2. Present Perfect TenseFORM: have / has + past participleAffirmative: I have seen the film before. She has seen the film before.Interrogative: Have you seen the film before? Has she seen the film before?Negative: They haven’t seen the film before. He hasn’t seen the film before.
3. I have You have He has = Basri has She has = Siti has We have = You and I have They have = basri & Siti have It has = a cat has
4. Uses of the PresentPerfect 1- Recent events: It is used to describe recent events without a definite time. The idea of time or place in the speaker’s mind makes the event recent. Time expressions may emphasize recentness: just, recently, lately
5. Why are they so happy?They have just won a prize.So, they are really pleased
6. 2- Personal experiences: It is used to express personal experiences, there is not a definite time given. The time expressions ever and never are very often used with this meaning
7. I have never been to Japan. Have you ever been there?
8. 3- It is used to express actions that started in the past and continue to the present. The time period is not finished. We use for and since with this meaning. We use for with periods of time and since with points of time.
9. I haven’t eaten sinceyesterday morning.I am really hungry
10. I haven’t drunk anything fortwo days.I am terribly thirsty
11. Simple Past vs. Present PerfectWhen do we use each tense inEnglish?
12. Remember: Grammar has meaning! Different grammar tenses are used in different situations or contexts and they carry different meanings.For example . . .
13. Use the simple Use the present past for action perfect for that happened in action that the past and is: started in the past, but . . . over, done, finished! is still true today.
14. The simple past always refers to an action or situation that is finished. The present perfect connects the past and the present. It is used to show that an action or situation in the past: - continues today, OR - might happen again
15. Compare the meaning of these two sentences:1. Sara lived in Boston for 5 years.2. Sara has lived in Boston for 5 years.The first sentence uses:Simple PastThe second sentence uses:Present Perfect
16. Sara lived in Boston for 5 years.Meaning: by using the simple pasttense, we mean that Sara startedliving in Boston 5 years ago . . .AND . . . then she moved!Now she lives in a different city,like Paris.Remember, the simple past is usedfor a situation that is over,finished, done!
17. Sara has lived in Boston for 5 years. Meaning: by using the present perfect tense, we mean that Sara began living in Boston 5 years ago. . .AND . . . she still lives there.Remember, present perfect:connects the past with the present.
18. Use the simple Use the present past with time perfect with words like: time words like:• yesterday • recently/lately• last Saturday, week, • since … month, year, etc. • so far this• _______ ago week, month, year, etc.• when I was…• in 1990 (past date)
19. Additional notes about present perfect:• We often use present perfect to say that something happened sooner than expected.Example:Jan: Don’t forget to mail that letter.Tom: I’ve already mailed it.
20. • We often use present perfect to say that we have never done something at any time in the past.Example: I have never visited London. But someday, I hope to travel there.
21. • We often use present perfect with the expression: “This is the first time.”Example: Leonard is nervous. This is the first time he has flown on an airplane!
22. • We often use present perfect with “ever” and “never.” Example: Patricia: Have you ever played tennis? Linda: No, I’ve never played before, but I would like to learn!
23. Remember! If you are talking about a specific time in the past (yesterday, last month, etc.), you cannot use the present perfect.In these cases, use the simple past.
24. Let’s practice! Present Continuous or Present Simple1. When I was a child, I have swum / swam a lot.2. So far this week, we has studied / have studied / studied a lot.3. Theo has been / was very sick recently.4. I had / have had a terrible headache yesterday.5. It has rained / have rained / rained a lot lately.6. They have gotten / got / has gotten married ten years ago.7. I go / went / has gone / have gone to Balboa Park many times. (possibly again in the future)8. My family has taken / took / have taken a vacation last year. Go ahead
26. You are wrong!Go back and read again!Simple past Present perfect