Ana E. Fontoura, MLS

                        Reference/Technical Services Librarian

                               Mothe...
Forms of Plagiarism:                        Why you should not plagiarize:
·     Copying from published sources          ·...
EXAMPLE #1


 Original Source Material: Technology has significantly transformed        Source: Frick, T. (1991).
educatio...
EXAMPLE#2


Original Source Material: Constructivism is a movement that extends          Source: Heinich, R.,
beyond the b...
EXAMPLE #3


Original Source Material: The concept of systems is really         Source: Frick, T. (1991).
quite simple. Th...
EXAMPLE #4


Original Source Material: Theories differ from                  Source: Gredler, M. E. (2001).
philosophies a...
EXAMPLE #5


 Original Source Material: An important characteristic       Source: Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). What
 of instru...
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Help Avoiding Plagiarism

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Help Avoiding Plagiarism

  1. 1. Ana E. Fontoura, MLS Reference/Technical Services Librarian Mother Irene Gill Library The College of New Rochelle August, 2006 Plagiarism is defined in the CNR school catalogs as “Taking and submitting as your own, without proper citation or credit, another person’s words or ideas, obtained from books, papers, periodicals, tables, videotapes, audio recordings, Internet messages, or other ideas or words received through the computer.” (CNR Graduate School Catalog, 2006-07, p. 31) As such, plagiarism is a violation of the Academic Integrity/Information Resources General Policy. Plagiarism is a serious offense and could be grounds for failure or dismissal. Plagiarism is frequently found in college research papers usually due to the amount of information a student is exposed to. As college students, everyone is expected to have their own ideas. This means that information that is obtained from another source should be explained in your own words. Although plagiarism is frequently unintentional, it is your responsibility to learn how to avoid it. Here are some guidelines:
  2. 2. Forms of Plagiarism: Why you should not plagiarize: · Copying from published sources · It violates CNR policy! (books, journals, newspapers) · It is stealing someone’s words and ideas! · Copying from the internet (web sites, full text articles, email · It is unethical messages) · It is disrespectful to professors and other · Buying a pre-written paper from the students internet · It discourages you from learning · Asking someone else to write a paper for you (it doesn’t matter if you · If you found a source that is “just what you pay them or not) were looking for”, so can your professor! Ways to avoid plagiarism: How do I interpret it? · Cite your sources · Make sure you clearly state the source of your information (author, title, publisher, date, · Use an appropriate writing style page, web address) manual · APA, MLA, Chicago and Turabian style · Use quotes when copying word for manuals are the most common. Ask a word and cite the source Librarian for more information. · Paraphrase someone else’s ideas · Make sure paraphrased statements include into your own words and cite the the source! source STILL HAVE QUESTIONS? ASK A LIBRARIAN! 914-654-5342 OR GO TO: http://www2.cnr.edu/home/library/ask.htm
  3. 3. EXAMPLE #1 Original Source Material: Technology has significantly transformed Source: Frick, T. (1991). education at several major turning points in our history. In the Restructuring education broadest sense, the first technology was the primitive modes of through technology. communication used by prehistoric people before the development of Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta spoken language. Mime, gestures, grunts, and drawing of figures in Kappa Educational the sand with a stick were methods used to communicate -- yes, Foundation. even to educate. Even without speech, these prehistoric people were able to teach their young how to catch animals for food, what animals to avoid, which vegetation was good to eat and which was poisonous. Plagiarized Version Correct Version In examining technology, we have to In examining technology, we have to remember that remember that computers are not the first computers are not the first technology people have technology people have had to deal with. had to deal with. Frick (1991) believes that "... the first The first technology was the primitive technology was the primitive modes of modes of communication used by communication used by prehistoric people before the prehistoric people before the development development of spoken language" (p. 10). of spoken language. References: Frick, T. (1991). Restructuring education through technology. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation. Explanation: The student copied, word- Explanation: Note in this example that the passage for-word, text from the original source begins with the author and year of the publication. material. No credit was given to the author Quotation marks are used to indicate that this of the text and quotation marks were not passage is a word-for-word citation from the original used. Also, the student didn't provide a document. reference.
  4. 4. EXAMPLE#2 Original Source Material: Constructivism is a movement that extends Source: Heinich, R., beyond the beliefs of the cognitivist. It considers the engagement of Molenda, M., Russell, J. students in meaningful experiences as the essence of learning. The D., & Smaldino, S. E. shift is from passive transfer of information to active problem solving. (1999). Instructional media Constructivists emphasize that learners create their own and technologies for interpretations of the world of information. learning. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Plagiarized Version Correct Version Constructivists do not hold views entirely Constructivists do not hold views entirely opposed to those of the cognitivists. The opposed to those of the cognitivists. The position position of constructivists extends beyond the of constructivists "... extends beyond the beliefs beliefs of the cognitivist. of the cognitivist" (Heinich, Molenda, Russell, & Smaldino, 1999, p. 17). References: Heinich, R., Molenda, M., Russell, J. D., & Smaldino, S. E. (1999). Instructional References: Heinich, R., Molenda, M., Russell, J. media and technologies for learning. Upper D., & Smaldino, S. E. (1999). Instructional media Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. and technologies for learning. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Explanation: The student included a portion of Explanation: Quotation marks are used to the original author's work in a sentence without indicate that this passage is a word-for-word using quotation marks. Although the work was citation from the original document. cited in the references, no credit was given to the original author in the text of the paper, and quotation marks were not used.
  5. 5. EXAMPLE #3 Original Source Material: The concept of systems is really Source: Frick, T. (1991). quite simple. The basic idea is that a system has parts that fit Restructuring education together to make a whole; but where it gets complicated -- through technology. and interesting -- is how those parts are connected or related Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta to each other. Kappa Educational Foundation. Plagiarized Version Correct Version A system has parts that fit together to Frick (1991) states that "... a system has parts that fit make a whole, but the important aspect together to make a whole ..." but the important of systems is how those parts are aspect of systems is "... how those parts are connected or related to each other (Frick, connected or related to each other" (p. 17). 1991). References: Frick, T. (1991). Restructuring education References: Frick, T. (1991). through technology. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Restructuring education through Kappa Educational Foundation. technology. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation. Explanation: Although the author is cited Explanation: Note in this example that the passage at the end of the paragraph, the student begins with the author and year of the publication. copied word-for-word from the original Quotation marks are used to indicate that the source material and did not use quotation passages are word-for-word citations from the marks. original document. The author is also listed in the references.
  6. 6. EXAMPLE #4 Original Source Material: Theories differ from Source: Gredler, M. E. (2001). philosophies and models of teaching. A philosophy is a Learning and instruction: Theory into value system, whereas a theory seeks to explain real- practice (4th ed.). Upper Saddle, NJ: world events and can be certified through scientific Prentice-Hall. investigation. Models of teaching are approaches to the management of some aspect of classroom instruction and they may not be independent of subject area, grade level, age of the student, or the setting for learning. A characteristic of learning theories is that they address the underlying psychological dynamics of events. Thus, they provide a mechanism for understanding the implications of events related to learning in both formal and informal settings. Plagiarized Version Correct Version Theories and philosophies are different Theories and philosophies are different from each from each other because theories seek other because, according to Gredler (2001) theories to explain real-world events and can be seek certified through scientific investigation. Learning theories address the to explain real-world events and can be underlying psychological dynamics of certified through scientific investigation... A events, so they provide a mechanism characteristic of learning theories is that they for understanding the implications of address the underlying psychological dynamics events related to learning in both formal of events. Thus, they provide a mechanism for and informal settings. understanding the implications of events related to learning in both formal and informal settings. (pp. 12-13) References: Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Explanation: The student used several Explanation: An indented block is used to indicate that passages from the original work and this passage is a word-for-word quotation and the inserted them into original prose; pages where it was taken from the original document. however no credit was given to the The original author of the content is cited at the end of author, quotation marks were not used, the passage and in the reference section as well. the work was not listed in the references.
  7. 7. EXAMPLE #5 Original Source Material: An important characteristic Source: Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). What of instructional-design theories is that they are design is instructional design theory and how is oriented (or goal oriented). This makes them very it changing? In C. M. Reigeluth (ed.), different from what most people usually think of as Instructional-design theories and models theories. Theories can be thought of as dealing with volume II: A new paradigm of cause-and-effect relationships or with flows of events in instructional theory, (pp. 1-29). Mahwah, natural processes, keeping in mind that those effects or NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. events are almost always probabilistic (i.e., the cause increases the chances of the stated effect occurring) rather than deterministic (i.e., the cause always results in the stated effect). Plagiarized Version Correct Version Whether they are probabilistic (i.e., the Reigeluth (1999) states that we can think of theories cause increases the chances of the "... as dealing with cause-and-effect relationships or stated effect occurring) or they are with flows of events in natural processes," and goes on deterministic (i.e., the cause always to say that they may be either "probabilistic (i.e., the results in the stated effect), we can think cause increases the chances of the stated effect of theories as dealing with cause-and- occurring) rather than deterministic (i.e., the cause effect relationships or with flows of always results in the stated effect)" (p. 7). natural processes. References: Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). What is References: Reigeluth, C.M. (1999). instructional design theory and how is it changing? In What is instructional design theory and C. M. Reigeluth (ed.), Instructional-design theories and how is it changing? In C. M. Reigeluth models volume II: A new paradigm of instructional (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and theory, (pp. 1-29). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum models volume II: A new paradigm of Associates. instructional theory, (pp. 1-29). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Explanation: This example of student Explanation: Note in this example that the passage written work is plagiarized. The student begins with the author and year of the publication. re-organized the original material, and Quotation marks are used to indicate that the several inserted portions of the material in passages are word-for-word citations from the original different places within the new paper, but document. The author is also listed in the references. it is still word-for-word plagiarism. Although the work was cited in the references, no credit was given to the author of the text and quotation marks were not used. Credits: Examples as shown in the University of Indiana, School of Education: http://www.indiana.edu/~istd/ Ana E. Fontoura, Gill Library, College of New Rochelle, August 2006

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