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From AQA to help EPQ students with referencing

From AQA to help EPQ students with referencing

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Harvard system power pointfinal Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Harvard Referencing System Version 1.0 Copyright © 2009 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.
  • 2. What is a Reference?
    • A way of showing that you have recognised another person’s work ideas or opinions and that you have acknowledged it in your work by referring to the source
    • This is often called citing a reference
    Version 1.0 Copyright © 2009 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.
  • 3. What is the Harvard System?
    • Developed in the USA
    • Most common system in use internationally
    • A flexible, simple, clear system both for author and reader
    • References are listed alphabetically in the bibliography and cited in the body of the text so no footnotes or chapter references needed
    Version 1.0 Copyright © 2009 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.
  • 4. Why Reference Your Work?
    • Acknowledge the work of other writers and researchers
    • Demonstrate your reading and research
    • Enable others to trace your sources easily and lead them on to further information
    • Part of the marking criteria
    • Provide a check against plagiarism
    • Meet copyright regulations
    Version 1.0 Copyright © 2009 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.
  • 5. When to Reference
    • When you ‘lift’ material directly from a source – for example – from a book or the internet
    • When you take an idea, theory, argument or viewpoint from a source that is not your own
    • When you summarise or paraphrase another person’s work
    Version 1.0 Copyright © 2009 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.
  • 6. Referencing in Context Journal Article Version 1.0 Copyright © 2009 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. Book Web Page Research, read and make notes
    • Your Project
    • Evidence to support your own ideas or arguments
    • Paraphrase
    • Direct Quote
    • Acknowledge Sources Used
    • Briefly in your text
    • and/or
    • In full at the end
  • 7. How to Reference
    • You need to reference in two places:
        • Brief details – these will go into the main body of your assignment
        • Full details – these will go at the end of your assignment
    Version 1.0 Copyright © 2009 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.
  • 8. Definitions
    • Citing – this is the process of formal recognition, within your text, of the resources from which you have gathered your information
    • A Citation – this is a passage or phrase quoted within your text which is supported with evidence of its source
    • Bibliography – a list of the sources that you have used
    • Reference – a detailed description of the item from which you have obtained your information
    Version 1.0 Copyright © 2009 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.
  • 9. Citing References within your Text
    • Single Author, Single Source
    • Each time a reference is made to a book, document or other source from the author, put the reference in ( ) brackets immediately afterwards
    • Example - Life as a Jew under German rule during the Second World War was explored (Frank 1942)
    • If the author’s name occurs naturally in the text then only the year is quoted in the brackets
    • Example - In her diary, Anne Frank, described life as a Jew under German rule during the Second World War (1942)
    Version 1.0 Copyright © 2009 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.
  • 10. Citing References within your Text
    • Single Author, Single Source
    • If quoting from a specific section of a single source of the author’s work, also include the page number(s) of the quote
    • Example - There are no greater enemies on earth than the Germans and the Jews (Frank 1942, 74) or (Frank 1942:74)
    Version 1.0 Copyright © 2009 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.
  • 11. Citing References within your Text
    • Single Author, Multiple Source
    • If sourcing from more than one publication from a single author, referencing can take place as before providing none of the sources originate from the same year
    • Examples
    • The far reaching implications of our understanding of evolution were explored (Dawkins,1976)
    • Arguments for God’s existence were challenged by Dawkins (2006 )
    • These two sources are different (The Selfish Gene followed by The God Delusion), but because they were published in different years, the full reference at the end of the assignment will distinguish between the two sources
    Version 1.0 Copyright © 2009 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.
  • 12. Citing References within your Text
    • Where multiple sources are used from the same year, the sources are identified by adding a, b, c… after the date
    • Example – In 1997 several publications were produced of Betrand Russell’s collected papers –
    • The Collected Papers of Betrand Russell, vol 2
    • Collected Papers, vol 11
    • If more than one of these sources is used they would be cited in the text as (1997a) and (1997b) and then identified by year and letter in the full reference at the end of the assignment
    Version 1.0 Copyright © 2009 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.
  • 13. Citing References within Text
    • Multiple Authors
    • If there are three or fewer authors then put in all their names
    • If there are more than three authors then put in only the first surname followed by ‘ et al ’
    • Examples
    • A ‘Freakonomic’ approach argued by Levitt and Dubner (2005)
    • Summarised by Lichtenberger et al (2004)
    Version 1.0 Copyright © 2009 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.
  • 14. Examples of Citation
    • If the author’s name occurs naturally in the text:
    • The year should follow in () brackets
    • Example – The gene’s eye view of Darwinism is implicit in the writings of R.A. Fisher (1930)
    • For a source that is cited within another book:
    • If the source referred to is in another work, cite both the original source and the secondary source
    • Example – Larson and Witham (1998, quoted in Dawkins 2006, p.127) set out their reasons for the continuing the teaching of evolution in public schools
    Version 1.0 Copyright © 2009 AnnQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.
  • 15. References of images and diagrams
    • All externally sourced images and diagrams must be referenced
    • Enter the title underneath the image or diagram
    • Add, in brackets, the author, date of publication and page number
    • Where there is no author use the title of the source i.e. book, website etc.
    Version 1.0 Copyright © 2009 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.
  • 16. References of images and diagrams
    • Example 1 (Book/Publication):
    Version 1.0 Copyright © 2009 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. Figure 1: Risk assessment guidelines for lifting and lowering (Essentials of Health and Safety at Work 2008, 48)
  • 17. References of images and diagrams Version 1.0 Copyright © 2009 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. Example 2 (Website): Figure 1: Marriages, United Kingdom, 1951 – 2007 (Office for National Statistics website 2009)
  • 18. Incorporating Quotations in Text
    • Quotations up to 2 lines in length can be incorporated straight into the body of the text
    • Use quotation marks around the quote
    • In brackets () add the author’s name, the year of publication and the page number
    • Example
    • Moss (1998, 63) stated that “ the greatest impact of human use of land is the removal of the original vegetation cover”
    Version 1.0 Copyright © 2009 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.
  • 19. Incorporating Quotations in Text
    • Longer Quotations
    • Should be indented in a separate paragraph
    • Quotation marks are not necessary
    • Example
    • Sneve and Saint James (2003, 17) illustrated the wisdom of the sayings of the Native Americans, who had no written language:
    • It was our belief that the love of possessions is a weakness to be overcome. Therefore the child must early learn the beauty of generosity.
    • 1911, Ohiyesa, Santee Physician and Author
    Version 1.0 Copyright © 2009 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.
  • 20. Incorporating Quotations in Text
    • If part of a quotation is omitted, this may be indicated in the quotation by the use of three dots:
    • Example
    • Greenwood (1990,36) reflected that “Quakers … eschewed the use of ‘saint’ or ‘bishop’ or ‘abbot’ in place names”
    Version 1.0 Copyright © 2009 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.
  • 21. Examples of techniques for introducing Direct Quotes
    • As Kant … states…believes…suggests…indicates …points out…observes…explains…argues… outlines…contradicts…proposes…advances… intimates, “………”
    • For example, Descartes has argued that “………”
    • According to Marx , “………”
    • Sartre suggests…believes…contends that “………”
    Version 1.0 Copyright © 2009 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.
  • 22. Referencing at the end of your assignment
    • There are two processes that must be undertaken:
    • Reference List – a single alphabetical list of everything that has been specifically mentioned in your assignment
    • Bibliography – a list of the resources you have researched from but not specifically referred to in your assignment
    Version 1.0 Copyright © 2009 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.
  • 23. Guidance on Creating a Bibliography / Reference List
    • List references in alphabetical order by author surname
    • Enter author or editor surname first, followed by the initials
    • Include all authors listed on the title page of each source, do not abbreviate by using et al , as is good practice in the main body of the assignment
    • If the book has an editor rather than an author then enter (ed.) after the name and initials
    Version 1.0 Copyright © 2009 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.
  • 24. Guidance on Creating a Bibliography / Reference List
    • Where necessary use the name of the corporate body or institution responsible for gathering the information in a publication or on a website - e.g. Office for National Statistics or Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF)
    • Edition – only include if you are not using the first edition e.g. (3 rd edn.)
    • Title – this should be in italics and include the title and subtitle (if relevant) separated by a colon
    Version 1.0 Copyright © 2009 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.
  • 25. Guidance on Creating a Bibliography / Reference List
    • Series – Information relating to a series of publications or to periodicals should be included at the end of the entry in the reference list or bibliography
    • Pages – page references are normally the final part of the reference
    • Information required for referencing is normally found on the title page and the back of the title page
    Version 1.0 Copyright © 2009 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.
  • 26. Referencing Types
    • All sources used should be referenced. The following is a list of the possible source types:
    • Books
    • Periodical Articles
    • Web Pages
    • Internet Images
    • Newspaper Articles
    • CD-ROM
    • Videos / DVDs
    • Personal Communication
    Version 1.0 Copyright © 2009 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.
  • 27. Referencing Books (Summary)
    • Entries for books in the reference list should contain the following information (in the order set out here):
    • Author / Editor
    • Year of publication (in brackets)
    • Title (in italics)
    • Edition - if not the first edition
    • Place of publication: Publisher
    • Series – if appropriate (rarely used)
    • Page / pages
    Version 1.0 Copyright © 2009 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.
  • 28. Referencing Books (Summary)
    • Examples
    • Dawkins, R (2006) The Selfish Gene (30 th edn.) New York: Oxford University Press, 269–271
    • Baynes, N.H. ed. (1942) The Speeches of Adolf Hitler, vol. 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    • Russell, B. (1997b). Collected Papers, vol.11, ed. J.C. Slater and P. Kollner. London: Routledge
    Version 1.0 Copyright © 2009 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.
  • 29. Referencing Chapters
    • Process for referencing a specific chapter:
    • Author / Editor
    • Year of publication (in brackets)
    • Title of Chapter (in quotation marks)
    • Author / Editor of book (surname and initials)
    • Title of book (in italics)
    • Place of publication: Publisher
    • Page / pages
    • Example
    • Maynard Smith, J. (1972) ‘Game theory and the evolution of fighting’, in: Maynard Smith J. On Evolution. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. 8-28
    Version 1.0 Copyright © 2009 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.
  • 30. Referencing Periodical Articles
    • Process for referencing periodical articles:
    • Author
    • Year of publication (in brackets)
    • Title of article
    • Title of Periodical (in italics)
    • Volume, number/part (in brackets)
    • Page number/s (p. for a single page, pp. for more than one page)
    • Example
    • Burgess, J.W. (1976) Social Spiders. Scientific American 234 (3), pp. 101-6.
    Version 1.0 Copyright © 2009 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.
  • 31. Referencing Web Pages
    • Process for referencing Web Pages:
    • Author / Editor
    • Year of publication (in brackets)
    • Title (in italics, underlined or in bold)
    • The word Internet, in square brackets [ ] followed by a comma
    • Edition - if relevant (e.g. update 4 or version 3.7) followed by a full stop
    • Place of publication – followed by a comma
    Version 1.0 Copyright © 2009 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.
  • 32. Referencing Web Pages
    • Publisher (if known) – followed by a full stop
    • The phrase Available at (or from) – followed by a colon
    • The internet address - in chevrons < >
    • The word Accessed and the date that the web page was viewed by you – in square brackets [ ] followed by a full stop
    • Example
    • Holloway,R (2003) ‘Recovering Christian’ Book Review [Internet], London, Guardian. Available at: <http://books.guardian.co.uk/reviews/scienceandnature/0,6121,894941,00html> [Accessed 26 March 2005].
    Version 1.0 Copyright © 2009 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.
  • 33. Referencing Internet Images
    • Entries for books in the reference list should contain the following information (in the order set out here):
    • Author / Artist
    • Year of publication – if given (in brackets)
    • Title of image (in italics)
    • [Online Image]
    • Available at: URL
    • (Accessed: date)
    Version 1.0 Copyright © 2009 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.
  • 34. Referencing Internet Images
    • Example
    • Escher M.C. (1960) Ascending and Descending [Online image]. Available at: < http://www.math. technion.ac.il/~rl/M.C.Escher/2/escher-stair.gif> (Accessed: 21 February 2010).
    Version 1.0 Copyright © 2009 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.
  • 35. Referencing Newspaper Articles
    • Author (if no author, cite title of paper in italics first)
    • Year of publication (in brackets)
    • Article title (in quotation marks)
    • Newspaper title (italics)
    • Day and month
    • Page / pages
    • Example
    • Sergeant, Harriet (2010) “Schools are churning out the unemployable”. The Sunday Times, 21 February, p.19.
    Version 1.0 Copyright © 2009 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.
  • 36. Referencing a CD-ROM
    • Author
    • Title of article
    • Title of periodical/newspaper (italics)
    • [CD-ROM]
    • Numeration (volume and page number)
    • Example
    • Woodhead, Chris. Keeping the Faith. The Sunday Times, [CD-ROM], 19 November 2006, Feature 1.
    Version 1.0 Copyright © 2009 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.
  • 37. Referencing Videos / DVDs
    • Title (in italics)
    • Year of distribution (in brackets)
    • Director
    • Videocassette or DVD [in square brackets]
    • Place of distribution: Distribution Company
    • Example
    • The French Connection (1971) Directed by William Friedkin. [DVD] Los Angeles, 20 th Century Fox
    Version 1.0 Copyright © 2009 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.
  • 38. Referencing Personal Communication
    • Name of speaker/author/sender
    • Year (in brackets)
    • Medium (e.g. conversation / letter / phone call / e-mail / text / twitter)
    • Recipient
    • Day and Month
    • Example
    • Blair, T. (2006) e-mail to Gordon Brown, 17 March
    Version 1.0 Copyright © 2009 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.
  • 39. Plagiarism
    • What is Plagiarism?
    • The practice of sourcing someone else’s work or ideas and passing them off as one’s own
    • Copying, infringing copyright, piracy, theft, stealing
    • The process of reusing material found in any media
    • With the advent of the World Wide Web and the ease with which material is now available, plagiarism is now much more common
    Version 1.0 Copyright © 2009 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.
  • 40. Avoiding Plagiarism
    • In order to avoid plagiarism you must always give credit when:
    • You use another person’s ideas, opinions or theories
    • You use facts, statistics, graphics, drawings, music, or any other type of information or resource that would not be classified as Common Knowledge
    • You use quotations from another person’s spoken or written word
    • You paraphrase another person’s spoken or written word
    Version 1.0 Copyright © 2009 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.