Assessments that are on-going and are to see how a student is comprehending the information. Many of these are informal. This includes quizzes and reviews. It can also be as simple as just seeing how the student is performing in class and seeing if they understand the material. This helps the teacher to see which areas they need to do more work in. (Formative vs. Summative)
Thisis done at the end of a topic or at the end of the year to see how the program has done. These are done at a predetermined time. These can be state standardized tests, exams, SAT or ACT, and others. These are also done to see what areas the student needs work in. (Formative vs. Summative)
Put the students into groups and number each student in the group from one to max number in group. Have the groups think about a question or problem, and then call out a number randomly, and that person has to answer in each group. This way each student has to know and understand the answer, because they do not know which number is going to be called. (Numbered Heads Together)
This makes the students discuss what they have learned with others Group learning methods encourage students to take greater responsibility for their own learning and to learn from one another, as well as from the instructor (Terenzini & Pascarella, 1994). Cooperative learning has been shown to increase student achievement, race relations, acceptance of special needs students, and self-esteem (Slavin, 1995). (Numbered Heads Together)
Have the students make out a chart that says what I know, what I want to know, and what I learned at the top of three columns. Have the students fill out the first two columns before you start working on the topic and have them fill out the last column during and after the topic is covered. These can be done individually or as a whole classroom This procedure helps students activate background knowledge, combine new information with prior knowledge, and learn technical vocabulary related to a thematic unit. Students become curious and more engaged in the learning process, and teachers can introduce complex ideas and technical vocabulary in a nonthreatening way. (Tompkins 2010)
This helps students activate background knowledge, learn academic vocabulary, and connect information This method helps students become more interested in what they are learning and helps involves them in the learning process. (Tompkins 2010)K W LWhat you know? What do you want to What did you learn? know?
Lecture is when an instructor is the central focus of information transfer. Typically, and instructor will stand before a class and present information for the students to learn. Very little exchange occurs between the instructor and the students during a lecture.
Formal Lecture Used when presenting information to a large audience One way communication from instructor to students Student participation is limited Informal Lecture Involves active student participation Achieved through the use of questions Effective two way communication process Preferred over formal lecture
Lectures are straightforward way to impact knowledge to students quickly. Instructors also have a greater control over what is being taught in the classroom because they are the sole source of information. Students who are auditory learners find that lectures appeal to their learning style. Logically, a lecture is often easier to create than other methods of instruction. Lecture is a method familiar to most teachers because it was typically the way they were taught. Because most college courses are lecture-based, students gain experience in this predominant instructional delivery method.
Students strong in learning styles other than auditory learning will have a harder time being engaged by lectures. Students who are weak in note-taking skills will have trouble understanding what they should remember from lectures. Students can find lectures boring causing them to lose interest. Students may not feel that they are able to ask questions as they arise during lectures. Teachers may not get a real feel for how much students understand because there is not much opportunity for exchanges during lectures.
Formative vs. Summative Assessments. Classroom Assessment. Retrieved January 23, 2012, from http://fcit.usf.edu/assessment/basic/basica.htmlKelly, M. (n.d.). Lecture pros and cons. Retrieved from http://712educators.about.com/od/lessonplans/p/lecture.htmMethod of instruction. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.drillpad.netNumbered Heads Together. Teacher Vision. Retrieved January 23, 2012, from http://www.teachervision.fen.com/group-work/cooperative-learning/48538.htmlTompkins, G.E. (2010) K-W-L Charts. Education.com. Retrieved January 23, 2012, from http://www.education.com/reference/article/K-W-L-charts-classroom/