FUNESTO, Quirina Victoria
Between 1941-1945, Philippine
Literature was interrupted in its
development when the Philippines were
again conquered by another foreign
country, Japan. Philippine Literature in
English came to a halt. Except for the
TRIBUNE and the PHILIPPINE
REVIEW, almost all newspapers in
English were stopped by the Japanese.
This had an advantageous effect on
Filipino Literature, which experienced
renewed attention because writers in English
turned to writing in Filipino. Juan
Laya, who use to write in English turned to
Filipino because of the strict prohibitions of
the Japanese regarding any writing in
English. The weekly LIWAYWAY was placed
under strict surveillance until it was
managed by Japanese named “Ishiwara”.
*In other words, Filipino Literature was
given a break during this period. Many
wrote plays, poems, short stories, etc.
Topics and themes were often about life
in the provinces.
As many as 10,000 people died on the bataan death
Japan launched a surprise attack on the
Clark Air Base in Pampanga, Philippines
onDecember 8, 1941, just ten hours
after theattack on Pearl Harbor . Aerial
bombardment was followed bylandings of
ground troops on Luzon. The defending
Philippineand United States troops were
under the command of GeneralDouglas
MacArthur Under the pressure of superior
numbers,the defending forces withdrew to
theBataan Peninsula and tothe island
of Corregidor at the entrance to Manila Bay.
In the midst of fear and chaos, thefarmers of
Pampanga banded together and created local
brigades for their protection. Luis Taruc, Juan
Feleo,Castro Alejandrino, and other leaders
of organized farmers held a meeting inFebruary
1942 in Cabiao, Nueva Ecija.In that meeting, they
agreed to fight theJapanese as a unified guerrilla
army.Another meeting was held the
followingmonth, where in representatives
fromTarlac, Pampanga and Nueva Ecija thre shed
out various details regarding their
organization, which they agreed tocall "
Hukbo ng Bayan Laban sa mgaHapon
" or HUKBALAHAP
The Puppet Government
On October 14, 1943, thedeclaration of
thePhilippine Independencewas read
and the “PuppetRepublic” was
formallyinaugurated. Jose P. Laurelwas
declared as thePresident of the
Ancient literature (until 794)
Kana- syllabic Japanese scripts, a part
of the Japanese writing
system contrasted with
the logographic Chinese
characters known in Japan as kanji.
There are three kana scripts: modern
cursive hiragana, modern
angular katakana, and the old syllabic
use of kanji known as man’yōgana that
was ancestral to both.
Classical literature (794–
Classical Japanese literature generally refers to
literature produced during the Heian period, referred
to as the golden era of art and literature.
Genji Monogatari (early 11th century) by a woman
named Murasaki Shikibu is considered the pre-
eminent masterpiece of Heian fiction and an early
example of a work of fiction in the form of a novel.
Makura no Sōshi (990s), the latter written by
Murasaki Shikibu's contemporary and rival, Sei
Shōnagon, as an essay about the life, loves, and
pastimes of nobles in the Emperor's court
The iroha poem, now one of two standard orderings
for the Japanese syllabary, was also developed
during the early part of this period.
Medieval literature (1185–
Work from this period is notable for its insights into
life and death, simple lifestyles, and redemption
The Tale of the Heike (1371), an epic account of the
struggle between the Minamoto and Tairaclans for control
of Japan at the end of the twelfth century. Other important
tales of the period include Kamo no
Chōmei's Hōjōki (1212) and Yoshida
Kenkō's Tsurezuregusa (1331).
Kamo no Chōmei's Hōjōki (An Account of My Hut or The
Ten Foot Square Hut) (1212) and Yoshida
Kenkō's Tsurezuregusa (1331).
Other notable genres in this period were renga, or linked
verse, and Noh theater. Both were rapidly developed in
the middle of the 14th century, the early Muromachi period
Yomihon is a type of Japanese book
from the Edo period
Often described as moralistic, the
books also featured plot elements taken
from Chinese and Japanese historical
literature and records. The characters
often included witches and fairy
princesses. They were highly intellectual
and were inaccessible to most readers.
FANTASY/ HISTORICAL ROMANCE
Ugetsu Monogatari ("Tales of Rain
and the Moon") and Harusame
Monogatari ("Tales of Spring
Rain") are central to the canon
of Japanese literature.
*Genres included horror, crime
stories, morality stories, comedy, and
pornography—often accompanied by
colorful woodcut prints.
Modern literature (1868–1945)
The Meiji period marks the re-opening of
Japan to the West, and a period of rapid
industrialization. The introduction
of European literature brought free verse
into the poetic repertoire. It became
widely used for longer works embodying
new intellectual themes.
- is a literary genre in Japanese
literature used to describe a type of
confessional literature where the events
in the story correspond to events in the
author's life. From its beginnings, the "I-
Novel" was a genre that also was meant
to expose the dark side of society or the
dark side of the author's life.
The Setting Sun is a Japanese novel by Osamu Dazai. It was
published in 1947 and is set in Japan after World War II. In the
story, the author brings up a number of social and philosophical
problems of that time period.
*Popular fiction, non-fiction, and children's literature all
flourished in urban Japan in the 1980s. Many popular works fell
between "pure literature" and pulp novels, including all sorts of
historical serials, information-packed docudramas, science
fiction, mysteries, detective fiction, business stories, war
journals, and animal stories. Non-fiction covered everything
from crime to politics. Although factual journalism
predominated, many of these works were interpretive, reflecting
a high degree of individualism. Children's works re-emerged in
the 1950s, and the newer entrants into this field, many of them
younger women, brought new vitality to it in the 1980s.
Manga (comic books) have penetrated
almost every sector of the popular market.
They include virtually every field of human
interest, such as a multivolume high-school
history of Japan and, for the adult
market, a manga introduction to
economics, and pornography. Manga
represented between 20 and 30 percent of
annual publications at the end of the
1980s, in sales of some ¥400 billion per