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Wiriting report
 

Wiriting report

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Report Writing training course. course duration is 12hrs in 02 days tailored according to the client needs.

Report Writing training course. course duration is 12hrs in 02 days tailored according to the client needs.

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    Wiriting report Wiriting report Presentation Transcript

    • Gihan AboueleishWIRITING REPORT
    • OUTLINES What makes a good report? Clarity and Structure Figures and Tables (floats) Technical Issues Further reading Conclusions Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 2
    • BEFORE WE STARTDiscussion : what you find most difficult in writing a report… Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 3
    • THE PURPOSE.... The report exists to provide the reader with useful information It succeeds if it effectively communicates the information to the intended audience It fails otherwise!! Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 4
    • TO SUCCEED... The report must be  Clear  Well structured, clear, concise, suitable for the intended audience  Professional  statisticallycorrect, correctly spelled, produced with a decent word processor  Well illustrated  illustrations that aid understanding, integrated with text Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 5
    • VIDEO “9.30MIN” The Key Forms of Business Writing: Reports Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 6
    • HOW WE COMMUNICATE3• CVs, Resumes• Email, Web site, FAQs• Letters, Newsletters, Brochures, Articles, Catalogs• Advertisements, Notice Board, Pamphlets, Signs, Press Release• Presentations, multimedia, talks• Reports, Manuals, Proposals, Books Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 7
    • WHICH REPORTS? Sales Reports Inspection Reports Annual Reports Audit Reports Feasibility Reports Progress Reports White Papers Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 8
    • TECHNICAL WRITING REPORTS Proposals User Manuals Technical Manuals White Papers Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 9
    • CLASSIFICATION OF REPORTS Formal Reports and Informal Reports Information Reports Analytical Reports Recommendation Reports Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 10
    • ASSESSING THE AUDIENCE Any piece of written material is aimed at a specific audience:  Who are your readers? Professors, managers, engineers, scientists, or technicians? What terms will you have to define? What background information will you have to include?  Why is audience reading the document? Is the document supposed to inform or to convince?  How will they read your document? Will they read it straight through like a story or will they turn to specific sections? Based on http://www.writing.eng.vt.edu/workbooks/intro.html#audience Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 11
    • THE AUDIENCEOften 3 different audiences  The casual reader/big boss who wants the main message as painlessly as possible  The interested reader who wants more detail but doesn‟t want to grapple with all the gory technical details  The guru who wants the whole storyWriting Report - gihan aboueleish 12
    • WHAT TO DO?To address all 3 audiences effectively,  Include an abstract for the big boss  A main body for the interested non-specialist  A technical appendix for the guruThus, a structure emerges!Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 13
    • ELEMENTS OF STYLE: REPORT STRUCTURE There are no “set in stone” rules for the structure of your report but most reports will include some or all of the following***  Title Page  Abstract  Introduction  Experimental Method  Theory  Experimental Results  Discussion and Conclusion  References  Appendices of raw data and calculations where appropriate.***some sections have to be in a report Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 14
    • ELEMENTS OF STYLE: SOME KEY DOS AND DON’TSDO: DON’T: include an abstract that concisely summarises the  just list instructions on how to outcome of the experiment- perform the experiment including numbers!  give detailed arithmetic or use the appropriate tense-you are reporting on an experiment algebraic calculations that has been carried out in the  use jargon or undefined past abbreviations ensure all figures have  make excessive use of appropriate numbered captions personal style of “I” or “we” ensure you reference all source (but we often use impersonal material appropriately (see “we”!) later)  give long lists of experimental consider when words should results in the main text of the begin with a capital letter report-use appendices if really re-read and review your report necessary critically before handing in for marking Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 15
    • ELEMENTS OF STYLE: USE OUR TEMPLATE FOR REPORT WRITINGhttps://teachweb.ph.man.ac.uk/lab/info/year1/1stYearReportTemplate.doc Title first word starts with a capital Jack A Surname1 and (if joint) Jill Surname2 School of Physics and Astronomy The University of Manchester First Year Laboratory Report Nov 2003 This experiment was performed in collaboration with T Partnername. Abstract 16 Writing Report - gihan aboueleish
    • REPORT BODY Introduction  Purpose and Scope;Limitations, Assumptions, and Methods Background/History of the Problem Body  Presents and interprets data Conclusions and Recommendations References or Works Cited Appendixes  Interview transcripts, questionnaires, question tallies, printouts, and previous reports Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 17
    • TITLEShould be informative, “punchy”;Good  The perfidious polynomial (punchy, alliterative)  Diagnosing diabetes mellitus: how to test, who to test, when to test (dramatic, informative)Bad  Some bounds on the distribution of certain quadratic forms in normal random variables (boring, vague)  Performing round off analyses of statistical algorithms (boring, vague)Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 18
    • TABLE OF CONTENTS Shows the structure of the document and lets the reader navigate through the sections Include for documents more than a few pages long. Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 19
    • ABSTRACT/EXECUTIVE SUMMARYDescribes the problem and the solution in a few sentences. It will be all the big boss reads!Remember the 2 rules  Keep it short  State problem and solution Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 20
    • THE INTRODUCTION State the question, background the problem Describe similar work Outline the approach Describe the contents of the rest of the paper  in Section 2 we ...  in Section 3 we ... Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 21
    • FURTHER SECTIONS Describe  Data  Methods  Analyses  Findings Don‟t include too much technical detail Divide up into sections, subsections Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 22
    • CONCLUSIONS/SUMMARY Summarize what has been discovered Repeat the question Give the answer Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 23
    • APPENDIX This is where the technical details go. Be as technical as you like. Document your analysis so it can be. reproduced by others Include the data set if feasible Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 24
    • REFERENCES Always cite (i.e. give a reference) to other related work or facts/opinions that you quote. Never pass off the work of others as your own – this is plagiarism and is a very big academic crime!! Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 25
    • USING EXTERNAL SOURCES For many documents we write, we use external sources. How do you use sources?  Go straight to Wikipedia and copy?  Use a single authorities source?  Use multiple sources without telling?  Use an old report as template? All of these have elements of academic cheating (plagiarism). So is there a correct way to use external material? Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 26
    • FAMOUS EXAMPLES George Harrison Martin Luther King Ibrahim Al-Marashi Madonna The secret to creativity is knowing how to hide your sources Albert Einstein (1879 - 1955) US (German-born) physicist Copy from one, its plagiarism; copy from two, its research. Wilson Mizner (1876 - 1933) US screenwriter Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 27
    • HOW TO CITE In the text Seber and Wild (1989) state that….. In the references Seber, G.A.F and C.J. Wild. (1989). Nonlinear Regression. New York: Wiley. Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 28
    • WRITING CLEARLY Structure alone is not enough for clarity – you must also write clear sentences. Rules:  Write complete short sentences  Avoid jargon and cliché, strive for simplicity  One theme per paragraph  If a sentence contains maths, it still must make sense! Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 29
    • AGHHHH! He wrote Although solitary under normal prevailing circumstances, raccoons may congregate simultaneously in certain situations of artificially enhanced resource availability. He meant.. Raccoons live alone but come together to eat bait. Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 30
    • MATHS Good From the equation y  ax  b it follows that x  ( y  b) / a. Bad y  ax  b x  ( y  b) / aWriting Report - gihan aboueleish
    • FIGURES AND TABLES (FLOATS)Golden rules for Figures and Tables: Describe float in text (integration), make sure it matches description Place after the first mention in the text Make sure float conveys the desired message clearly: keep it simple! Provide informative captions Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 32
    • FIGURES Always label and give a caption under the figure Be aware of good graphics principles: avoid  chart junk  low data/ink ratio  unlabelled axes  broken axes  Misleading scales See Cleveland, “The Elements of Graphing Data”, “Visualising Data” Using a good graphics package (R!) helps enforce good practiceWriting Report - gihan aboueleish 33
    • African elephant Asian elephant 8 Human Giraffe Horse Chimpanzee Cow Donkey 6 Gorilla Sheep Pig Rhesus monkey Jaguar log(Animals$brain) BrachiosaurusBad! Potar monkeywolf Grey Goat Triceratops Kangaroo 4 Dipliodocus Cat Rabbit Mountain beaver 2 Guinea pig Mole Rat Golden hamster 0 Mouse 0 5 10 log(Animals$body) Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 34
    • African elephant Asian elephant 8 Human Giraffe Horse Donkey Chimpanzee Cow 6 Sheep Gorilla Log Brain weight (gm) Rhesus monkey Pig Jaguar Brachiosaurus Potar monkey Grey wolf Goat Triceratops Kangaroo 4 DipliodocusBetter! Cat Rabbit Mountain beaver 2 Guinea pig Mole Rat 0 Golden hamster Mouse 0 5 10 Log Body weight (kg) Figure 1. Plot of log Brain weights (gm) versus log body weights (kg) for 28 species Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 35
    • TABLES Always label and give a caption over the table Be aware of rules for good tables:  avoid vertical lines  don‟t have too many decimal places  compare columns not rowsWriting Report - gihan aboueleish 36
    • Multiple Prefix Symbol 1012 tera T 109 giga G Too busy 106 mega M 103 kilo K 10-1 deci d Multiple Prefix Symbol 1012 tera T Better 109 giga G 106 mega M 103 kilo K 10-1 deci dWriting Report - gihan aboueleish 37
    • Multiple 1012 109 106 103 10-1 HorizontalPrefix tera giga mega kilo deci hard to readSymbol T G M K d Multiple Prefix Symbol 1012 tera T Vertical 109 giga G easier to read 106 mega M 103 kilo K 10-1 deci d Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 38
    • Number of Time (secs) Processors Busy – too 1 28.35221 many DP’s 4 7.218812 8 3.634951 16 1.929347 Number of Time (secs) Processors Better 1 28.35 4 7.21 8 3.63 16 1.92Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 39
    • TECHNICAL ISSUES Sectioning Table of Contents Spelling and Grammar Choice of word processor Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 40
    • SECTIONING Proper division of your work into sections and subsections makes the structure clear and the document easy to follow Use styles in word/ sectioning commands in Latex begin{section}….end{section} Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 41
    • TABLE OF CONTENTS Provides “navigation aid” Make sure TOC agrees with main body of text If you use styles (Word) and sectioning commands (Latex) this will happen automatically Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 42
    • SPELLING AND GRAMMAR Use a style manual/dictionary if in doubt. Spell check!!!! Proofread!!!! He meant…  This technique can also be applied to the analysis of golf balls He typed….  This technique cam also by applies to the analysis or gold bills Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 43
    • CHOICE OF WORD PROCESSOR Word or Latex? My spin…..  Use Word for a short document with few figures and tables and little mathematics  Use Latex for a longer document with many figures and tables and lots of complicated maths. Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 44
    • FURTHER READING There are many excellent books giving good advice on technical writing. Two I like are Higham, Nicholas (1993) Handbook of writing for the Mathematical Sciences, Philadelphia, SIAM. Silyn-Roberts, Heather (2000). Writing for Science and Engineering: Papers Presentations and Reports. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinmann. Both discuss writing reports and giving verbal presentations. Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 45
    • CONCLUSIONS Structure is vital Write clearly Good clear simple illustrations Spellcheck and proofread Reference all material used or quoted Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 46
    • VIDEO “7.20MIN” Seven Steps to Effective Writing Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 47
    • ASSESSMENT OF REPORTS: CRITERIA All reports are assessed according to standard criteria relating to:  Presentation and Organisation  Use of English (spelling, grammar etc.)  Use of Figures, Tables and References  Clarity and Conciseness  Physics Content Each of these five areas is scored out of a maximum mark of 10, with a resulting total mark out of 50. Feedback should be provided from marker. Feedback is crucial in learning the art of writing reports. If you are unsure about something, ASK!! Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 48
    • ASSESSMENT OF REPORTS: CRITERIAWriting Report - gihan aboueleish 49
    • ASSESSMENT: EXAMPLES OF REAL REPORTS Activity:  You have been provided with two anonymous (but real!) reports, and are requested to grade each of them using the criteria in the previous slide. NO CONFERRING!!!  You will then submit your total mark using the „clickers‟.  We will look at the distribution of marks. Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 50
    • Report A: As submitted Please enter your mark out of 50.Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 51
    • Report B:As Submitted Please enter your mark out of 50.Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 52
    • REPORTS DISCUSSION Report A : Discussion Report B : Discussion Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 53
    • REPORT MARKING EXERCISE: CONCLUSIONSTwo general points emerge from this exercise:1. Even with rather detailed mark schemes, there will always be some variation between assessors!  In practice, this variation is hopefully not too large: marks are monitored in 1st year lab for “big” variations and, if necessary, reports are re-marked by the lab tutor.2. Appreciating the perspective of your audience (i.e. the person marking your report) is essential.  Hopefully you now appreciate that a poorly written/presented report can be quite irritating and difficult to read: don‟t put the person marking your report in a bad mood!  Marks can be gained/lost easily: pay attention to the basics of report writing…don‟t make silly mistakes: always re-read and revise your completed report. Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 54
    • USING EXTERNAL SOURCES For many documents we write, we use external sources. How do you use sources?  Go straight to Wikipedia and copy?  Use a single authorities source?  Use multiple sources without telling?  Use an old report as template? All of these have elements of academic cheating (plagiarism). So is there a correct way to use external material? Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 55
    • CONCLUSIONS Writing is a skill to learn Need practice Large set of rules, do‟s and don‟ts But it is very personal Use all the feedback (from lab reports, vacation essays, dissertations,…) Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 56
    • REFERENCE1. Business Communication, Kity O Locker and Stephen Kyo Kaczmarek, 20042. “A Decent Proposal” by John Fellows, www.sellingpower.com, 20023. Better Business Writing, The Sunday Times Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 57
    • Thank YouWriting Report - gihan aboueleish 58