“jobanalysis is the process of studying and collecting information relating to the operations and responsibility of a specific job” “ EDWIN FLIPPO “ “job analysis is a systematic exploration of activities within a job.it is a basic technical procedure ,one that is used to define the duties ,responsibilities and accountabilities of a job” “DAVID A.DECENZO and STEPHEN P.ROBBINS”
Job Analysis Determining duties and skill requirements of a ◦ job and the right kind of person. Job Description Job’s duties, responsibilities, reporting ◦ relationships, working conditions, and supervisory responsibilities. Job Specification Job’s “human requirements”, the requisite ◦ education, skills, personality, etc.
Recruitment and Selection Compensation Performance Appraisal Training Discovering Unassigned Duties EEO Compliance
Decide how you’ll use the information. .1 Review relevant background .2 information. Select representative positions. .3 Actually analyze the job. .4 Verify the job analysis information. .5 Develop a job description and job .6 specification.
Organization chart A chart that shows the organization wide distribution of work, with titles of each position and interconnecting lines that show who reports to and communicates to whom. Process chart A work flow chart that shows the flow of inputs to and outputs from a particular job.
Personal Job performance observation Interview Job data QuestionnaireCritical incidents Daily records Check list
Human Resource Planning Tasks Responsibilities Duties Recruitment Selection Training and Job Development Descriptions Performance Job AppraisalAnalysis Job Compensation and Specifications Benefits Safety and Health Employee and Labor Relations Knowledge Skills Abilities Legal Considerations Job Analysis for Teams
Employment Planning andthe Strategic Planning Process
MeaningIt is a logical sequence of job analysisJob design involves systematic attempt toorganize tasks ,duties and responsibilities intoa unit of work to achieve certain objective. Itis the division of total task to be performedinto manageable units-departments anddivisions and to provide for proper integration.
• The specification of individual taska) • The specification of methods of performing each taskb) • The combination of task into specific jobs to be assigned to individuals working into organizationc)
Organizational Environmental Behavioral factors factors factors• Characteristic • Employee • Feed back of task abilities and • Autonomy• Work flow availability • Use of• Ergonomics • Social and abilities• Work cultural • Variety practices expectations
What physical and mental tasks does the worker accomplish? When does the job have to be completed? Where is the job to be accomplished? How does the worker do the job? Why is the job done? What qualifications are needed to perform the job?
Contents Area of InformationJob title and location Name; of job and where it is located.Organizational relationship A brief explanation of the number of persons supervised (if applicable) and the job title(s) of the position(s) supervised. A statement concerning supervision received.Relation to other jobs; Describes and outlines the coordination required by the job.
Area of Information ContentsJob summary; Condensed explanation of the content of the job.Information concerning The content of this area variesjob requirements; greatly from job to job and from organization to organization. Typically it includes information on such topics as machines, tools, and materials; mental complexity and attention required;
A job description should be a formal, written document, usually from one to three pages long & include the following:Date written. Job Status (full-time or part-time; salary or wage). Position title. Job summary (a synopsis of the job responsibilities). Detailed list of duties and responsibilities.Supervision received (to whom the jobholder reports).
Supervision exercised, if any (who reports to this employee).Principal contacts (in and outside the organization).Related meetings to be attended and reports to be filed.Competency or position requirements.Required education and experience.Career mobility (position[s] for which job holder may qualify next).
a)Job rotation.b)Job enlargementc)Job enrichmentd)Self managing teams.e)High performance work design
Raisesintrinsic reward potential of job Beneficial to the organization Worker becomes competent in several jobs Improves interdepartmental co-operations Motivates employees Reduces boredom Develops wide skills among workers
No effect on employee enthusiasm and efficiency. Reduces interest in the job. No effect on relationships among tasks. Increases training cost and the flow of work affected
Job enlargement means increasing the scope of a job through extending the range of its job duties and responsibilities. This is also called horizontal job loading and is possible in the case of manual ,technical ,and clerical job holders. It does not increase the depth of a job
Beneficial to employees and management advantagesActs as a Meets psychologicalmotivator needs of workers
Success depends on psychology on employee LimitationsOppositions from unions Needs support of employee motivation
Self – directed work team Quality circle Production callSpecial purpose teams
Thismeans improving performance in an environment where positive and demanding goals are set. In many organizations , such high performance work design does not work effectively
Management must decide clearly what it needs in the firm of new technology or new methods of production and the results expected from its introduction Management sets goals and standards for success Multi-skilling is encouraged Self- managed teams or autonomous groups are established Support systems are provided for material supply
Managers and team leaders adopt a supportive rather than an autocratic style Thorough training is carried out as per assessment of training needs Payment system is designed with employee participation to fit their needs as well as those of management Payment mat be related to team performance , but with skill – based pay for individuals A” peer performance review” process may be used
”jobevaluation is a systematic and orderly process of determining the worth of a job in relation to other jobs.” “According to EDWIN B. FLIPPO”
Determines the relative worth of jobs Based on the analysis of the facts about job To bring a balanced wage structure Needs to be differentiated from job analysis and performance analysis.
Clearly indicates the relative worth of different jobs in an organization. Itestablishes a hierarchy of jobs and evolves a graduated wage scale for employee. Itis useful for introducing a satisfactory, rational and balanced wage structure in an organization. It promotes employees goodwill
It provides scientific base for promotions and transfers of workers. It avoids injustice to workers as regards wage payment, promotion and transfers. It removes vague feelings and suspicions of unfairness, favoritism. It makes promotions and transfers more easily acceptable. It removes grievances and disputes among employees
• Ranking or job comparison Non- • Grading or jobquantitative classification • Point ratingQuantitative • Factor comparison
Securing acceptance from employees Creating / forming job evaluation committee Finding /deciding the jobs to be evaluated Analyzing and preparing job description Selecting the method of evaluation Classifying jobs Installing he program Periodical review
Information sources Advantages Individual employees Quick, direct way to find Groups of employees overlooked information Supervisors with knowledge of the job Disadvantages Interview formats Distorted information Structured (Checklist) Unstructured
The job analyst and supervisor should work together to identify the workers who know the job best. Quickly establish rapport with the interviewee. Follow a structured guide or checklist, one that lists open- ended questions and provides space for answers. Ask the worker to list his or her duties in order of importance and frequency of occurrence. After completing the interview, review and verify the data.
Information source Advantages Have employees fill out ◦ Quick and efficient way ◦ questionnaires to gather information from large numbers of employees Questionnaire formats Structured checklists ◦ Disadvantages Opened-ended questions ◦ Expense and time ◦ consumed in preparing and testing the questionnaire
Information source Advantages ◦ Observing and noting the ◦ Provides first-hand physical activities of information employees as they go ◦ Reduces distortion of about their jobs information Disadvantages ◦ Time consuming ◦ Difficulty in capturing entire job cycle ◦ Of little use if job involves a high level of mental activity
Information source Advantages ◦ Workers keep a ◦ Produces a more chronological diary/ log complete picture of the of what they do and the job time spent in each ◦ Employee participation activity Disadvantages ◦ Distortion of information ◦ Depends upon employees to accurately recall their activities
The position analysis questionnaire (PAQ) Questionnaire to collect quantifiable data concerning the duties and responsibilities of various jobs. The Department of Labor (DOL) procedure Standardized method by which different jobs can be quantitatively rated, classified, and compared. Functional job analysis The extent to which instructions, reasoning, judgment, and mathematical and verbal ability are necessary for performing job tasks.
Job Description A writtenstatement of what the worker actually does, how he or she does it, and what the job’s working conditions are.
Job Identification Job Summary Responsibilities And Duties Authority Of Incumbent Standards Of Performance Working Conditions Job Specifications
Job Identification Job title: name of job FLSA status section: Exempt or nonexempt Preparation date: when the description was written Prepared by: who wrote the description Job Summary Describes the general nature of the job Lists the major functions or activities
Relationships (chain of command) Reports to: Vice president of employee relations. Supervises: Human resource clerk, test administrator, labor relations director, and one secretary. Works with: All depatment managers and executive management. Outside the company: Employment agencies, executive recruiting firms, union representatives, state and fedral employment offices, and various vendors.
Responsibilities and duties A listing of the job’s major responsibilities and duties (essential functions) Defines limits of jobholder’s decision-making authority, direct supervision, and budgetary limitations. Standard Occupational Classification Classifies all workers into one of 23 major groups of jobs which are subdivided into 96 minor groups of jobs and detailed occupations.
Standards of Performance and Working Conditions Lists standards the employee is expected to achieve under each of the job description’s main duties and responsibilities. Standards must be specific Examples:
What kind of person to recruit - what qualities that person should be tested on Eitherlisted in a section of job description or in a separate document
Specifications for trained personnel Focus on traits like length of previous service, quality of relevant training, and previous job performance. Specifications for untrained personnel Focus on physical traits, personality, interests, or sensory skills that imply some potential for performing or for being trained to do the job.
Specifications Based on Judgment Self-created judgments (common sense) List of competencies in Web-based job descriptions (e.g., www.jobdescription.com) O*NET online Standard Occupational Classification Specifications Based on Statistical Analysis Attempts to determine statistically the relationship between a predictor or human trait and an indicator or criterion of job effectiveness.
Steps in Statistical Approach: Analyze the job and decide how to measure job performanceSelect personal traits (like finger dexterity) that you believe should predict successful performance Test candidates for these traits Measure these candidates’ subsequent job performanceStatistically analyze relationship between the human trait (finger dexterity) and job performance
Job Generally defined as “a set of closely related activities carried out for pay”.
Job Enlargement Assigning workers additional same level activities, thus increasing the number of activities they perform. Job Enrichment Redesigning jobs in a way that increases the opportunities for the worker to experience feelings of responsibility, achievement, growth, and recognition.
Job Rotation Moving a trainee from department to department to broaden his or her experience and identify strong and weak points to prepare the person for an enhanced role with the company. Systematically moving workers from one job to another to enhance work team performance.
Dejobbing ExternalFactors Leading Broadening the responsibilities To Dejobbing of the company’s jobs Rapid product and Encouraging employee technological change initiative Global competition Deregulation, Internal Factors Leading Political instability, To Dejobbing Demographic changes Flatter organizations Rise of a service economy. Work teams
Competencies Demonstrable characteristics of a person that enable performance of a job. Competency-based job analysis Describing a job in terms of the measurable, observable, behavioral competencies (knowledge, skills, and/or behaviors) an employee must exhibit to do a job well.
To Support HPWS Traditional job descriptions (with their lists of specific duties) may actually backfire if a high-performance work system is the goal. Maintain A Strategic Focus Describing the job in terms of the skills, knowledge, and competencies the worker needs is more strategic. Measuring Performance Measurable skills, knowledge, and competencies are the heart of any company’s performance management process.
Performance management Managing all elements of the organizational process that affect how well employees perform. Types of competencies General competencies reading, writing, and mathematical reasoning. Leadership competencies leadership, strategic thinking, and teaching others. Technical competencies specific technical competencies required for specific types of jobs and/or occupations.