IPv6:What, Why and How?       Gihan Dias  University of Moratuwa                    World IPv6 Launch - 6/6/2012
What is an IP Address?
An IP address is a number used to identify a computer on a networkEvery computer on the net must have an IP address       ...
How many IP addresses        do we have?The current version of IP (IPv4) has about 4 billion addresses  and about the same...
The Asia Pacific Network Information Centre  (APNIC) has reached the last block of  Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) add...
What do we do?
Use IP version 6 (IPv6)
IPv6IPv6 is the successor to IPv4Defined in 1996  over 15 years agouses 128-bit addresses  more than enough for any concei...
IPv6 SupportIPv6 is supported by all operating  systems  Windows  Linux  OS/X, iOS  Android, etc.Supported by all router /...
butIPv6 is hardly used today
Why?
Why is IPv6 not in use?Not supported by some low-end devicesLimitations in early support by Windows  XP, etc.Some applicat...
Why Dont we Need IPv6?
NAT
What is NAT?Network Address TranslationComputers in an organisation use private IP addresses  e.g. beginning with 192.168....
NAT: Network Address Translation                rest of                         local network               Internet      ...
Problems with NATBreaks the core Internet concept of  "one device, one address"Devices cant talk directly to one-anotherNo...
Main Problem with NATServers cant use NAT  they need to be accessible from outsideNeed a public IP address for each server...
Advantage of NATDevices cant be reached from outsideBetter security  is it?  It is quite easy for hackers to get to NATTed...
Current SituationNo need for panicISPs in Sri Lanka have enough IPv4s to  last for another couple of years
NowOnly one or two addresses per customer  so what if you want to run five servers?ADSL customers will have to share IPs  ...
from TodayMajor providers (Google, Facebook, etc.) will be on IPv6.  and many others  major local sites to follow soonHuge...
What are my Options?
Do NothingUse NAT for my clients  need one public IPUse available public IPv4 for servers  may need to share addresses  be...
Do Nothing (cont.)Need gateway to access v6 Internet  who provides it?Need gateway for v6 clients to access your servers  ...
Dual StackRun both v4 and v6 on your computersManagement is complicatedPerformance and Security issues
v6-only NetworkNeed gateway to connect to v4 world  NAT64Servers still need public IPv4 addressesMay be best solution for ...
Dual Stack Servers and v4           ClientsOnly a small number of servers, so easier  to manage dual stackYour services ar...
SummaryIPv6 is hereLaunched today  wont go awayCant ignore it  maybe you can ignore it for a yearBut will need to transition
Gihan Diasgihan@uom.lk
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IPv6: What Why and How

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IPv6: What Why and How

  1. 1. IPv6:What, Why and How? Gihan Dias University of Moratuwa World IPv6 Launch - 6/6/2012
  2. 2. What is an IP Address?
  3. 3. An IP address is a number used to identify a computer on a networkEvery computer on the net must have an IP address phone TV refrigerator light
  4. 4. How many IP addresses do we have?The current version of IP (IPv4) has about 4 billion addresses and about the same number of devicesSo we are running out of IPv4 addresses
  5. 5. The Asia Pacific Network Information Centre (APNIC) has reached the last block of Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) addresses in its available pool.The remaining IPv4 space will be ‘rationed’ to network operators to be used as essential connectivity with next-generation IPv6 addresses.“From this day onwards, IPv6 is mandatory for building new Internet networks and services.” - APNIC Director General Paul Wilson
  6. 6. What do we do?
  7. 7. Use IP version 6 (IPv6)
  8. 8. IPv6IPv6 is the successor to IPv4Defined in 1996 over 15 years agouses 128-bit addresses more than enough for any conceivable purpose
  9. 9. IPv6 SupportIPv6 is supported by all operating systems Windows Linux OS/X, iOS Android, etc.Supported by all router / switch manufacturers Cisco, Juniper, etc.
  10. 10. butIPv6 is hardly used today
  11. 11. Why?
  12. 12. Why is IPv6 not in use?Not supported by some low-end devicesLimitations in early support by Windows XP, etc.Some applications dont support itThe Main Reason? I dont need to use it
  13. 13. Why Dont we Need IPv6?
  14. 14. NAT
  15. 15. What is NAT?Network Address TranslationComputers in an organisation use private IP addresses e.g. beginning with 192.168.A NAT translates these addresses into one or more public IP addresses100s of computers can use one public IP address
  16. 16. NAT: Network Address Translation rest of local network Internet (e.g., home network) 10.0.0/24 10.0.0.1 10.0.0.4 10.0.0.2 138.76.29.7 10.0.0.3 All datagrams leaving local Datagrams with source or destination in this networkave same single source NAT IP address: 138.76.29.7, different source port numbers have 10.0.0/24 address for source, destination (as usual)
  17. 17. Problems with NATBreaks the core Internet concept of "one device, one address"Devices cant talk directly to one-anotherNo inbound servicesSome applications won’t work e.g. IPsec, WINS
  18. 18. Main Problem with NATServers cant use NAT they need to be accessible from outsideNeed a public IP address for each server or some kind of address sharingSo if you have lots of servers, you need lots of IP addresses where do you get them from?
  19. 19. Advantage of NATDevices cant be reached from outsideBetter security is it? It is quite easy for hackers to get to NATTed machines via e-mail, web, etc.NAT provides only marginal security
  20. 20. Current SituationNo need for panicISPs in Sri Lanka have enough IPv4s to last for another couple of years
  21. 21. NowOnly one or two addresses per customer so what if you want to run five servers?ADSL customers will have to share IPs 3G customers dont get a public IP even now
  22. 22. from TodayMajor providers (Google, Facebook, etc.) will be on IPv6. and many others major local sites to follow soonHuge numbers of clients – starting from China and Japan) will be on IPv6They need to access youYou need to access them
  23. 23. What are my Options?
  24. 24. Do NothingUse NAT for my clients need one public IPUse available public IPv4 for servers may need to share addresses beg your ISP for addresses buy addresses
  25. 25. Do Nothing (cont.)Need gateway to access v6 Internet who provides it?Need gateway for v6 clients to access your servers who provides it?No direct device-to-device communication may miss out on new services
  26. 26. Dual StackRun both v4 and v6 on your computersManagement is complicatedPerformance and Security issues
  27. 27. v6-only NetworkNeed gateway to connect to v4 world NAT64Servers still need public IPv4 addressesMay be best solution for a new network some applications may still not work
  28. 28. Dual Stack Servers and v4 ClientsOnly a small number of servers, so easier to manage dual stackYour services are available to the entire InternetClients go through NAT64 still cant use device-to-device services
  29. 29. SummaryIPv6 is hereLaunched today wont go awayCant ignore it maybe you can ignore it for a yearBut will need to transition
  30. 30. Gihan Diasgihan@uom.lk

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