts/shtml </li></ul><ul><li>Brain Injury Information. Retrieved September 30, 2008. From the Brain Injury Association of America website: http://www.biausa.org/index.html </li></ul>

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