Quick Quiz:•What ‘S’ is a comparison using the words ‘like’ or ‘as’?• How is a metaphor different from a simile?• In the poem Island Man what is the man dreaming of at the start of thepoem?• In the poem Blessing how do we know that the people are poor?• In the poem What Were They Like what is the poet describing when shesays the ‘bombs smashed those mirrors’?• In the poem What Were They Like, what jobs did most of the Vietnamesepeople have before the Vietnam War?• What is the posh name for the verses in a poem?• Name at least three things that the poems we have read have in common?• What is onomatopoeia?• Create a challenging question of your own about one of the poems we havestudied.
Lesson Objectives: To understand what apartheid was in South Africa To understand the relationship between racism and segregation Activities: Watch 2 short videos about apartheid in South Africa 15-20 minutes Read the poem Nothing’s Changed and discuss the themes of racism andsegregation. 5-10 minutes To answer a series of questions on the poem 10-20 minutes Plenary – to be able to name three things that you have learnt aboutapartheid and South Africa.
Up until 1990 South Africa was an Apartheid country. Thismeans that white people kept themselves separate frompeople of other races. They did not go to the sameschools, ,live in the same areas or even use the same buses.Nelson Mandela argued publicly against this and was sent toprison for it. He is still leading the fight against apartheidwith extraordinary vigour and resilience after spendingnearly thirty years of his life behind bars. He hassacrificed his private life and his youth for his people, andremains South Africas best known and loved hero.
As you watch the video clips try to answerthese questions:3)What is ‘apartheid’?4) What is segregation?5) Why were the black citizens of SouthAfrica so angry?
What is racism? 1. the idea that ones own race is superior and has the right to rule others. 2. hatred or intolerance of another race or other races. What is segregation?1. to separate or set apart from others or from the main body or group; to isolate: 2. to require, often with force, the separation of (aspecific racial, religious, or other group) from the general body of society.
We need to work through the poem now answering the following questions: What happens? What are his feelings? How does the mood of the speaker change during the poem?Activity:Now write the story of the poem – using one sentence per stanza. Be prepared to read these aloud!
ContextThis is an autobiographical poem. Tatamkhulu Afrika (1920-2002)lived in Cape Towns District 6, which was then a thriving mixed-raceinner-city community. People of all colours and beliefs lived togetherpeacefully, and Afrika said he felt at home there.In the 1960s, as part of its policy of apartheid the governmentdeclared District 6 a whites-only area, and began to evacuate thepopulation. Over a period of years, the entire area was razed to theground. Most of it has never been built on.The poem was written just after the official end of apartheid. It wasa time of hope - Nelson Mandela had recently been released fromprison, and the ANC was about to form the government of SouthAfrica.
Tatamkhulu Afrika: December 7, 1920 - December 23, 2002 The writer and poet -- now known as the Grandfather of Afrika -- was truly African andsymbolised the pan-African ideal of a free Africa. He was born in Egypt and died in SouthAfrica.His life story itself is a story racism and exploitation and also a story of one mans questfor his and our humanity.His parents died shortly after coming to South Africa in 1923 and he was raised by anEnglish Methodist family under a new name John Charlton. (He did not know his familybackground) At 17 he wrote his first novel, Broken Earth.In his life he had to face many obstacles that forced him to make a stand, resulting inhim changing his "race" and even his religion.After working in Namibia for at least 20 years doing different jobs, and living withAfrikaner foster parents where he got the name Jozua Joubert, he settled in DistrictSix in Cape Town where he reverted to Islam and had himself classified as "coloured" ashe did not want to be white, and wanted to continue living in his township.He dedicated his life to speaking out about the racial problems faced by many people inSouth Africa and is regarded as one of the greatest South African writers.
“Nothings Changed is entirely autobiographical. I cant quite rememberwhen I wrote this, but I think it must have been about 1990. District Sixwas a complete waste by then, and I hadnt been passing through it for along time. But nothing has changed. Not only District Six... I mean, we mayhave a new constitution, we may have on the face of it a beautifuldemocracy, but the racism in this country is absolutely redolent. We try topretend to the world that it does not exist, but it most certainly does, allday long, every day, shocking and saddening and terrible.Look, I dont want to sound like a prophet of doom, because I dont feel likethat at all. I am full of hope. But I wont see it in my lifetime. Its going totake a long time. I mean, in America its taken all this time and its still notgone... So it will change. But not quickly, not quickly at all.” The poet Tatamkhulu Afrika
One of the ways in which the poet shows the differences between the two sets of people is to compare the places where they eat. Which of the following characteristics do you think belong to the white’s restaurants and which belongs to the black’s restaurant?•Port Jackson trees •Crushed ice •Wipe your fingers on your jeans •The single rose •Take it with you •Haute cuisine •Bunny chows •Guard at the gatepost •White glass •Linen falls •Spit a little on the •Plastic table’s top floor
One of the ways in which the poet shows the differences between the two sets of people is to compare the places where they eat. Which of the following characteristics do you think belong to the whites restaurants and which belongs to the blacks restaurant?•Port Jackson trees •Crushed iceWhite •Wipe your fingers on your jeans White •Take it with you Black •The single rose Black •Haute cuisine White•Guard at the gatepost •Bunny chows WhiteWhite Black •Plastic table’s top •White glass •Spit a little on the •Linen falls floor Black White White Black
The opening of the poem introduces us to the area that the poet lived (and now returning to) in and tells us how he feels about it. Small round hard stones click What words stand out as What Under my heels, important in heimpression poet’s Seeding grasses thrust do we get description ofof District Bearded seeds into trouser cuffs, cans, the area? Six from trodden on, crunch Can you find the first In tall, purple flowering, any poetic stanza of devices that Amiable weeds. the poet uses?the poem? ‘Amiable’ means to feel friendly towards someone or something. Why do you think the author has included this word in his description?
The opening of the poem introduces us to the area that the poet lives in and tells us how he feels about it. In the final line of the stanza, Small round hard stones click The words ‘click’ the poet uses Under my heels, another poetic and ‘crunch’ are Seeding grasses thrust examples of devices called personification. Bearded seeds into trouser cuffs, cans, onomatopoeia. This is where This is where trodden on, crunch someone makes the poet usessomething which In tall, purple flowering, words which areisn’t human seem Amiable weeds. spelled the way like they are they sound. human. Why do you think the poet has used these poetic devices?
In the second stanza of the poem, the poet goes on to describe how he feels being back in his home environment.What does District Six. Why do you the poet No board says it is; think themean when But my feet know poet includeshe says ‘no And my hands, so many partsboard says And the skin about my bones of the body? it is?’ What is he And the soft labouring of my lungs, trying to say And the hot, white inwards turning about his Anger of my eyes. feelings now he is back? Have another look at the last two lines of the stanza. What can we tell about the poet’s feelings from these two lines?
In the second stanza of the poem, the poet goes on to describe how he feels at being back in his home environment. The full stop District Six. What does he at the end of No board says it is; mean when he says ‘but my the first line But my feet know creates a very feet know?’blunt and sharp And my hands,tone. The poet And the skin about my bones wants us to And the soft labouring of my lungs,think about the And the hot, white inwards turning name and remember the Anger of my eyes. details. White is the hottest part of any flame – the poet is suggesting that his anger cannot get any greater. His anger has to be ‘inwards turning’ as he cannot speak or write anything negative.
The poet uses the structure ( the way the poem is set out ) to help make his point. New, up market haute cuisine, Guard at the gatepost Why do you What is the think these Whites only inn effect oflines have been having theseplaced on their No sign says it is lines stand out own when all But we know where we belong. on their own? the other What do we do stanzas are I press my nose as readers? much longer? to the clear panes, know, Before I see them … What sort of tone do you think these lines might be read in?
The poet uses the structure ( the way the poem is set out ) to help make his point. New, up market haute cuisine, The poet wants The poet wants Guard at the gatepost the reader to these lines to Whites only inn take a pause at stand out. He is this point in thesaying that, even No sign says it is poem. It is though nothing almost tells them that But we know where we belong. confrontational – this is District he is trying toSix, he knows it I press my nose make us thinkis from the look to the clear panes, know, about his and feel of the situation. place. Before I see them … These lines might be read in an angry and frustrated tone – the poet is annoyed that the situation has not changed for people like him.
The final lines of the poem tell us how the poet feels about the future. What does I back from the glass, Why do you the poet tell think the poetus about how Boy again, says that his he feels now Leaving small mean O ‘hands burn’?he is an adult. What do we What words Of small, mean mouth. have to can you find Hands burn remember to suggest about thethat the poet For a stone, a bomb to shiver down the situation that is still angry glass. the poet finds and Nothing’s Changed. himself in?frustrated at the situation? What do we notice about the punctuation in the last few lines of the poem. What does this suggest about the future?
The final lines of the poem tell us how the poet feels about the future. I back from the glass, The poet The poet tells us that Boy again, desperatelyhe still feels wants to dothe same way Leaving small mean O something to as he did Of small, mean mouth. protest about when he was the situation a boy and Hands burn but he cannot that his as he has been feelings of For a stone, a bomb to shiver down the glass. banned from anger have protesting.not changed. Nothing’s Changed. The final line of the poem is punctuated with a full stop. It is as if there will never be any improvement in the situation. It is a pessimistic end to the poem.
Now that you have studied the poem and have analysed the language,create a storyboard which will help you to remember the key details of the poem. Make sure that you have included: •Key quotations from the poem •Illustrations which will help you to remember what the poem is about.
On the next page there is a chart of quotations. You must work in pairs. Discuss each quote with your partner and identify what the significant aspects of language are. How do these relate to the cultural/ social situation in South Africa?
Quotation Significant features How it relates to the cultural/ social situation of language in South Africa‘. . . Cans/ trodden on, The cans suggest it is littered. District Six has not been fullycrunch/ in tall, purple- The weeds show that it is redeveloped. It appearsflowering,/ amiable weeds.’ unkempt. The phrase ‘amiable neglected. The blacks were weeds’ draws the reader’s forced to move out and the attention to it because of the land is now derelict. unusual combination of friendly & weeds‘the hot, white, inwardsturning/ anger of my eyes’‘new, up-market, hautecuisine/ guard at thegatepost,/ whites only inn.’‘crushed ice white glass,/linen falls,/ the sungle rose.’‘spit a little on the floor:/ it’sin the bone.’‘leaving small mean O/ ofsmall, mean mouth.’