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The museum brand footprint - the role of architecture in defining the museum's image

The museum brand footprint - the role of architecture in defining the museum's image



Analyse de l'utilisation du bâtiment dans la stratégie de construction de l'identité d'un musée à travers 8 exemples opérationnels. Etude publiée en 2006 par la société de marketing DMD ...

Analyse de l'utilisation du bâtiment dans la stratégie de construction de l'identité d'un musée à travers 8 exemples opérationnels. Etude publiée en 2006 par la société de marketing DMD (www.dmdinsight.com), qui ne semble plus être opérationnelle.



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    The museum brand footprint - the role of architecture in defining the museum's image The museum brand footprint - the role of architecture in defining the museum's image Document Transcript

    • The Museum Brand Footprint: The Role of Architecture in Defining the Museum’s ImageInside:Foreword IFC A Newcomer Page 16Overview Page 3 Renaissance Page 19A Global Brand Page 6 A Clean Slate Page 22Clearly Local Page 8 Convergence Page 24Larger and Diversified Page 10 Evolving the Footprint Page 27Redefined Page 14 Footnotes Page 33
    • Foreword William Menking Founder and Editor, The Architect’s Newspaper The first museum is thought to date from the 3rd century BCE when King Ptolemy I founded the State Museum of Alexandria, Egypt. Museums have served as public repositories ofcultural artifacts, societal memory, and scholarship in all historical periods since Periclean Greek temples displayedstatues, paintings, and votive offerings. The collection that would become the Uffizi Gallery was established in Florenceduring the Italian Renaissance, and, in 1683, the Ashmolean opened in Oxford, England, marking the first use of theword ‘museum’ in the English language. Finally, in 1793, the French Republic opened the Louvre with its encyclopedicart treasures assembled by the French royalty.The first museum in the United States was likely Harvard Universitys Repository of Curiosities, begun in 1750, andthe Library Society of Charleston South Carolina, founded in 1773. The last half of the 19th Century in Americawitnessed an explosion of new institutions including the Wadsworth Atheneum in Hartford, Connecticut in 1842, theSmithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. in 1846, and the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City in 1870.The one constant in the history of museums has been change. The use, function, and audience for these collectionshave constantly evolved, and institutions that survive over centuries do so because they adapt to change. The firstmuseums were repositories for private collections of objects or curiosities and were open for only the social elite orserious scholars. In the Middle Ages, churches and monasteries were the holders of religious relics, jewels, preciousmetals, rare manuscripts, and fabrics, and The Uffizi collection was initially in a private residence. It was not untilthe proliferation of universal exhibitions in the 19th century that the notion of a “public” institution, as weunderstand it today was first introduced. In the 20th century, institutions like the Brooklyn Museum began toshape more and more of their programs to satisfy the increasing need for public education. In light of the socialactivism of the 1960s, museums were forced to reexamine the effectiveness of their public service.In today’s world of digital communication, museums have to adapt once again to attract a newer and youngeraudience (as their traditional audience is aging). This report Museum Brand Footprint by DMD discusses how museumstoday may take advantage of these new conditions to increase their audience and effectiveness as cultural institutions.The paper analyzes the current state of museums and their ability to deal with change by questioning directors ofinstitutions globally. It does this by focusing on the role new buildings or additions play in the future of theirinstitutions and how these administrators communicate the new conditions created by these buildings. The reportuncovers some fascinating facts about museums before making recommendations about how they can take this new THE MUSEUM BRAND FOOTPRINT
    • The one constant in the history of museums has been change. The use, function, and audience for these collections have constantly evolved, and institutions that survive over centuries do so because they adapt to change.role to the public. It begins for example by pointing out that it is often assumed that museums today want -andoften spend a great deal of effort creating - architectural landmarks because wealthy individuals prefer givingmoney to something that gives them naming rights. While this is undoubtedly a consideration for any museumlooking to expand this is far too simplistic a view. The report quotes Florian Idenburg, formerly a Senior Associateat SANAA, the Japanese architecture firm that designed the Glass Pavilion in Toledo, Ohio, "The interesting thingabout the Toledo Museum is that its their clear mission to serve the community as it is the only civic building in alarge radius." Thus while museums and their directors increasingly need to think about funding and managing donorsthis report makes clear that they still see their function primarily as a public one and that all those involved in thecreation of new museums should heed this at their own risk of irrelevance.Further, while some museums clearly intend to build dramatic and iconic new buildings to house art - New York’sGuggenheim is the best known of these - even this is more complicated that one might expect. DMD pointsout that: “architecture is a major part of what the Guggenheim Museum offers to visitors, is in line with theinstitution’s mission…to promote appreciation and understanding of modern and contemporary art and architecture,”and that many visitors come to see the building before the art. But not all museums have the same idea about howarchitecture can affect their institutional mandate or audience. Walker Art Center, known as an institution thatchampions cutting-edge artists and ideas, did not want just an iconic building from its architects Herzog &deMeuron, but one that reflects the non-traditional nature of the art center.The insights that the paper highlights regarding museum thinking about architectural additions are important, butthe value of this report is its recommendations for how museums can communicate these changes to the public -particularly to newer and less traditional audiences. It makes many obvious suggestions like reaching out withstronger Web presences, and to engage with new technologies like YouTube, Second Life, and electronic commerce.But perhaps its most powerful recommendations are those that suggest ways for museums to engage in communityoutreach to a potential public, particularly to new ethnically and culturally diverse young populations. The BilbaoGuggenheim for example realized that while tourists come in great numbers to see their Frank Gehry designedbuilding and impressive collection of art it was still important for them to engage local audiences to remain relevant.The Art Gallery of Ontario and the Toledo Museum of Art both faced initial criticism from their local audiences perhapsbecause of their adventurous architecture and spent time consulting with the local communities.If museums want to grow and expand they would do well to read this report and heed the advice of the report’swriters, who, it should be pointed out, are from the very generation that museums must engage, if they are tosuccessfully adapt to contemporary culture. THE MUSEUM BRAND FOOTPRINT • PAGE 1
    • 23% of US museums, and 33% of US art museums are engaged in a capital campaign 50 % of the museums engaged in a capital campaign have begun or completed building construc- tion, renovation, or expansion 3.5 B Respondents collectively in the past 3 years spent over $3.5B on building construction and renovation in the past 3 years Capital Campaigns, Building Construction, and Renovation* 24 M The median costs of new building construction, renovation, and expansion for art museums are $24M, $18M, and $2M respectively 17,000 The median size of new building construction, renovation, and expansion is 17,000, 15,000, and 5,000 square feet respectively $ 400 The median costs per square foot of new building construction, renovation, and expansion for art museums are $400, $365, and $163 respectively* Based on American Association of Museums’ 2005 survey of 800 museums nationwide.1
    • The median goal of capital campaigns are $10M for museums in general and $20M for art museums. For general museums, the goal is 3 times the size of the endowment. For art museums, the goal is 2.45 times the size of endowment, 6 times the operating expenses and 37 times the non-operating expenses. OverviewThe marketing and brand function of museums has changed from event-based marketing — centered on acalendar of exhibitions, openings, and collections — to destination-based marketing. The museum asdestination is more than its holdings - it is a visitor must-see, a must-experience architectural landmarkdefined as much by the celebrity of the architect as that of the artists on display. This new landscape, fundedby unprecedented capital campaigns, is forcing museums to define themselves through increasingly uniquearchitecture. The trend is seen around the world from small towns to big cities. We call this theMuseum Brand Footprint: the unique way museums are using architecture to define the museum as abrand and a destination.This paper, the second in DMD’s series in studying “brand footprints,” looks at the challenges, best practices,and solutions facing eight museums from around the world at various stages of their brand evolution.DMD was interested in the new brand stewardship role of the institutions’ leaders, the stresses that areplaced upon marketing communications departments, and the architects’ brand thought process. What wediscovered, and the reader will find in the case studies, is a host of useful branding and marketing strategieswhich are applicable globally to museums that are beginning or in the midst of architectural projects.. THE MUSEUM BRAND FOOTPRINT • PAGE 3
    • DMDOnline Survey Results Expansion needs for institutions surveyed- in order of importance THE MUSEUM BRAND FOOTPRINT • PAGE 4
    • 88 %To raise the profile 85 % To augment exhibition space 73 % To improve existing facilitiesof the institution65%To transform the institution into a 54% To increase and diversify revenue 46% To stay relevant in the culturaldestination, increase scope of and audiences environmentactivities offered, and attract newgroups of interest38%To create programming and 35% To stay competitive with other 15% To raise the profile of the cityexhibits that appeal to the museumsinterests of the core audience4%Improve accessibility for tourists 4% Endowment 4% Get more of the permanent collection on view and to create more room for staff4%To expand space for research and 4% To add storage space 4% Address the facilities’ datedimprove laboratory space (behind- infrastructurethe-scenes)
    • 1. A GLOBAL BRAND The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation looks into new architectural destinations to expand its global presence The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation operates five museums in the US and Europe – New York City, Las Vegas, Bilbao, Berlin, and Venice - and has partnerships with a number of institutions inEurope. The Guggenheim is currently one of the best-known museum brands in the world. The foundationhas vowed to continue its global expansion strategy in order to reach out to new audiences and is plan-ning to build a sixth museum, Guggenheim Abu Dhabi (GAD), which will be designed by Frank Gehry andopened in 2012.2 GAD will be one of the four museums on Saadiyat Island, part of the large developmentproject that aims to turn the island into a high-end cultural tourist destination.Goals: Challenges: • Be the leading global museum with a collection of modern • Abu Dhabi currently is not considered a cultural destination. and contemporary art, reaching international audiences Furthermore, it does not have an existing art establishment through a network of museums and partnerships to train local artists and curators • Stay ahead of global trends in art by expanding into emerging • GAD will be the first non-western museum in the Guggenheim art markets, thus enhancing its audience and collection network, and the first one located in the Asia continent • The foundation was previously retained to contribute to and/or to manage feasibility studies for private and public institutions interested in opening Guggenheim branches in the region – in the West Kawloon district of Hong Kong, in Singapore, and in Taichung, Taiwan. But none of these projects progressed beyond the exploration phase THE MUSEUM BRAND FOOTPRINT • PAGE 6
    • “The visitor experience in relation to art and architecture is central to our brand…(Our architecture) is an asset that we are conscious of.”- Laura Miller, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum NY, Director of MarketingRedefining The Brand with Architecture tecture. Bilbao has become a major tourist destinationArchitecture is a major part of what the after the museum opening. In 2005, eight years afterGuggenheim museums offer to visitors. This is in The Bilbao opening, the museum still drew more than 965,000 yearly visitors, more than half of whom were fromline with the institution’s mission, which is topromote appreciation and understanding of Effect abroad.3 A total of 1.36B Euros were pumped intomodern and contemporary art and architecture. Guggenheim Museum Bilbao has the local economy directly and indirectly. Thomas been a major success in terms of Krens, Director of the Solomon R. Guggenheim audience attraction and turned Foundation who recently announced that he wasCommunicating the New Brand ‘Bilbao effect’ into an stepping down, has been approached by 130 citiesThe architecture of Guggenheim museums is a industry term. to replicate the same success.4major draw for audiences. Tourists make up 70-80% ofthe visitors in the New York museum and often rank the Though some are skeptical of the destination potential, Abubuilding higher than special exhibitions as a reason to visit. Dhabi is banking on four museums built by star architects to turn theAccess to the building to host events is a factor for some corporate island into a major cultural destination. The $27B complex is expected tomemberships. The 1st Fridays parties aimed at the younger audience draw 3M tourists between the 2012 opening and 2015.5 Another UAEin New York are successful partly because they offer a unique chance city-state, Sharjah, has discovered the power of contemporary art infor people to engage with the architecture after hours. creating a destination. The city’s 8th biennale will take place in 2007, with the participation of more than 80 international artists, with aIconic architecture is the defining part of each museum’s visual heavy representation of those from Arab and Muslim origins.identity and is used heavily in communications to engage variousaudiences. Each museum’s website, advertisements, and membership Krens explains, “the issue isn’t about the number of buildings or exhibi-communications feature the buildings. tions, but the number of people you directly engage with. If you add up the visitors worldwide to Guggenheim Museums from last yearThough each museum’s architecture is different, there is a consistent alone, that’s 3 million people.” 6 Krens believes that, just like any goodglobal institutional identity that unites all of the Guggenheims. The brand, the Guggenheim has become “an article of faith” — consumersGuggenheim Foundation has a contractual commitment with each trust that they will have a quality experience when they visit. Krensmuseum on brand and identity. The Guggenheim museums all use the said that Guggenheim’s international success “has led to the tripling ofsame font in their logo with a different color that subtly references attendance in New York.” Success is also seen in terms of enrichingthe architecture. For example, the New York museum color is “Frank and augmenting the global collection due to international expansions.Lloyd Wright Red.” In the last 15 years, through partnerships abroad, the Guggenheim collection has doubled.7The Guggenheim Bilbao is celebrating its tenth year in 2007 witha major campaign to engage the local audiences in Spain. The New branches contribute their unique artistic points of view in ordercampaign features people pictured with the building and calls the to create global experiences at Guggenheims around the world.institution “your museum.” The advertisements, in Basque and Exhibitions shown in New York such as the 2005 exhibition of BasqueSpanish, run on radio, in print, on outdoor signage, and as guerilla sculpture Jorge Oteiza originated in Bilbao. The foundations internationalsignage around town. There is an elaborate website where visitors alliances helped with finances as well. Exhibitions appearing in NYcan write congratulatory notes to the museum, read others’ notes, were largely sponsored by international corporations, foundations anddesign and send e-cards, and set reminders for the busy schedule of government agencies. In 2005, the Mexico Tourism Board supportedanniversary events around town. (The Aztec Empire), and in 2006 the State Corporation for Spanish Cultural Action Abroad supported (Spanish Painting: From El Greco toThe Results Picasso) for example. Management fees and operating income from theGuggenheim Bilbao has been a major success in terms of audience other branches are also revenue sources for the foundation.attraction and turned “Bilbao effect” into an industry term used tocharacterize a surge of cultural visitors drawn with the help of archi- THE MUSEUM BRAND FOOTPRINT • PAGE 7
    • “The interesting thing about the Toledo Museum is that it’s their clear mission to serve thecommunity as it is the only civic building in a large radius”- Florian Idenburg, Former Senior Associate at SANAA, in charge of the Glass Pavilion Project CLEARLY LOCAL2. Toledo Museum of Art uses architecture to emphasize its commitment to community and openness Toledo Museum of Art was founded in 1900 by Edward Drummond Libbey, a glass manufacturer who moved his business to Toledo and became responsible for turning Toledo into a major center for glassproduction. Glass has been a part of the museum’s history since the beginning. In 2000, in preparation forits centennial anniversary a year later, the museum decided to commission a building to house its glasscollection and glass-making programs. Designed by Kazuyo Sejima and Ryue Nishizawa of the Japanesefirm SANAA, the 76,000 square foot Glass Pavilion opened in August 2006.Goals: Challenges: • Celebrate Toledo’s history, and elevate appreciation and inter- • The museum was searching for ways to attract new and est in the art of glass making diverse audiences • Showcase the museum’s commitment to the community and • There was early opposition to the project in the community; public accessibility the historic Old West End district homeowners were worried • Present the glass collection in a distinct way without clashing about the design changing the identity of their neighborhood with the larger Toledo Museum of Art institutional identity THE MUSEUM BRAND FOOTPRINT • PAGE 8
    • “It was the decision of the museum leaders in the year 2000 to create a location not onlymade of glass, but to house the glass collection and juxtapose it with the creation of glass ina studio setting. So [during] the visitor experience, you could see the history of glass, see theimportance of glass in architecture and see the creation of glass all at once.”- Jordan Rundgren, Director of Public RelationsRedefining The Brand with Architecture "Preview Week" of events leading up to the public inauguration. They included local and regional newspapers and magazines, billboards, andWith free admission since opening, the Toledo Museum of Art has local television network spots. The museum also partnered with thealways been committed to public access. To demonstrate this commit- local daily newspaper to produce a special section devoted to the Glassment, the SANAA design is inviting, open, and non-intimidating. Pavilion (including design, architects, construction, facilities, offerings,The glass façade reveals the story of glass, from production to the collection, etc.).finished artwork. With the help of a local public relations firm, the museum focused a“…with Toledo being the glass capital of the Midwest, the extensive majority of their publicity efforts on national media relations. The two-glass collection within the larger museum, and the glass programs that year strategy worked in three phases: construction/trade publications,are held within the Toledo Museum of Art’s School of Art and Design… architectural writers, and travel/fine art publications. Currently, theThe desire was to combine these within a museum and make it a part museum website has a Glass Pavilion section that targets donors andof the larger campus.” – Florian Idenburg visitors, and highlights positive press mentions from major national magazines. The website features the building with people inside inter-The pavilion is situated within a museum complex that includes the acting with the art or public programs, echoing that accessibility toBeaux-Art style original museum and the Frank Gehry-designed Center the people of Toledo was the primary goal of the Glass Pavilion.for Visual Arts. It sits across the street from the picturesque Old WestEnd district, a 25-block historic area of Victorian-era homes. The glassfaçade reflects images of the surrounding buildings in a way to pay The Results Though the attendance increase is not projected because the museumtribute. Jordan Rundgren explains: "it has activated our campus. People is free, an estimated 10,000 more visitors per month (30% increase)feel a little freer to travel in between the buildings and realize that the come through the doors.museum is expanding, that its much larger than they might realize.While the Glass Pavilion is minimalist in its design, it does have a very The docent-led tours of the Glass Pavilion and the glassblowingnice reflective quality, both literally and figuratively. It integrates itself demonstrations have been consistently filled to capacity. The interest isinto the campus to enhance the entire institution." so high that the museum is adding additional glassblowing demonstra- tions in summer 2007.Communicating the New BrandThere was early opposition to the project in the community. The his- Overall positive reviews of the building turned the museum into atoric Old West End district homeowners were worried about the design destination for the national and international architectural touristschanging the identity of their neighborhood. This was overcome which pleased the museum and the city officials, who saw the projectthrough vast community outreach. Museum leaders participated in as mainly a facility for the local community.community church meetings and local TV programs to address thepublic interest in the proposed design. Ultimately, upon seeing the final The city is enjoying the building’s popularity, which drew tourists frombuilding, the locals were pleased. The Glass Pavilion is now quite other parts of the United States and the world. Florian Idenburgpopular within the community. explains: “I think [the building] is appreciated on two levels – one on a local level and the other on a global architectural level. I think theFor the opening of the Glass Pavilion, the museum did not launch a community sees this as well. They never expected to have people fly innew graphic identity, but all of the advertising and collateral for the to Toledo to see the building, but people do.”opening events included the silhouette of a glassblower and pipe,accompanied by phrases such as "Toledos Newest Hot Spot," "Heart ofthe Glass City," and "Be Blown Away." Advertising centered on the THE MUSEUM BRAND FOOTPRINT • PAGE 9
    • 3.“(The goal) was a blend of looking forward to future audiences while also respectingour tradition.” Kim Mitchell, Director of Communications THE MUSEUM BRAND FOOTPRINT • PAGE 10
    • LARGER AND DIVERSIFIEDThe Museum of Modern Art expands with present, and future, brand goals New York’s Museum of Modern Art embarked on the most ambitious building project in its history in the early 1990s. In 1997, the board selected Yoshio Taniguchi for the design. The new MoMA, a630,000 square foot facility, opened its doors to the public in November 2004 in what the institution callsits “most extensive redefinition since its founding.” 8Goals: Challenges: • Keep the museum relevant through the next century, and • MoMA was perceived to be an elitist institution maintain a presence worldwide while respecting its history • With younger institutions on the cutting edge of the • Reinforce the museum’s mission to be a resource and a place contemporary art environment, MoMA lacked the prominent for education and innovative position that it desired • Make the brand more welcoming to, and inclusive of, different types of audiences • Diversify the ways in which the museum interacts with its audience and with the cityRedefining The Brand with Architecture The new design reinforces MoMA’s desire to be a dynamic institution in the area of contemporary art. Previously, the visitors started their tourTaniguchi famously said of the new design “If you give me enough in the galleries of the older modern works and then made their waymoney, I’ll design you a beautiful building. If you give me more, I’ll into the contemporary galleries last. In the new building, focus on themake it disappear.” 9 contemporary works is emphasized by the placement of the large contemporary galleries on the first floor, across from the main entryThe new building was designed to make the institution more welcoming point. The contemporary galleries are designed without columns toto visitors while also blending into the city. The building has multiple address the specific needs of larger contemporary pieces, as opposedpoints of entry (on both 53rd and 54th streets) which remove the to the more intimate scale of the galleries upstairs where the permanentstress of a single, large main entry point with long lines. The lobby, collection is shown. Also included are soundproof galleries for newwhich is open to the public, serves not only as an entry point to the media and video. Temporary exhibition spaces on the top floor are flexiblegalleries, theatres, restaurant, stores, and garden, but also as a enough to allow in-depth explorations of artists’ works. Overall exhibitionmid-block passageway. space has nearly doubled.Inside, Stephen Rustow said the “design does not only aim to create The new building also allows for a more dynamic explanation of thenew iconic spaces, but also to redefine the already existing iconic history of modern art. Previously galleries were designed like beads onspaces, such as reinforcing the centrality of the garden,” referring a string, going from one ‘ism’ to another. The new design allows for ato the sculpture garden designed by Philip Johnson. non-linear narrative, with possibilities to present different concurrent perspectives within the history of modern art. For example, the post-The building is conceived as an “inside” building.10 From the outside, it impressionist gallery in the new design has two exits – one leading tois understated, with a façade that can easily be overlooked. Inside, the cubism, the other to Fauvism, which was once not considered to bebuilding offers unique city perspectives, especially the skylight on the of equal significance to Cubism, but has since been reached tosixth floor, to remind visitors that they are in the heart of midtown higher significance.12New York. “I want people to know they are in New York City,” Taniguchisaid of the design.11 THE MUSEUM BRAND FOOTPRINT • PAGE 11
    • “The program reflected a wish to redefine the way in which the public engaged with and sawthe MoMA. They did not want it to be a rupture or something that would seem to break withthe past, but they wanted it to be an affirmation of who they were and what they were.”Steven Rustow, Sr. Associate Principal for KPF, the Executive ArchitectIn addition, the new eight-story Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman including the MoMA store and the information desk in the ManhattanEducation Center and Research Building features significantly more location. Maps were also printed in newspapers and magazines, givingroom for public programs and houses a library, museum archives, directions and restaurant suggestions. Bus tours were organized tocuratorial offices, classrooms and The Celeste Bartos Theater. bring visitors from Manhattan to MoMA Queens and other art institutions in the borough.Museum Director Glenn Lowry said of the new MoMA: “the ambitionwas to ensure that we constantly surprise visitors. Regularity kills the MoMA also made a considerable effort to establish relationships withexperience. We wanted more nuance, a less linear sense of art history, local cultural, business, and community groups, as well as libraries andby encouraging serendipitous discoveries and juxtapositions.” 13 universities. Educational lectures and meetings were organized to include residents of all ages.Communicating the New BrandDuring Construction A limited part of the MoMA’s collection was on view in Queens.During construction in Manhattan between 2002 and 2004, MoMA Meanwhile, 200 of the best pieces from the painting and sculptureclosed its Manhattan facilities and relocated to Queens. This transitional collection traveled to Houston and Berlin. These exhibitions served asspace provided an opportunity to keep MoMA top-of-mind and a plat- a platform to increase excitement for MoMA’s new building. Thereform to communicate the changes that were to come. The museum were interviews with the Director in Houston. MoMA also hosted anrecognized that people viewed the new space as very much a preview event in Berlin. This was significant in building relationships with localto its future identity. The MoMA Builds exhibition, shown at MoMA decision makers.Manhattan in Spring 2002, showcased project details for MoMAQueens and the Manhattan building.The Queens museum was heavily promoted. Prior to the opening, hard-hat tours were organized for the press. The opening was marked by ahuge event, accompanied by press events in Los Angeles, London, andBerlin. Previously an unfamiliar destination to tourists and New Yorkersalike, MoMA went to great lengths in promoting Queens as a destina-tion. Maps were printed and distributed at several locations in the city, THE MUSEUM BRAND FOOTPRINT • PAGE 12
    • Reopening MoMA Manhattan pictures of “inside, outside, paintings, sculptures, prints,Influencers and press were engaged through hard-hat objects, people, furniture, forms, lines, stairs, walls,tours. These were group, or in the case of VIPs,private one-on-one, tours of the construction The New windows, bathroom sinks” has hundreds of members and more than 1,000 photos posted.guided by the Director or the architects. MoMAstopped the tours in summer of 2004, before the MoMA For the first time in its history, At the reopening, the new admission price of $20November 2004 opening, to preserve an element MoMA’s sign on 53rd Street reads drew a lot of criticism about MoMA’s commit-of surprise. “MoMA” instead of ‘Museum of ment to public access. To prove their commitment, Modern Art’. This shows a desire to brand the institution as MoMA introduced several reduced admission orTo mark the opening, the museum held press eventsin New York, London, Los Angeles, Berlin and Tokyo. people know it, making it free admission criteria. In addition, MoMA designated ºmore approachable. a free period on Fridays. Every Friday, visitors can goThe museum never had held press events in othercountries before, but it was significant in reaching the into MoMA for free from 4-8pm as part of an event currentlyeditor-level local press, who would have commissioned the story, sponsored by Target.but would not have traveled to New York themselves to cover theevent. It also gave these key local media members the opportunity to The Resultsask the architects and the Director about the project. MoMA announced the economic impact of the expansion to be $2B from mid-2004 to mid-2007.14 Paid attendance has increased, as wellCommunications Now as the number of non-paying visitors. Attendance grew from 1.5M inThe museum’s new identity is contemporary, fitting with its new 2000 to 2.5M in 2006. Of the current attendance of 2.5M a year,design. For the first time in its history, MoMA’s sign on 53rd street 600,000 entered the museum for free, including children and visitorsreads “MoMA” instead of “Museum of Modern Art”. This shows a desire that came in during the Free Friday evening hours. Within the first yearto brand the institution as people know it, making it more approach- after the re-opening, 25% of visitors were from the New York metroable, as well capitalizing on the international recognition of the area, 29% from elsewhere in the United States, and 46% fromacronym which transcends language barriers. MoMA features the new international locations.15 Visitors also stay at the museum longer. Postarchitecture in its communication materials, not focusing on the re-opening, visitors are spending more than 2.5 hours inside versusdesign elements of the new building, but rather showing visitors inter- 1 to 1.5 hours before the expansion.16 Membership has also increased. The summer before the opening, memberships were at 33,000. The yearacting with pieces of the collection to highlight their engagement. after opening, the membership is on average 100,000.MoMA holds events called Pop Rallies every other month. These events Flexibility of the design gave way to a unique contemporary work infeature musical acts, performances, film screenings, receptions, and February 2007 by Doug Aitken, called Sleepwalkers. New York Timesspecial viewings of exhibitions at moderate prices, targeting young writer Roberta Smith called the piece “videotecture” or “archivideo.” 17New Yorkers. Other diversity programs include events for teenagers in It involved projecting a video about the life of urbanites on to sixpublic schools, grandparents’ day events, and high school student- facades of the MoMA building. This helped the museum to engagecurated shows. MoMA is also active in new media, user generated New Yorkers in a unique and new way; the piece could be enjoyedcontent, and social network sites. MoMA has a branded channel on from the street and from the top of office buildings around theYouTube, called MoMAvideos, which features videos on selected exhibition museum. Often visited during the day, the MoMa inspired more night-previews, public programs, performances, and exhibition installations. time visits by drawing audiences who wanted to see the piece in the glowing darkness of a New York City night.MoMA’s new building has inspired user generated content on socialnetworking sites. On Flickr, a group that encourages people to post THE MUSEUM BRAND FOOTPRINT • PAGE 13
    • 4. REDEFINED The Art Institute of Chicago refreshes its image with a new, green wing After several years of planning and fund-raising, AIC broke ground on the Renzo Piano-designed Modern Wing in 2005. The new 264,000 square foot building due to finish in 2009 will house thecontemporary and modern collections of the AIC, as well as the architecture and photography collections.Goals: • Reposition the museum as a contemporary brand in order to gain a broader audience • Create greater public accessibility to the modern and contemporary collectionsChallenges: • AIC has long been known as a historicist museum due to the overwhelming popularity of its collection of 19th century French art. Though AIC had strong modern and contemporary collections, the museum had a fusty image and was not thought of as a major destination for modern and contemporary art, especially compared to younger institutions that focused only on modern and contemporary art • With the contemporary and modern art previously in two buildings, it was not easy for visitors to navigate the collections • The original Beaux-Art style building from 1893 represented the old establishment and was perceived as intimidating, elitist, and closedRedefining The Brand with Architecture The proposed design of the Modern Wing will open “a new front door”Continuing Chicago’s history of forward-looking architecture, the to the museum on the adjacent Millennium Park by way of a bridgeModern Wing will sit across from Frank Gehry’s Pritzker Pavilion and designed by Renzo Piano. Millennium Park, which opened in July 2004,will be a testament to the museum’s dedication to the new and fresh. is widely popular among Chicago citizens and drew two million peopleThe building will be Renzo Piano’s largest museum and will draw a lot in the first six months after opening.18 The park’s diverse audience willof international attention to AIC. Renzo Piano’s Modern Wing is be invited to take the bridge onto the roof of the Modern Wing wheredesigned to add a contemporary identity to AIC by unifying the mod- they will be able to enjoy park and Lake Michigan views, and access theern and contemporary collections under one roof, and bringing them museum restaurant and sculpture terrace. By creating a bridge ontounder the spotlight. Previously, the modern and contemporary collec- the popular park, the museum will broaden its audience and createtions were scattered over three floors in two buildings, which taxed the greater engagement with the citizens of Chicago.visitor. The new building will bring them together and also give spaceto photography, architecture and design, film, and video. THE MUSEUM BRAND FOOTPRINT • PAGE 14
    • “We have been seen as a very traditional, encyclopedic fine arts museum. With the openingof the Modern Wing, we hope the museum as a whole will draw a larger and a more diverseaudience.” Anne Henry, Associate Director of CommunicationsThe institution is making headlines with the green design of the new AIC has used the project to engage the museum audience. Startingbuilding. AIC is seeking a silver certification for Renzo Piano’s environ- May 2006, and for six months, AIC showed an exhibition called Zeromental design, which will integrate environmental features. The most Gravity: The Art Institute, Renzo Piano, and Building for a New Century.memorable feature of the building is “the flying carpet” sun screen on The exhibit presented the AIC building’s development and the archi-the top which will filter and welcome natural light to the 3rd floor tect’s process. The current project section of the website mostly targetsgalleries. The Flying Carpet will save electricity consumption, reducing potential donors to support it. Communications aims at providing infoit by 20% when compared to a building with conventional systems.19 consistently across the wide range of stakeholders at the right times.The new, light, and transparent design will be more inviting and less With the reopening, the communications department will look tointimidating to the visitors than the original building. The glass curtain leverage publicity of the new building to attract visitors. About thewall on the northern façade will be a contrast to the closed architec- LEED certification for the new building, Art Institute of Chicago’s Anneture of the current building. The new building will also offer ways to Henry says: “We realize that respectful and reasonable green policiesenjoy views from the inside, bringing nature and natural light into are increasingly important, and we would certainly do our best tothe museum. incorporate any green components that we can [in communications], enhancing and complimenting the many green elements in the actualThe new wing will provide more space to reevaluate the way art is architecture and function of the Modern Wing."showcased and will allow more room for education, family, andstudent programs, further creating opportunities for AIC to diversify The Resultsits audience. The new education center will enable a 30% increase in In 2004, due to the opening of Millennium Park, AIC’s attendanceeducational activities and serve more than 1,500 children and students increased by 13% to 1.6M.21 When the Modern Wing opens, the museuma day. The education center, which will also include a teacher resource attendance is expected to be at 1.8M annually.22 The expectation isroom and a family center, will be located on the first floor of the new that, of the 3M Millennium Park visitors a year, if 20% cross the bridge,building, easily accessible by the front door and near a special school it will bring in 600,000 people. If half of those visitors then attend thebus drop-off.20 museum, 300,000 people will have come through the doors from Millennium Park.23Communicating the New BrandWith the opening of the Modern Wing, the museum as a whole will Though the exact projections are not available for press yet, the museumcreate a new identity with a contemporary look and feel and a focus expects activity on all levels to increase, from membership and attendanceon AIC as an encyclopedic museum with ten premier collections in to programming and education. The museum hopes to attract a varietyvarying areas. of new audiences to the museum in the next few years. The museum has also seen an increase in publicity and positive response from the City of Chicago since the announcement. THE MUSEUM BRAND FOOTPRINT • PAGE 15
    • 5. “I built MoCA to help fuse ideas and broaden the minds of local, regional, and interna-tional arts enthusiasts. I wanted to showcase the talents of international artists, as wellas Chinese modern design under one roof ” 24 Samuel Kung, Director THE MUSEUM BRAND FOOTPRINT • PAGE 16
    • A NEWCOMERA new brand is born in Shanghai MoCA Shanghai opened in 2005 as the city’s first independent, non-profit art institution. Endorsed by the municipal government, the museum is funded by Shanghai-born, Hong Kong-based jade dealer, SamuelKung, who is also the museum’s chairman and acting director.25 Located in the People’s Park, the 19,400 squarefoot building was previously built as a greenhouse and has since been redesigned by architect Liu Yuyang.Goals: Challenges: • Make contemporary art accessible and approachable • Launching and establishing a new brand in China, where there on local level exist powerful state institutions and very few private ones • Become the most notable institution for Chinese contemporary • Attracting the attention of famous Chinese contemporary art not only in Shanghai, but also in all of Asia and beyond artists to a small private start-up museum, despite competition • Establish itself internationally through partnerships and from more established museums exchange, as well as locally by increasing Shanghai residents’ • Attracting a large audience of Shanghai residents to the engagement through increased membership and public museum to ensure long-term health of the institution programsRedefining The Brand with Architecture The museum offers attractive amenities and public spaces to draw inMoCA Shanghai’s glass façade makes the building reflect light on a and engage visitors. The glass pavilion and the roof deck on the thirdsunny day and allows the activity inside to be on full view when it’s floor offer panoramic views of the park and Shanghai skyline, whiledark. In Yuyang’s opinion, “the design of MoCA Shanghai isnt trying to the rooftop restaurant attracts a hip Shanghai crowd. The museumcreate a manifesto for art or architecture, but rather just to tell a sim- uses these spaces for educational lectures and events aimed atple story of how an abandoned glass building was transformed into a audience development. The building also has a lecture room wherenew public space, a story akin to “Cinderella” for architecture—turning public programs are conducted.an average-looking building into the "crown jewel" in the heartof Shanghai.” Communicating the New Brand MoCA Shanghai does not advertise, relying instead on public relationsVisitors are required to “meander” through People’s Park to enter the for publicity. For wider awareness and engagement, the museum usesbuilding. Mr. Yuyang mentions that the front plaza was redesigned as its facilities in a number of ways to attract the broader public. The baran extension of the museum and “the result was an integrated space and restaurant in the building attract people who would not necessarilybetween museum and the park.” From the inside, floor-to-ceiling glass be interested in contemporary art. Another way of building interest iswalls make one feel surrounded by the nature in the park in the middle to focus on education programs for children who will be tomorrow’sof busy Shanghai. The experience inside the museum is intimateenough so that one can focus solely on the art. visitors, donors, and artists. Youth programs are available for university students and children programs are affiliated with schools, includingAlthough the glass walls would let in far too much light for sensitive the school for under-privileged children of migrant workers. The venueartworks or video projections, it was important to keep the museum is also used for corporate events that generate press and awareness.design “open” for the visitor experience. The museum also has 6,000square feet of enclosed gallery space. The interior design is flexible andthe museum builds temporary walls for each exhibition as necessary.Furthermore a steel and glass ramp connects two principal exhibitionfloors, “allowing for a circumscribed and ascending viewing of large-scale installations in the center of the exhibition space,” explains Yuyang. THE MUSEUM BRAND FOOTPRINT • PAGE 17
    • “When the building has become a part of the city, how art enters one’s life is not limited tothe physical exhibition space. Rather, it’s how the museum as an institution brings a certainculture to the city. Architecture has certainly played a crucial role to the success of MoCAShanghai’s position as an institution. What the architecture provided, besides being a shelterfor the art, is the possibility of new events and new culture being created.”- Liu Yuyang, Executive Architect The Results The government officials of the Huangpu District, who initially had an alternative use of the greenhouse space in mind, decided to grant permission to Kung to operate MoCA for 20 years. The museum, considered young and fresh, fills a void in the contemporary art scene for local audiences, and international museums and artists looking to partner with Chinese institutions. With 85% of art sold in China today being modern or contemporary, the museum occupies an important niche.26 The Guggenheim selected MoCA Shanghai as one of the two venues in China to show its traveling exhibition Art in America: 300 Years of Innovation for May – June 2007. The show previously was in Beijing’s National Art Museum of China from February to April 2007. In refer- ence to these partnerships, Liu Yuyang says, “We think the design must have played a role to give the partner institutions a certain level of confidence.” The museum hopes to also form strong ties with major Chinese contemporary artists in order to create exhibitions that can be exported abroad. There are currently 500 museum members, a group made up of mostlyPublic programs like film screenings and artist lectures are relatively university students. Current daily attendance is about 75-350, dependingwell attended for such a young organization. Membership is encouraged on events in the museum. Approximately 300-500 people attend open-through special events at the bar area. The museum recently organized ings. Admission and involvement has been increasing, but Samuel Kungjazz evenings for members. cautions: “We are still young and new to the public,” and that there is a lot of work to be done to have the museum support itself. Admission fees, space rentals for corporate events, and the restaurant are bringing in revenue. But the museum would like to build its audience (member- ships are key) in order to attract corporate and private donations, a foreign practice in China. The museum is also considering merchandising. THE MUSEUM BRAND FOOTPRINT • PAGE 18
    • 6. RENAISSANCE Art Gallery of Ontario is turning Toronto into a new cultural destination Art Gallery of Ontario launched an institutional rebranding campaign in 2002 called Transformation AGO, promising to bring a new building, new art, new ideas, and a new future to AGO. At the heartof this campaign lay the redesign and expansion of their current building by Canadian-born architect FrankGehry. Construction began in 2005 and AGO will be fully closed to the public for the last year of theconstruction, leading up to the new facilities re-opening late Fall 2008.Goals: Challenges: • Place AGO which has one of the largest collections in North • Toronto has been historically behind Montreal and Vancouver America on the cultural map as a major tourist destination. After the 2003 SARS outbreak, • Attract cultural tourists to Toronto tourism diminished so much so that, in 2006, the number of • Make the museum more relevant and welcoming to the tourists lagged below September 11, 2001 levels 27 people of Toronto • Despite its’ popularity in the greater Toronto area, some in the neighborhood did not find the museum a neighborhood resource and had the stereotype of it being distant and elitistRedefining The Brand with Architecture The museum wished to preserve its existing footprint, but also to expand exhibition space and reinvigorate the institution with a fresh image.The project is part of a bigger effort by the city of Toronto to reposi- To do the job, AGO selected Frank Gehry. This will be Frank Gehry’s firsttion the city as a cultural destination, sometimes referred to as “the project in Canada, it also happens to be in his native city, down thecultural renaissance of Toronto.” Royal Conservatory of Music, Royal street from where he grew up. Gehry said that he took his cues fromOntario Museum, The Canadian Opera Company, National Ballet School, the museum’s surroundings and that he is “very interested in making aGardiner Museum of Ceramic Art, and Ontario College of Art and building that fits into” the neighborhood.28 Frank Gehry’s selection isDesign have all commissioned expansion projects to renowned archi- sure to boost civic pride and help reposition the museum in the heartstects in an effort to redo the city’s entire cultural infrastructure. and minds of the Toronto residents. The new design will enable more Canadian art to be on view, with total exhibition space increasing by 47%. THE MUSEUM BRAND FOOTPRINT • PAGE 19
    • Most importantly, the design will make the muse- Art Gallery groups range from current and prospective AGOum more transparent, therefore less intimidatingand more welcoming. The exterior glass canopy, of Ontario Members and visitors to volunteers and campaign supporters.” The Web is also used as a majorand the redesigned entrance that aligns with the “Our objective is to support, via platform to keep up communication with AGO’sWalker Court (the historic heart of the museum), new media, a more transparent audience during the yearlong closure. institution that is relevant to awill bring in more light and make the building feel diverse community ofmore open. stakeholders” - Ian Rubenzahl, The AGO microsite dedicated to the expansion proj- Manager of New Media Design ect is dense with information separated into sectionsAGO aims to become a multi-purpose destination, and on each tenet of the expansion (new art, new building,to diversify its audience in the process. The building will new ideas, new future). The site speaks to a wide audience ofoffer a place to enjoy city views and will house the shop, restaurant, stakeholders and offers a lot of content, creating a hub for project-café, and a free contemporary art space, all open until late. This new related information. It also provides visitors with information aboutaddition will bring life into the museum after dark, creating greater Frank Gehry, construction updates, webcam and construction photos, aopportunities for engagement with a hip young audience in Toronto. detailed section on finances, timeline, economic benefits, and an option to contribute online.The new AGO will improve the experience of enjoying art inside themuseum. The design will allow more art to be on view and appeal to The new media extensions of the AGO site works to engage the muse-different interests: Galleries for Canadian art, contemporary art, um’s diverse stakeholders. The blog (www.artmatters.ca) exists to speakEuropean art, photography, prints, and drawings will be expanded. to various audiences and learn more about how the collections reverber-The interior is designed so that visitors can circulate with more ease. ate with them. Visitors can express their views, read others’ statements,Furthermore, the museum is investigating making more of its click through the Art Matters blog, or listen to Art Matters podcasts. Theoperations - art storage displays, conservation, education, and podcast feed has been used to experiment with different kinds of audioresearch areas - visible to visitors. content, from public lectures, panels, and interviews to podcast tours of exhibitions. The museum is also experimenting with placing the blog onCommunicating the New Brand the gallery floor with a kiosk and URL bookmarks that invite feedbackTransformation AGO and the Art Matters Campaign and participation.AGO launched a transition brand called Transformation AGO toannounce changes at the organization and build interest in the opening. Then there is Collectionx.museum, an attempt to redefine virtual collec-As a part of Transformation AGO, Art Gallery of Ontario started a cam- tions and exhibitions. Not only can users create their own exhibitionspaign called Art Matters to talk about the role of art in people’s lives. from AGO’s collections, but they can upload their own collections and invite others to participate. The site employs RSS and podcasting toThe Importance of Online Marketing extend participation beyond the website itself.Ian Rubenzahl, Manager of New Media Design at AGO, explains: “Ourobjective is to support, via new media, a more transparent institution In addition, AGO has employed social networks such as Flickr to extendthat is relevant to a diverse community of stakeholders. The target public participation around exhibitions such as In Your Face: The People’s Portrait Project (http://www.flickr.com/groups/artmatters/). This group has more than 800 members who have posted close to 8,000 photos."(The strategic plan) is forming the way we think into the future, its forming the way wecollect in our collecting areas, its forming the way we will plan our interpretation andhow we engage with the public and how we create a visitor welcome to embrace bothinternational audiences and our domestic audiences… Its beyond the building walls"- Antonietta Mirabelli, Manager of Communications THE MUSEUM BRAND FOOTPRINT • PAGE 20
    • “The renaissance in Toronto with all the new cultural buildings, has raised the awareness ofculture, and it’s going to help us, it already started to, in broadening our audience.”- Arlene Madell, Director of Marketing and Visitor ServicesEngage The Community Internal CommunicationsSoon after the project launched, AGO realized that, while the museum AGO set up an intranet site that is a one-stop source for all project-received positive response about the project from the greater Toronto related questions. The site is updated daily and is the first thing thearea and tourism audiences, a mechanism for feedback from the imme- staff sees when they log on every day. Staff can submit questionsdiate community around the museum had not been fully engaged. The anonymously, as well as read the strategic plan, get information onmuseum quickly formed a community consultation team to build a rela- the pension plan, and catch up on the activities of other departments.tionship with the 10,000 neighbors living around the museum. Beverley In addition, there are quarterly staff meetings for project updates.Carret, Manager of Government and Community Relations, explains thather goal with the community outreach is to: "reinforce that AGO is a AGO ran ads in major print media that featured AGO supporters -community destination, something that neighbors should consider to be a donors, docents, volunteers, and artists – and their statements on whyplace that they would like to drop by, like a library or a community center." they thought art mattered. There was also Art Matters themed signage outside the museum.AGO’s Frank Gehry exhibition, shown February to May 2006, aimed topresent the AGO project as an important part of the architect’s career. The ResultsAfter Frank Gehry unveiled the schematic design of the new AGO, the The community efforts have so far paid off – most community membersmuseum engaged in the consultation process with a working group of are supporters of the project. Membership increased by 4,000 duringneighbors to help refine the design. Initially, periodic community meetings the construction phase due to built-up excitement. Total membershipattracted up to 100 attendees. Now that the design is under way and is now at 54,000. The museum expects the yearly attendance tothe community is well informed, these meetings are held three times increase to 800,000 visits in the first 12 months of operation after thea year, and attract a few dozen people. launch, settling to 650,000 visits annually by 2010/11.AGO created a neighbors bulletin that is emailed to a list of 300 monthly. Toronto is being promised “major economic benefits” as a result of theThe bulletin includes a brief construction update, as well as a list of upcom- project due to increased tourism, new jobs, and attracted investment.ing events that include walking tours, art exhibitions of works by area The expansion alone is estimated to have pumped $100M into the localschool children, and neighborhood meetings. The team also set up a hotline economy, $96M in local labor income, $54M in tax revenues, 245 newfor locals to call with community issues or questions about the project. jobs, and $12.7M in new tourism revenues. The project has solidified the cultural renaissance in Toronto and garnered many articlesThe museum installed programs to attract some of the community promoting it as a destination. AGO has also inspired an effort ingroups that were previously underrepresented. Through the community Montreal to reclaim the cultural status.membership program, tenant representatives were selected for eachhousing group and given up to five family memberships to distribute Collection-x just launched a couple of months ago and has hundredswithin their communities. These representatives in turn became an of registered users so far. The artmatters.ca podcasts are downloadedimportant bridge, communicating the AGO goals to the tenants and 2,000-4,000 times a month and the blog receives about 30,000 visitsbringing any of their concerns back to AGO. a month.AGO also started a pilot program to reach out to the newest Torontoresidents. Each week for 4 months, AGO representatives attended anew Canadian Citizenship ceremony and offered free one-year familymemberships to new citizens.As a part of the Art Matters effort, the public could submit their ArtMatters statements in the lobby when the museum was partially closed.Teams made up of 45 volunteers called “AGO is a GO” attend localfestivals and engage people in the project and give out Art Matters pins.Also during the time that AGO will stay closed -until late 2008- themuseum will keep its education program active, offering classes toadults and children. THE MUSEUM BRAND FOOTPRINT • PAGE 21
    • 7. A CLEAN SLATE Miami Art Museum spearheads change in downtown Miami In 2001, with the support of the citizens of Miami, Miami Art Museum (MAM) embarked on a new building project that will be a part of Museum Park — a 29-acre area on Biscayne Bay that will include MAM andMiami Museum of Science and Planetarium. $100M of the $220M project cost is being paid by the countybond that was issued for the project. In September 2006, the museum announced its selection of Swissarchitects Herzog & de Meuron to design the 120,000 square foot new building, due to open in 2012.Goals: Challenges: • Reinvent current identity to become the central art institution • MAM’s collection is relatively small and needs to be expanded in Miami, one that is notable nationally and internationally before the new museum opens • Get visitors to associate MAM with “centrality” – both • Downtown Miami is not a cultural destination physically at the heart of the city and artistically at the epicenter of art in Miami“We have got to pull our strengths together to create a destination and a brand that conveysthe substance of a destination to our audience”- Richard Townsend, Deputy Director for External Affairs THE MUSEUM BRAND FOOTPRINT • PAGE 22
    • “What Miami really needs is a museum that can do more in one place and be more ofa home for the city.”- Terence Riley, DirectorRedefining The Brand with Architecture MAM is bringing the Miami community into this exciting process.Prior to the expansion, Miami Art Museum occupied about 24,000 There was a meeting in October of 2007 to present conceptualsquare feet of space. The new facility will increase its size five times, to drawings and solicit public support and feedback. Architectural plansabout 125,000 square feet - a size more suitable for the kind of focal for the building were unveiled at a show prior to Art Basel 2007, whichcivic art establishment that MAM wants to become. The larger museum showed the evolution and development of the design, while involvingwill enable the curators to tell the history of modern and contemporary the community.art in a more complete way. It will also house temporary exhibitions,an education complex with a library, an auditorium, classrooms, and The Resultsworkshops. In addition, the museum will feature amenities, like restaurants Richard Townsend, Deputy Director for External Affairs at the Miamiand cafes, to turn it into a destination and an engine for social and Art Museum said that the museum offers powerful potential toeconomic change in downtown Miami. become an engine for social and economic change for the city. The expected economic impact of Museum Park is $2B, with 1,700 jobs createdThe museum’s other main goal is to gather under one roof the disparate annually.29 The opening of MAM, together with Miami Science Museumstrands of artistic endeavor in Miami including art produced by local and Carnival Center for the Performing Arts, is expected to cementartists, art collected by local collectors, and the local art market. MAM downtown Miami as a cultural hub - a major goal for the downtownwants a larger footprint to provide a more centralized artistic experience revitalization. The expected attendance following the opening is betweenin Miami, accommodate the large amounts of visitors coming to 200,000 and 250,000 a year.Miami for art, and serve Miami as it becomes a more populous andcosmopolitan city. The community consultation process has begun as well. Though there were some doubts raised in the Miami art community about the possi-The most ambitious task for the new Miami Art Museum is to build a bility of MAM filling its future size, the city approved a grant to buycohesive collection almost from scratch, attracting donations from pri- the land for the new museum space, and plans are moving forward.vate collections to the public domain. The museum hopes that the new An earlier bond oversight board meeting can be seen on YouTube.building will convince private collectors to donate, presenting a uniqueopportunity to build the architecture and the collection together. In December 2006, MAM announced a new partnership with Miami Art Central (MAC) - a local private art collection specializing in LatinCommunicating the New Brand American contemporary art owned by Ella Fontanals-Cisneros. TheMiami Art Museum communications will be tasked with creating the partnership enables MAM to present at the museum more cutting edgekind of art institution that does not currently exist in Miami. A new contemporary art programs and has led to MAC being folded into MAM.identity will signify the difference between this institution and others,one that is strong, contemporary, fresh, and international to better In addition, by the spring of 2007, Miami Art Museum added almost 200communicate the expanded scope to different constituents – Miami works into its collection valued at $10M. These included a monumentalcitizens, the art scene, and cultural visitors. “Centrality” will be a main sculpture by Leger, a 100-piece contemporary photography collection,point to get across and will help turn the building into a destination. the first edition of six video works by Doug Aitken called Sleepwalkers, which is being tailored to go on the new building’s walls. In late 2006,The redesign will be rolled out in stages. The communication depart- there were some other significant donations from private collectorsment decided that it is too soon to launch the new identity, as the including Jeffrey Loria, Dennis Scholl, Mimi Floback, and Craig Robbins.institution is currently in the process of “becoming” while building itscollection. With four years until the final product, the museum will MAM also received a gift of $500,000 for education programs aimed atstart the rebranding process with a capital campaign and a transitional underserved teenagers. The programs will use the building to inspireidentity. They will then adapt the transitional identity to finally arrive others and create a community.at the new identity when the museum opens in 2012. THE MUSEUM BRAND FOOTPRINT • PAGE 23
    • 8. CONVERGENCE Walker Art Center creates a bridge to the community with a new addition Walker Art Center, which is known as one of the most cutting-edge contemporary art museums in the US, opened an addition designed by Herzog & de Meuron in April 2005. This was the Swiss architects’first museum building in the US, coming right after their successful design of London’s Tate Modern.Goals: Challenges: • Communicate the multi-disciplinary nature of the Walker as • On a national level, staying top-of-mind and differentiating “more than a museum”, as a dynamic and welcoming center for itself from other contemporary art institutions people with different arts interests • The Walker’s multidisciplinary mission—visual arts, performing • Reinforce the Walker’s commitment to artistic creation arts, and film/video—was not well understood within its broader and dialogue community • Diversify the audience and engage new groupsRedefining The Brand with Architecture A new entrance was oriented to the broad andMuch like how the Walker’s multi-disciplinary busy Hannepin Avenue in a way to almostmission challenges traditional art institutions, the “celebrate traffic.”30new building challenges the traditional ‘white box’gallery concept with the off-balanced setting of The building’s glass curtain wall and large win-its tower and asymmetrical windows on the dows reveal the vitality inside to those that drivefacade. The new Walker is uniquely designed to by. Inside, the windows reveal the dynamism ofpresent diverse forms of contemporary art simul- the city, offering views of the garden and down-taneously (eleven galleries, a new 385-seat the- town Minneapolis. There are two lobby andater, and a refurbished cinema). It encourages lounge areas where one can look through theartistic experimentation, dialogue, and social interaction in lounges entire building to see the park and city views.throughout the building where visitors can rest and talk about theirexperience. The idea is to use the building to engage and encourage arts-related or social dialogue. Phillip Bahar, Director of Marketing and PublicOne of the goals of the expansion was to respect the original 1971 Relations at the Walker, explains that a major goal for the Walker is tobuilding designed by Edward Larrabee Barnes, while improving on the be civically engaged and serve almost as a “town square,” to become avisitor experience. Herzog & de Meuron’s new building highlights the “meeting place … where people might bump into other people, arts orBarnes building by removing late additions and focusing on the verti- ideas.” Herzog & de Meuron’s new space achieves this goal with thecality of the original building by mirroring it in the new aluminum creation of spaces where groups of varying sizes can interact. Groupstower. Before the expansion, the main entry was a small entrance can stroll through the galleries together and individuals can enjoy arttucked away on a side street, giving a reclusive or almost elitist air in quiet, contemplative corners.31 There are lounges and interactiveto the institution. The two structures also now linked by a series of areas throughout the building, placed between galleries, where peoplegalleries on the ground floor. can pause, reflect, discuss, and learn together. THE MUSEUM BRAND FOOTPRINT • PAGE 24
    • The building also has a number of amenities to bring people in for A uniform Walker without Walls identity played on the subway mapsocial gatherings: two new restaurants operated by Wolfgang Puck, theme to represent the different stops to the reopening, while alsocoffee and wine service in the garden lobby, a new shop, an event representing the multi-disciplinary nature of Walker Art Center. Thespace called the Skyline Room – which can accommodate up to 400 identity was superimposed on pre-existing Walker communicationspeople - and new terraces. The building also enhanced the museum’s (calendar, letterhead, web site, and tourist postcards), the physicalpublic programming and learning spaces. environment (sidewalks and walls), and on advertising copy. Signage around town (train stops, billboards, sidewalk stencils, mobile signage,The new design added space for the Walker’s diverse program areas: and walls), as well as print and online, encouraged participation in11,000 square feet of additional gallery space (33%), a 385-seat theater, the events. An ice cream truck distributed frozen treats along witha remodeled cinema, audio and video bays, and an information lounge. information on the Walker without Walls programs.Communicating the New Brand Internal CommunicationsThe Walker embarked on a strategic PR and marketing plan in stages Walker Art Center had periodic staff meetings where the managementleading up to the introduction of the new institution, addressing the provided as much information as possible to the staff in order tocommunication goals of presenting the new institution as a welcom- encourage word-of-mouth. The museum helped with the “elevatoring, multi-faceted and happening contemporary art center. speech” and answers to potential questions for when friends and family asked staff members about the construction and changes that“Walker without Walls” 2004 would follow.When Walker Art Center closed for the construction of the new build-ing for one and a half years, the museum launched a campaign called “Walker Launch Campaign: Where (blank) Meets (blank), 2005Walker without Walls to stay culturally visible and increase excitement For the reopening, the Walker ran an integrated marketing campaignfor the upcoming re-opening. Walker without Walls primarily targeted that announced the new building and with that the redefined institu-people who already engaged with the Walker, but it also aimed to tional identity emphasizing on the institutions multidisciplinarydevelop new community relationships. The campaign was kicked off by nature. "Where __ meets __" essentially became the template foran all night party at the Walker in February 2004, the night before the introducing the key messages like artistic depth (where Yoko meetsmuseum closed for construction. John), multiple disciplines in contemporary art represented inside the Walker (where paint meets pixels), the town hall concept for socialThe campaign was a coordinated yearlong series of art events held in interaction (where art meets life) and the physical locale (wherevarious venues throughout the region. The events were well attended – Hannepin meets Lyndale)."more than 25,000 attended the artist-designed mini-golf tournament,and 3,000 attended the opening night of the Music & Movies series in "The campaign was predominantly regional with some national presence,Loring Park. and appeared in a range of media executions including magazine ads, billboards, bus shelters, and wildpostings. THE MUSEUM BRAND FOOTPRINT • PAGE 25
    • “The purpose of the Walker’s expansion was to provide each of its primary program areas—visual arts, performing arts, film, and education—with its own space under the largerinstitutional umbrella. Making the institution’s programmatic priorities physically visible andencouraging the cross-pollination of the Walker’s various audiences was one of its majorgoals.” - Philip Bahar, Director of Marketing and Public RelationsWalker Expanded – The New Graphic Identity, 2005 artists to present themselves, for the public to get to know themFor the opening, Walker designed a new identity to signal the changes and interact with them, as well as a schedule for Minnesota-basedat the institution. Treated like a roll of tape, the new identity visually arts events.conveys different touchpoints (Walker Art Center, walkerart.org, In order to engage teenagers and help them connect with contempo-Minneapolis Sculpture Garden) disciplines (performing arts, film/ video, rary art and artists, Walker Art Center set up Walker Art Center Teenvisual arts) and artistic programs offered (exhibitions, lectures, screenings, Arts Council. WACTAC is made up of 12 young people who meet weeklytours, workshops, theater, music, film) at the Walker, in an on-going to design, organize, and market events and programs for otherscroll. It is visually catchy and easily adoptable to different disciplines. teenagers and young adults. The Walker just launched a dedicatedThe strip visual is applied on all printed and electronic communications, WACTAC site to engage the teens online.as well in and around the building. Business cards, letterhead and visitorguides feature the scroll on top. A projection listing the upcoming Social networks such as MySpace and Facebook help reach a youngerevents scrolls on the façade of the building. The scroll is also displayed online audience, as well as those interested in getting a behind theinside on the walls of the lobby, the parking ramp and the shop. scenes look at the Walker and staff viewpoints on various topics. Walker Art Center has 3,909 friends on MySpace. Its MySpace pageOngoing Communications includes information on the museum, an events calendar, and anWalker uses "group ads" on an ongoing basis to promote a full-range option to buy tickets. There are also links to the Walker blog. The blogof Walker offerings. Exhibitions, performances, films, and lectures are entries are written in a short and approachable way to better connectall announced in single advertisements. As a result Walker not only with the audience, and not in the traditional institutional language.highlights its multidisciplinary mission, but also stretches its budget The postings focus on topics that would be of interest to the youngeron advertising. audience, such as bands on the run and the after hours parties. WalkerSince 1997, Walker Art Center has organized parties called Walker After also recently started a profile on Facebook.Hours that target young, trendy professionals in the Minneapolis area. There are several Walker Art Center-affiliated groups on the photoThe events feature a first look at exhibitions, music, and cocktails. sharing site Flickr. There is an extensive folder of pictures of the newAttendees can visit a section of the party sponsored by Target and building, but also Walker After Hours photos, and photos from Walkertake photographs that are posted on the Flickr Walker After Hours Art Center Teen Arts Council events and happenings.photo group. The ResultsWalker Art Center provides wi-fi access in the lobby, and Art on Call, The selection of the intriguing architectural duo, Herzog & de Meuron,the Walker’s free cell phone audio tour.32 Also at Walker, visitors can and the fact that the Walker was their first museum project in the US,use the social interaction technology called Dialogue to learn about ensured that the reopening received national and international pressthe collection in a way that sparks curiosity and encourages exploring. coverage, even though it was soon after the broadly covered reopeningWalker Art Center already offers rich artistic content on the Web. of MoMA in New York. Though not the main goal for the expansion,Especially successful is their blog section. The Walker blogs constitute the placement of Minneapolis back on the cultural tourism map was athe most popular part of the site with a monthly average of 115,000 welcome result. In the January 2006 issue, Travel & Leisure nameduser sessions. The Walker blogs’ readership is mostly concentrated Minneapolis one of the five “up-and-coming destinations.” 33locally, but also extends nationally and internationally, especially The Walker Art Center expansion did not attract the kind of criticismto Europe. expanding museums sometimes face. Largely due to the architectureLeveraging Web 2.0 and the museum’s mission being so integrated, there have been noNew media tactics help the museum reach new audiences. Walker Art suggestions of growing corporate influence or aiming to attractCenter New Media Initiatives group looks into innovative ways of crowds at the expense of a cutting-edge artistic point of view.connecting with audiences through podcasts, videocasts, IPTV, RSS Walker considers the campaign a big success in increasing awarenessfeeds, Flickr, YouTube, and social networks like Facebook and MySpace. of the museum and its programs. It has helped to maintain andThe group, in partnership with the McKnight Foundation, developed increase event audiences throughout the year.34mnartists.org, an online gathering place for Minnesota artists and artorganizations from diverse disciplines. The site provides a platform for THE MUSEUM BRAND FOOTPRINT • PAGE 26
    • Evolving the Footprint ThroughCommunications How to maximize the impact of an expansion and extend the image of a museum through communication
    • The Power of Architecture in Whether it’s the entire museum DMD Online Survey Results Rebranding being rebuilt or the addition of a new wing, the museums surveyed How many years in planning for expansion: have adopted or plan to adopt new identities to fit their vision and image. YEARS SURVEYED (IN %) When the Modern Wing opens, AIC will 4 or less 29%launch an identity that will reflect the contemporary feeling of the 5-6 33%building for the entire institution. Similarly, MoMA updated its identity 7-9 17%when the Taniguchi building reopened. Miami Art Museum foresees 10+ 21%that the new identity will fit the new Herzog & De Meuron buildingwith its fresh, clean, contemporary, and international look. Walker ArtCenter adopted a new identity at the reopening that was both visually Institutions that held architecture competition:catchy and adoptable to different disciplines. ANSWER SURVEYED (IN %) Yes 44%The degree to which the building is prominent in the new graphic No 56%identity ties back to the institution’s mission and brand goals. Thebuilding’s sculptural quality determines its place in the logo.Milwaukee Art Museum, wishing that the Calatrava building would Outside consultants hired for communications?become an international tourist destination, featured the building inthe logo that launched at the reopening in 2001. The Guggenheim ANSWER SURVEYED (IN %)Museums’ identity also ties back to the architecture, as the foundation Yes No 46% 54%considers architecture a major brand asset.AGO conducted a kitchen table-style brand study among key constituents Those institutions who answered “yes” hired theand determined 13 brand value attributes, one of which was All of the following types of consultants:brand attributes were later boiled down to three major brand tenetsthat formed the new identity for the 2008 reopening: extraordinaryvisitor experience, excellence in collections, and leaders in interpretation. CONSULTANT TYPE SURVEYED (IN %) Branding 38%Communications departments can measure the PR potential of the Communication / PR 85%selected architect to measure the impact on attendance locally, nationally, Advertising 31% Marketing 15%or internationally. This can be done by conducting surveys on the recall Web Design 8%of the architect among the different audiences, as well as researchabout PR generated from past projects by the same architect. Similarly,architecture can help with communicating a new vision. Any noveltyfactor about the building (architect’s first building in the US) or an Research conducted or being planned for before or after the opening about brand awareness past/institutional responsibility angle (green design) can be used to increase future visits, recall of architect?excitement about the project. ANSWER SURVEYED (IN %) Yes 48% No 52% THE MUSEUM BRAND FOOTPRINT • PAGE 28
    • The New The future identity should be Identity New brand identity for the reopening? planned for a time period that is far enough in advance, so that the ANSWER SURVEYED (IN %) brand goals will not be outdated in Yes the near future and will ensure a con- No 44% 56% tinuous path for the organization. But thistime period should not be too far off, so the planners in the museumscan base their assumptions on available forecasts of the trends in art,society, and the economy. Vittorio Falletti, in his paper, “Closed to Meet will they speak? What age groups will they belong to? How will theseYou,” remarks that the new identity should be designed with at least groups interact with institutions?the next ten years in mind. In the book Imagining the Future of theMuseum of Modern Art, Glenn Lowry explains that the key stage in Most museums, facing an aging membership and donor base, are turningplanning the MoMA expansion was to review the goals and aspirations to younger audiences with the hope that they will become the donorsof the museum for the next 25-30 years.35 of tomorrow. Others are looking into immigrant populations or the increasingly mobile global groups to find their future audience.Museums need to identify strengths in setting brand goals for the Whoever the major target group may be, most museums, like AGOfuture identity. What distinguishes a museum from others should be and MoMA, have a common goal of audience diversification.identified. This list can include parts of the collection, the artisticvision, the building, social responsibility (green building for example), Guggenheim Bilbao communicates with audiences in four languages –public programs, diverse artistic programs (film and performance), or Basque, Spanish, English, and French. MoMA offers printed materialsresearch opportunities. in seven languages. Smaller museums also chose bilingualism to adapt to changing demographic patterns in their surrounding region and toThe New Audience diversify their audience. From education programs and labels to websiteA lot of museums are seeing their core audience age. As museums look and at-works, Southern California museums such as Museum ofto attract new audiences, they need to look into demographic and Contemporary Art in San Diego incorporate Spanish into the institutionsocietal trends and identify the best groups to target. What will be the to include more of the Hispanic audience that makes up 35% of theethnic make-up of the visitors, donors, and members? What languages local population.36 The New Ways to Buzz and excitement from a new The Web, New Media, and Technology Interact facility usually guarantees a high Looking to future generations, the museums should determine their level of attendance during the first Web strategies and start speaking to Web-only audiences in order to year. Arlene Madell, Director of become an integral part of the global online community and build an Marketing and Visitor Services at AGO, online brand. calls the first nine months after the opening“the honeymoon.” The biggest challenge for the expanded museums is Websites should be built to be more inclusive, welcoming, and engagingto keep the attendance at a consistent level after “the honeymoon.” with features such as artist podcasts or videocasts, access to piecesThis requires constant dialogue with the stakeholders. from the audio and video libraries, event calendars with reminder or outlook options, virtual collections, library access, and RSS feeds.As peoples’ interests are more fragmented, museums don’t want toconnect with visitors in a one-dimensional way. They must offer tailored Wikipedia is one of the most popular online research sources.communications to people of different backgrounds and interests. Museums should have their profile updated with the most up-to-dateAs museums increasingly find themselves competing for peoples’ time, information. They should also make sure that the museum is listedthey are looking into ways of improving engagement and setting goals under culture in the city profiles.for the place they want to occupy in people’s lives. THE MUSEUM BRAND FOOTPRINT • PAGE 29
    • YouTube is another avenue for museums to reach different audiences. Vehicles used during a relaunch campaignMoMA has a branded channel on YouTube, called MoMAvideos, whichincludes videos of selected exhibition previews, public programs, VEHICLES SURVEYED (IN %)performances, and exhibition installations. There are a number of PRvideos posted by YouTube users including construction clips for AIC Internal PR 76% 88%and AGO, and performance recordings from MoCA Shanghai and Advertising 64%Walker Art Center.A lot of museums have online collections. More and more people are Target Audiencesgoing on user-generated content sites to find richer online collection AUDIENCE SURVEYED (IN %)experiences. An unaffiliated, alternative virtual MoMA collection, called Neighborhood/ Community 80%iMoMA, encourages the public to help photograph every single piece Donors 80%in MoMA’s collection in order to create a new version of the virtual Members 76%museum that will reflect peoples’ individual perspectives. On Press 72%Photomoma.org or on the TheMoMAProject group on Flickr, viewers are Tourists 52%encouraged to add to the online collection. There were over 16,000 Art World 44%photos posted for the group by late June 2007, and the group had The Board 40%2,709 members. Museums can look into this type of engagement for Staff 36%richer opportunities for publicity and loyalty. City Government 36% One-time Visitors 36%With the greater growing popularity of alternative environments like Civic Groups 8%Second Life, museums can consider exploring ways of creating virtual State & Federal Government 4%environments to interact with online audiences. Currently, there are Repeat Visitors 4% Museum Professionals 4%museum environments in Second Life that can pose as examples. A Educators 4%museum called the Second Louvre is a replica of the Louvre building in Potential Donors 4%the Second Life environment.37 Though the collection doesn’t compare Grant Funds 4%with the Louvre, the Second Louvre showcases art pieces that stretchfrom the floor to ceiling of tall walls so that the avatars can literallyfly through the museum (as flying is one of the most popular modes Channels Usedof transportation in Second Life). CHANNEL SURVEYED (IN %)Museums are increasingly looking into ways of incorporating mobile Print Media Web 84% 92%technology to make the art viewing experience simpler and moreentertaining via alternative tour guides. Almost all of the surveyed Special Events 80% Direct Mail 72%museums have alternatives guides available to download on iTunes. Grassroots Outreach Activities 56%Some museums are also aiming to have docks in their lobbies where Tourist Media – airports, travelpeople can download audio guides directly onto their mobile audio magazines 56%device. There are also technologies being developed so that people can Radio 32%use their cell phones in lieu of tour guides, and wireless systems like TV 28%GPS devices to help them navigate through bigger, more complex Outdoor 20%museums.38 Cultivation 8% E-newsletters 4% THE MUSEUM BRAND FOOTPRINT • PAGE 30
    • Potential Challenges in the Once architectural plans are set, Brand Evolution and construction is near underway, What are the most prevalent communication issues new challenges arise: local commu- for the expansion project? nities may have various opinions, questions, and serious complaints on the project; key patrons may be equallyimpressed or disenchanted, regular visitors may be put-out during ISSUES SURVEYED (IN %)construction; local governments require significant amounts of Community issues (ex: community preservation, construction related) 56%coordination and the media will also start reporting on cost overruns,criticizing the architecture itself and pointing out every delay. Recognition problems (ex: problems attracting new audiences) 44% Design and architecture criticism 36%A solution can be getting the word out to various constituents, or Management (ex: internal disagreements,often controlling the surge of interest after a long period of construction. lavish expansion budgets) 24%Managing advertising, patron communications, guest services, public Relevance to different communities 24%relations, signage, and the website all become important channels for Institution identity (ex: too commercial,marketing communications in effectively defining this new brand that no longer creative, only for tourists) 20%has been presented. Public service (ex: increased admission, insufficient education programs) 20%Challenge: Connecting with the Community Binding of personal, financial, andAGO and Toledo both faced initial concerns about the expansion from special resources 4%their neighbors. Both museums dealt with this with an outreach Exhibits’ relevance to local audiences 4%initiative. Toledo Museum leaders held church meetings with community Differentiation among the clutter ofleaders, as well as appeared on local TV talk shows to address the public museum expansions 4% Location/ access problems with newlyinterest in SANAAs design. relocated area 4% Collection doesn’t merit a buildingAGO noticed that some in the neighborhood did not find the museum of the anticipated size 4%a neighborhood resource and had the stereotype of it being distantand elitist. To rectify this, the museum embarked on a large communityinitiative. The community design consultation program included localsin the decision-making process. The museum holds neighborhoodmeetings, organizes special events, and keeps the neighbors informedthrough email newsletters. In addition, the museum recruited communityrepresentatives to distribute family memberships, and establishedrelationships with community organizations.Challenge: Handling Entrance Fee IncreasesThe new building cost and MoMA’s $20 admission fee drew an enormousamount of criticism. The cost of building the museum was quoted inthe press at varying levels and without the context of New York realestate costs or what the budget actually supported. To those critics,the $20 admission price reinforced the elitist perception of the institutionand caused them to question its commitment to public access. Themuseum implemented programs to allow a large number of people freeor at reduced admission. 600,000 of such visitors now visit the museumyearly. Also, a free admission day was designated every Friday from4-8pm. Free Friday Nights is sponsored by Target. THE MUSEUM BRAND FOOTPRINT • PAGE 31
    • Challenge: How to Address Design Criticism What areas still need improvement?The opposition to I.M. Pei’s pyramid for the Louvre was probably thebiggest public opposition any museum has faced. The museum battled RESPONSESthe opposition with communications efforts targeting the cultural “Blogs and web site for more engagement online”influencers and public. Hard-hat tours granted access to the influencers “Audience diversity”and public, and gave a chance for the museum to show the new vision “Relations with government, community, and staff”in the making. The museum also set up platforms for the public to be “Location challenges”able to walk up to the restorers and ask questions. Furthermore, the “Upper management need to listen to the staff and get themconstruction company set up a communications office and distributed on board with the project”a newsletter. “Museum’s positioning and the relationship between two museum venues and business units”Challenge: Garnering Recognition “Internal communications currently top-down”MoCA Shanghai faces the challenge of recognition within Shanghai, in “External communications not in focus due to management and structural change”China, and internationally, and is relying on publicity to deal with this. “Communications with the board, art donors, and foreignBeing a new museum devoted to contemporary art, it needs to spark visitors (non-English speaking)”the interest of the Shanghai general public. The museum is focusing on “Our role in the art world”younger generations through school programs while looking to attract “More board, member, donor communication, not just witha hip group of Shanghai residents with its restaurant and bar. those who historically supported us, but also new blood”Nationally, the museum wants to attract popular Chinese contempo- “Internal communications”rary artists who live and work in Beijing. On an international level, the “Strategic and long-term plans”museum would like to establish itself as an ideal member of future “Increased communications across departments, to the boardartistic partnerships. Launched as the first non-profit art museum, the and our constituents, targeting new audiences”museum has sparked interest abroad; Western institutions eager to get “Programming input from marketing/ PR”close to the Chinese contemporary art market were open to work withthis new private local institution. An important partnership was createdwhen the Guggenheim chose the institution to show its travelingexhibition America 300. This brought much publicity that is sure toraise the profile of the institution.Challenge: Management/ Internal/ FinancialJoey Tanenbaum, one of AGO’s board members and leading donors,publicly resigned from the board in 2004 over a disagreement over thedesign involving a museum space which was named after him. Themuseum mended the relationship and Tanenbaum was brought back tothe board. Both museum management and Tanenbaum were quoted inthe press as saying how he was later happy with the expansion plans. THE MUSEUM BRAND FOOTPRINT • PAGE 32
    • Footnotes1 American Association of Museums, Museum Financial Information, 2006 31 “An Expansion Gives Life to an Old Box” by Nicolai Ouroussoff, The New York2 “Guggenheim to Build Museum in Abu Dhabi” by Jim Krane, The Associated Times, April 15, 2005 Press, July 8, 2006 32 “Museum Expansions and the ‘Utility’ of Web-based Public Information” by3 “Despite Criticisms, Thomas Krens Plans Still Other Guggenheims” by Carol James Ockuly, The Minneapolis Institute of Arts, 2006 Vogel, The New York Times, April 27, 2005 33 “The New Walker is a Magnet for Attention – and Frustration” by Linda Mack,4 “Guggenheim Foundation builds its largest museum in booming Abu Dhabi” Star Tribune, December 24, 2005 by Jim Krane, The Associated Press, July 8, 2006 34 http://design.walkerart.org/detail.wac?id=2104&title=Projects5 “Guggenheim Foundation builds its largest museum in booming Abu Dhabi” 35 “Studies in Modern Art 7: Imagining the Future of the Museum of Modern6 “An American in Venice” by Mark Irving, Time, June 22, 2003 Art” The Museum of Modern Art, New York7 “CMO Strategy: The Innovators – Thomas Krens” by Sarah Mahoney, 36 “English or Spanish, Two Voices on Labels” by Jori Finkel, The New York Times, Advertising Age, October 2, 2006 March 28, 20078 http://moma.org/about_moma/newmoma.html 37 Urban, R. et al., A Second Life for Your Museum: 3D Multi-User Virtual9 “A Very Modern Art, Indeed” by Hugh Eakin, The New York Times, November 7, 2004 Environments and Museums. In J. Trant and D. Bearman (eds). Museums and10 “Taniguchi’s MOMA: An Architectural Close Up” by Franz Schulze, Art in the Web 2007: Proceedings. Toronto: Archives & Museum Informatics, pub- America, March 1, 2005 lished March 31, 2007 at11 “Invisible Cathedral” by John Updike, The New Yorker, November 15, 2004 http://www.archimuse.com/mw2007/papers/urban/urban.html12 “MoMA reborn – back to front” by Mark Irving, The Art Newspaper, 38 “iPods and Cellphones Join the Audio Tour” by Michel Marriott, The New York November 2004 Times, March 28, 200713 “MoMA reborn – back to front”14 “MoMA Announces Two Billion Dollar Impact on NYC Economy” MoMA Press Release, July 25, 200615 “MoMA Announces Two Billion Dollar Impact on NYC Economy”16 “Museums by the Foot” by Kim Campbell, Christian Science Monitor, July 1, 200517 “Art Review: The Museum as Outdoor Movie Screen, Featuring Five Lives Lived After Dark” by Roberta Smith, The New York Times, January 18, 200718 “Art Institute Reaches Out Toward Millennium Park” by Andrew Herrmann, Chicago Sun-Times, June 1, 200519 http://www.artic.edu/aic/modern_wing/building/engineering.html20 http://www.artic.edu/aic/modern_wing/campaign/facts.html21 “Art Institute Reaches Out Toward Millennium Park”22 “Art Institute to Add New Wing” by Blair Kamin, Chicago Tribune, May 31, 200523 “Art Institute to Add New Wing”24 “Shanghai MOCA brews up an arts treat” Shanghai Daily, September 24, 200525 “Shanghai Gets Contemporary” by Lisa Movius, Art in America, November 200526 “Travel: Private Spaces” by Karen Mazurkewich, Wall Street Journal Asia, December 2, 200527 “Under Construction: Toronto as an Architectural Tourist Site” by David D’Arcy, The Well Street Journal, September 6, 200628 “Gehry Thomson set AGO on a ‘Path of Renewal’” by Aaron Wherry, National Post, November 20, 200229 http://www.miamiartmuseum.org/home-park-fact.asp30 “Walker Art Center Doubles Size” by Janet Koplos, Art In America, April 2005 THE MUSEUM BRAND FOOTPRINT • PAGE 33
    • Acknowledgements Research, Interviews and Writing: Toledo Museum of Art NY: Defne Chaffin Florian Idenburg, Former Senior Associate, SANAA, Shanghai: Defne Ayas in charge of the Glass Pavilion Project Jordan Rundgren, Director of Public Relations, Interviews: Toledo Museum of Art Art Institute of Chicago Anne Henry, Associate Director of Communications, Walker Art Center Art Institute of Chicago Phillip Bahar, Director of Communications, Walker Art Center Art Gallery of Ontario Beverley Carret, Manager of Government and Photo Credits: Community Relations, Art Gallery of Ontario Walker: Arlene Madell, Director of Marketing and Visitor Photo courtesy Walker Art Center. Services, Art Gallery of Ontario Antonietta Mirabelli, Manager of Communications, Guggenheim: Art Gallery of Ontario © FMGB Guggenheim Bilbao Museoa, 2005. Ian Rubenzahl, Manager of New Media Design, Art Photograph by Erika Barahona-Ede. All rights Gallery of Ontario reserved. Total or partial reproduction is prohibited. Guggenheim Museum New York MOCA Shanghai: Laura Miller, Director of Marketing, The Museum of Contemporary Art, ShanghaiDMD is an integrated marketing Guggenheim Museum New Yorkcompany. We build awareness, AGO:change perceptions, motivate action, Miami Art Museum © 2007 Gehry International, Architects, Inc.and effect change by creatingexperiences and narratives that are Terence Riley, Director, Miami Art Museumboth inspiring and compelling. Richard P. Townsend, Deputy Director for External AIC: The Art Institute of Chicago,DMD partners with clients to realize Affairs, Miami Art Museum Department of Graphic Design and Photographic andand deliver ideas through advertising, Communication Servicesbranding, design, grassrootscampaigns, interactive, and public MoCA Shanghairelations campaigns. Audience Diana Freundl, Shanghai MOCA Toledo:research and industry insight drive Samuel Kung, Founder & Director, Shanghai MOCA Photograph by Floto + Warnerall of our efforts, producing Liu Yuyang, Principal and Executive Architect,actionable results. Atelier Liu Yuyang Architects Miami:For more original research and daily courtesy City of Miami.insights, visit www.dmdinsight.com MoMA Kim Mitchell, Director of Communications, MoMA MoMA: Stephen Rustow, Senior Associate principal for KPF, Photo © 2007 Timothy Hursley The Executive Architect THIS WHITEPAPER USES PAPER THAT IS 100% RECYCLED, SUPPORTING RE-USE OF FOREST RESOURCES, AND IN ACCORDANCE WITH FSC STANDARDS ONLY USES POSTCONSUMER RECYCLED WOOD OR FIBER. THIS PAPER IS ALSO MADE WITH RENEWABLE, NON-POLLUTING WIND-GENERATED ELECTRICITY.