History Of American Education: Modern Period


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Major changes occur in education between 1920 and today.

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History Of American Education: Modern Period

  1. 1. Modern Period (ca. 1920 - Today)
  2. 2. G. STANLEY HALL AND THE TESTING MOVEMENT <ul><li>1844-1924 </li></ul><ul><li>Child Study Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Theory of Adolescents </li></ul><ul><li>From 1880-1920, the high school was primarily college preparatory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hall argued that the high school should be more concerned with the education of adolescents. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. G. STANLEY HALL AND THE TESTING MOVEMENT <ul><li>Hall was instrumental in the development of the new science of educational psychology. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hall's pioneering studies, Adolescence (1904) and Educational Problems (1911), described the implications of adolescent development on education. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. G. STANLEY HALL AND THE TESTING MOVEMENT <ul><li>Hall was influenced by Charles Darwin's theory of evolution. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It provided an impetus for the scientific examination of child development. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>His emphasis on the survival behavior of different species stimulated an interest in observing children to identify their adaptive behaviors and to learn about the inheritance of human behavior. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. G. STANLEY HALL AND THE TESTING MOVEMENT <ul><li>Psychologists believed that capacities measured in testing or laboratory situations were also significant in everyday life. </li></ul><ul><li>1916 American psychologist Lewis Terman </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standford-Binet Intelligence Test. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This test led to a number of studies about children's intellectual development. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. G. STANLEY HALL AND THE TESTING MOVEMENT <ul><li>Hall's achievements were his leadership in founding The American Journal of Psychology and the American Psychological Association. </li></ul>
  7. 7. G. STANLEY HALL AND THE TESTING MOVEMENT <ul><li>Believe in developmental stages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>that curriculum should be designed around the needs of the child during these stages. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate for the child’s developmental needs. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. G. STANLEY HALL AND THE TESTING MOVEMENT <ul><li>Hall's educational prescriptions for adolescents emphasized the following six areas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differentiated curricula for students with different futures, that is, an efficient curriculum, including an education for girls that emphasized preparation for marriage and motherhood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The development of manhood through close supervision of the body, emphasizing exercise and team sports and minimizing draining academic study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An education that drew upon and utilized the expression of (boy-stage) emotions through emphases on loyalty, patriotism, and service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A curriculum sequence informed by recapitulation theory or cultural epochs (i.e., study of the stages believed to have been key developmental points of the race. A cultural epochs curriculum focused upon &quot;great scenes&quot;: sacred and profane myths and history, from folklore and fairy tales to Robinson Crusoe and bible studies, ending with St. Paul and Luther and the powerful stories of reformation and nationalization. Stories of great men would be used throughout to draw boys into the tales and to build on their natural interest.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A school program that kept boys as boys and discouraged precocity or assuming sexual adult roles at a young age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An administrative gaze schooled to watch youthful bodies </li></ul></ul>G. Stanley Hall. (n.d.). Encyclopedia of Education . Retrieved June 05, 2007, from Answers.com Web site: http://www.answers.com/topic/g-stanley-hall
  9. 9. The Adult Education Movement <ul><li>21 million (about 1/8th of the adult population), men and women are taking some form of adult education. </li></ul><ul><li>motives for the educational movement of adults is varied. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some return to school to complete education that was not accomplished when they were younger. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others, in hopes for a better job, and others yet in hopes to remain competitive enough to keep their own jobs. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Adult Education Movement <ul><li>FEAR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adults today feel threatened in their jobs by younger, highly educated individuals entering the workforce in competition for fewer and fewer jobs. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. The Adult Education Movement <ul><li>The sources for adult education are varied. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is the traditional college or university, public schools, proprietary schools and the federal government. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Internet, via your home computer, may allow you to earn a degree (i.e., an MBA program currently in the works at Indiana Wesleyan U.) or certificate without leaving the confines of your abode. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. The Adult Education Movement <ul><li>The progression of adult education in America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>During the colonial period, apprentices were the primary form of adult education. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1727 Ben Franklin founded one of the first adult education programs, and organizations in American History. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This new organization was called the Junto. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the Junto, the course of study consisted of topics like politics, philosophy and a host of others that were felt to be of importance of the day. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1731 Ben Franklin founded the first Public Library. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At this new Library, the concept of borrowing books was introduced. Adults were admitted based on a system of fees and fines. The fees and fines allowed the Library to operate. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. The Adult Education Movement <ul><li>The 1900's saw a great boom in adult education. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Federal Government got involved in the educational process where starting in 1914 act(s) named the Smith (et al.) acts provided funding for training in the area(s) of farming, home economics and vocations. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The Adult Education Movement <ul><li>The depression of the 1930's saw the formation of the WPA. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US Work Program for the unemployed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This was were the government trained adults in an attempt to re-employ them. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After WWII, the government formed the Veterans Administration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>veterans were paid to go to school. This caused a tremendous growth spurt for American colleges and universities. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. The Adult Education Movement <ul><li>The manpower act of the 1960's </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provided funds for the unemployed in an attempt to train unemployed adults and make them marketable. This also opened the door for adult basic education programs, widely in use today. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. JOHN DEWEY
  17. 17. John Dewey <ul><li>Education and Communication is the necessity of teaching and learning for the continued existence of a society. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schools are one important method of the transmission. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is more than a verbal tie between the words common, community, and communication. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What we must have in common in order to form a community or society are aims, beliefs, aspirations, knowledge -- a common understanding . </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. John Dewey <ul><li>All communication is educative. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To be a recipient of a communication is to have an enlarged and changed experience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The experience has to be formulated in order to be communicated. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formulating requires getting outside of it, seeing it as another would see it. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. John Dewey <ul><li>There is a difference between the education which everyone gets from living with others, and the deliberate educating of the young. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If humanity has made some headway in realizing that the ultimate value of every institution is its distinctively human effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>its effect upon conscious experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>we may well believe that this lesson has been learned largely through dealings with the young. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. John Dewey <ul><li>As civilization advances, the gap between the capacities of the young and the concerns of adults widens. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning by direct sharing in the pursuits of grown-ups becomes increasingly difficult. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to share effectively in adult activities, depends upon a prior training given with this end in view. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intentional agencies -- schools -- and explicit material -- studies -- are devised. The task of teaching certain things is delegated to a special group of persons. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. John Dewey <ul><li>the very nature of life is to strive to continue being. </li></ul><ul><li>Education is crucial to social life. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This education consists in transmission through communication. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication is a process of sharing experience till it becomes a common possession. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. John Dewey <ul><li>As societies become more complex in structure and resources, the need of formal or intentional teaching and learning increases. </li></ul><ul><li>As formal teaching and training grow in extent, there is the danger of creating an undesirable split between the experience gained in more direct associations and what is acquired in school. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This danger was never greater than at the present time, on account of the rapid growth in the last few centuries of knowledge and technical modes of skill. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. THE OREGON SCHOOL CASE OF 1925 <ul><li>1922 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oregan wanted to “Americanize” school systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnocentric movement to mandate public school education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Society of Sisters and Military School challenged this law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feared harm and extinction </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. THE OREGON SCHOOL CASE OF 1925 <ul><li>1922 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Court ruled that Oregon could not constitutionally compel all school students to attend public schools. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>violates the 14th Amendment due process guarantee of &quot;personal liberty.&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Implicit in this liberty is the right of parents to choose the kind of education they want for their children (Witt, Elder). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. BROWN V. BOARD OF EDUCATION <ul><li>Video </li></ul>
  26. 26. Federal Aid for Education <ul><li>The federal government has put its best foot forward to help with citizens who need extra money for their education. </li></ul><ul><li>Thanks to the G.I. Bill, National Defense Education Act (NDEA), and the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) many Americans have been able to reach higher education. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Federal Aid for Education <ul><li>The &quot;G.I. Bill of Rights&quot; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>federal legislation which has provided educational and other benefits for veterans of World War II. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 11 million persons have used this </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reintegrating the numbers of returning servicemen into the civilian economy and into the national life </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Federal Aid for Education <ul><li>1958 </li></ul><ul><li>NDEA – National Defense Education Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>appropriated federal funds to improve instruction in those areas considered crucial to national defense and security. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mathematics, foreign language and science. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sputnik crisis sparked national legislation to support training, equipment, and programs in fields vital to defense. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Federal Aid for Education <ul><li>1965 </li></ul><ul><li>ESEA - Elementary and Secondary Education Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ESEA was a federal response to the significant social changes taking place in American society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>President Lyndon Johnson's program,&quot;War on Poverty,&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>African American students as well as members of other minority groups, especially in inner- city areas, were educationally disadvantaged because of social and economic conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>encouraged special programs for children of low-income families </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>range of early childhood educational programs for economically and culturally disadvantaged children. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Federal Aid for Education <ul><li>1981 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Title I of ESEA was revised and is now named Chapter 1 of the Educational Consolidation and Improvement Act (ECIA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1992 Chapter 1 funding was nearly $7 billion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chapter 1 students typically gain a year in reading and math achievement for each year of participation in elementary grades </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. PRAYER AND THE BIBLE IN SCHOOLS <ul><li>society officially bans prayer and Bible reading in its public schools. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The United States Constitution leaves control over educational matters to the state governments, not the federal government. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One must look primarily to state statutes and to the interpretation of these statutes by state courts to determine the answers to legal questions and concerns regarding education. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. PRAYER AND THE BIBLE IN SCHOOLS <ul><li>The First Amendment concerns freedom of religion, speech, press, and assembly, and the right &quot;to petition the government for redress of grievances.“ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The First Amendment has two clauses that are often cited in lawsuits: the establishment clause, which prohibits the establishment of a nationally sanctioned religion, and the free exercise clause, which protects rights of free speech and expression. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the case of Engel v. Vitale prayer in school was the concern, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in the case of Abington v. Schempp Bible reading in school was the concern. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. PRAYER AND THE BIBLE IN SCHOOLS <ul><li>The Engle v. Vitale case arose out of an attempt by New York State to meet objections to the recital of prayers in the state's public schools. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Following the decision in Engel v. Vitale, the Supreme Court furthered the idea that religious activities performed by school officials violate the Establishment Clause, even if students are not required to take part. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Court, in this case, struck down two laws which required scripture reading and prayer at the opening of the school day. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. PRAYER AND THE BIBLE IN SCHOOLS <ul><li>On appeal, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the Supreme Court held that the practice was wholly inconsistent with the Establishment Clause. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Court stated that there could be no doubt that the classroom invocation was a religious activity. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neither the fact that prayer was denominationally neutral nor that its observance was voluntary served to free it from the limitations of the Establishment Clause. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Court reiterated the premise of Engel v. Vitale, that neither the state nor the federal government can constitutionally force a person to profess a belief or disbelief in any religion. Nor can it pass laws which aid all religions as against nonbelievers. </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. PRAYER AND THE BIBLE IN SCHOOLS <ul><li>Abington v. Schempp </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the Court stated that the primary purpose of the state requirement that the Bible be read or the Lord's Prayer be recited was religious . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Court also noted that it was intended by the state to be a religious ceremony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A law requiring a prayer at the beginning of the school day is an impermissible establishment of religion, whether or not students are required to participate. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. PRAYER AND THE BIBLE IN SCHOOLS <ul><ul><li>Some may say that we need prayer to begin our day and Bible reading is a source of literature, however government established the law to protect the religious and the nonreligious. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. PRAYER AND THE BIBLE IN SCHOOLS <ul><ul><li>Muslim Children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are required by faith to pray 5 times a day </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As a teacher, should you accommodate them during the school day? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 38. PUBLIC LAW 94-142 <ul><li>1975 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Education of All Handicapped Children Act), now codified as IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In order to receive federal funds, states must develop and implement policies that assure a free appropriate public education (FAPE) to all children with disabilities. </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. PUBLIC LAW 94-142 <ul><li>1975 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Education of All Handicapped Children Act), now codified as IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In order to receive federal funds, states must develop and implement policies that assure a free appropriate public education (FAPE) to all children with disabilities. </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. PUBLIC LAW 94-142 <ul><li>1975 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The state plans must be consistent with the federal statute, Title 20 United States Code Section 1400 et.seq. (20 USC 1400) </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. PUBLIC LAW 94-142 <ul><li>1975 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The IDEA governs the public schooling of all children with disabilities who require special education services and are therefore classified as &quot;educationally disabled.&quot; The IDEA generally defines a child with a disability as: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a child (i) with mental retardation , hearing impairments (including deafness), speech or language impairments, visual impairments (including blindness), serious emotional disturbance, ... orthopedic impairments, autism , traumatic brain injury, other health impairments, or specific learning disabilities; and (ii) who, by reason, thereof , needs special education and related services. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The IDEA has three primary purposes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To assure that all children with disabilities receive a free appropriate public education that emphasizes special education and related services designed to meet their unique needs. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To protect the rights of children with disabilities and their parents and guardians. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To assist the states in providing for the effective education of all children with disabilities. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 42. PUBLIC LAW 94-142 <ul><li>1975 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Once the child's evaluation is complete and it is determined that the child is indeed eligible for placement in special education, an Individual Education Plan (i.e.p.) must be written to meet the needs of that child. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An interdisciplinary team is formed to write the child's I.E.P. Under PL 94-142, the team should, at a minimum, consist of a representative of the local school district, the child's teachers and the child's parents. </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. STUDENTS' RIGHTS <ul><li>Tinker V. Des Moines Independent Community School District (1969) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the Tinkers and other students were suspended for not complying with the policy (wearing of armbands) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The court finally acknowledged that students do not shed their constitutional rights of freedom of speech or expression at the schoolhouse gate (88, La Morte). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 44. STUDENTS' RIGHTS <ul><li>Goss V. Lopez </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students right to due process was established. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lopez – accused of property damage and suspended from school. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lopez and eight other students who received suspension filed suit in the Federal District Court claiming violation of their Fourteen Amendment Rights to due process of law. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1975 - The Court handed down its decision that students facing suspension &quot; must be given some kind of notice and afforded some kind of hearing&quot; before being deprived of their education (47, Reutter). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  45. 45. GOALS 2000--THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION EDUCATION PROGRAM <ul><li>1989 – President Bush conducted an Education Summit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grounds for the National Education Goals were founded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Under the Bush administration, the program was called &quot;America 2000.&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They were the centerpiece for education reform in both the Bush and Clinton Administrations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They serve as a nationwide pact by which we can measure the output of our educational systems throughout America. </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. GOALS 2000--THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION EDUCATION PROGRAM <ul><li>1994 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>passing of the GOALS 2000: Educate America Act </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. GOALS 2000--THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION EDUCATION PROGRAM <ul><li>By the year 2000: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Every child will start school ready to learn. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. The high school graduation rate will increase to at least 90 percent. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. American students will leave grades 4, 8, and 12 having demonstrated competency over challenging subject matter including english, mathematics, science, foreign languages, civics and government, economics, art, history, and geography; and every school in America will ensure that all students learn to use their minds well, so they may be prepared for responsible citizenship, further learning, and productive employment in our nation's modern economy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. The nation's teaching force will have access to programs for the continued improvement of their professional skills needed to instruct and prepare all American students for the next century. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. U.S. students will be first in the world in science and mathematics achievement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6. Every adult American will be literate and will possess the knowledge and skills necessary to compete in a global economy and exercise rights and responsibilities of citizenship. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7. Every school in the United States will be free of drugs, violence, and the unauthorized presence of firearms and alcohol and will offer a disciplined environment conducive to learning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8. Every school will promote partnerships that will increase parental involvement and participation in promoting the social, emotional, and academic growth of children. </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. GOALS 2000--THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION EDUCATION PROGRAM <ul><li>Rational </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These goals are needed for many reasons. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal #1 is needed because almost half of American babies start life behind and never have the support to catch up. 45% of our children are born with risk factors for further learning and development deficiencies. Only 37% are immunized by age 2 against major childhood diseases. Just over half of our preschool children are read to daily (53%) and less than half are involved in discussions about family history or ethnic heritage (43%). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal #2 is needed because only 88% of our teenagers complete high school. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals #3 and #5 are needed because fewer than one in five 4th and 12th graders and one in four 8th graders understand complex mathematics theory and problems, and similar figures have been found in measurements of reading ability. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal #7 is needed because only 50% of our high school students feel safe at school, 53% believe that other's misbehaviors interfer with their learning, and 18% have been offered drugs in school. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal #6 is needed because many Americans have only basic literacy. Only 52% can perform challenging literacy tasks in reading and arithmetic. The refocusing of the federal government on achievement grew out of the formal recognition that half of America's adults have mediocre basic literacy, which is not enough for them to reach their potential in the modern economy. </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. GOALS 2000--THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION EDUCATION PROGRAM <ul><li>The DAILY REPORT CARD of Monday, June 12, 1995 (Vol 4, No 341) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;GOALS 2000 is as significant as the launching of Sputnik. It is an initiative that redirects our focus in terms of improving the quality of education and life in this country. These goals provide our blueprint for meeting the challenges of the 21st century&quot;--LeGrande Baldwin, Lead Principal, Cluster 4, Maury School, Washington, D.C. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;For us, it's been helpful in several ways. First, it has helped clarify the education debate between and among educators. Second, it had given us admirable targets to shoot for. Third, GOALS 2000 had 'cleared the air' in terms of funding issues. Fourth, it has stimulated debate, hopefully placing education back on the forefront [of the national agenda].&quot;--Ralph Brauer, executive director, Bloomington, Ind.-based Transforming Schools Consortium. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;As someone who is responsible for elementary and secondary education, my personal philosophical perspective is that the federal government should not have a role in education. Education is a state responsibility. The legislation contains provisions that have philosophic underpinnings with which I don't agree.&quot;--Ovide Lamontagne, chairman, N.H. State Board of Education </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. GOALS 2000--THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION EDUCATION PROGRAM <ul><li>People are divided in their support for GOALS 2000. </li></ul><ul><li>Educational reform is necessary, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>but many don't want the federal government involved. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GOALS 2000 will allow us to compete with other countries. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Without the goals and standards that GOALS 2000 provides, we won't be able to rebuild our educational system and begin competing in the worldwide market. </li></ul></ul>