Torino Metro Experience

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Civil works on Turin Metro, presentation for Post Graduate Master Course
TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES - Torino Italy

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Torino Metro Experience

  1. 1. Post Graduated Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES Subject of the lesson : Torino Metro Experience Lecturer : Piero Sartore, Giovanni Giacomin, Giorgio Fantauzzi Golden Sponsors POLITECNICO DI TORINO Golden Sponsors Sponsors Academic Year: 2009-10
  2. 2. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Piero Sartore Project Management & Construction - Infrastructures & Civil Head of Departement (Tecnimont S.p.A. - Maire Tecnimont Group) EXCAVATION MANAGEMENT IN TORINO METRO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES Giovanni Giacomin TBM & Tunneling Departement Director (Ghella S.p.A.) Giorgio Fantauzzi Project Leader (Tecnimont S.p.A. - Maire Tecnimont Group) Turin, 23 March 2010
  3. 3. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Torino Metro Line 1 : General description GTT is the concessionary for design, construction and management of the Metro Line 1, one of the main infrastructures in the public transportation plan for the Torino area. The civil works design was governed by the VAL (Automated Light Vehicle) system characteristics. The train is 2.08 m wide, 52 m long and its maximum passenger capacity is 440 people (6 pass./m2). Base on width of train, a single 6.8 metre diameter Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES Base on width of train, a single 6.8 metre diameter circular tunnel contains the double track line has been chosen. The tunnel was bored by TBM.
  4. 4. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES Tunnel 3.000 m tunnel bored using a TBM EPB (earth pressure balanced shield machines) Stations 6 stations cut & cover with diaphragms. First station (Marconi) was TBM job site and the last (Lingotto) with train interchange. 5 aeration shaft connecting surface and tunnel.Shaft
  5. 5. POLITECNICO DI TORINO ASPECT TO MANAGE: 1. Type of Contract; 2. Procurement; 3. Design Process; Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES 4. Public opinion; 5. Legislative conditioning; 6. Environmental requirements; 7. Executions of works; 8. Design.
  6. 6. POLITECNICO DI TORINO 1. Type of Contract Contract Time Schedule Procurement and Construction. Contract Milestones T0 – Start works – 08.01.2007 T1 – Areas modifications and mitigations – 10.01.2007 T2 – Access est Carducci – 06.07.2007 T3 – TBM Assembly – 23.01.2008 Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES Bid Procedures: 05.2006 – 07.2006 Client analysis: 07.2006 – 10.2006 Notice award: 12.2006 Contract sign: 20.12.2006 Contract start: 07.01.2007 T4 – Finishing tunnel Marconi-Carducci – 23.06.2009 T5 – Finishing tunnel Carducci-Lingotto – 12.10.2009 T6 – Finishing Carducci and transitability Marconi, Nizza, Dante & Spezia, PL2, PL3, PL4, PL5, PL6 for system – 13.11.2009 T7 – Delivery Marconi, Nizza, Dante & Spezia for system – 03.05.2010 T8 – Delivery Lingotto and finish – 03.05.2010
  7. 7. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Operations in one year: Job site alteration Facility relocation Diaphragms execution Station box execution Site cleaning and preparing for TBM installations Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES Site cleaning and preparing for TBM installations TBM assembly
  8. 8. POLITECNICO DI TORINO 2. Procurement of TBM Criticality Short period between notice to award and operation; Saturated market bearings from eolic request; Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES High risk of failure of procurement. Countermeasures Market investigation about new TBM availability; Market investigation about used TBM availability; Risk plan to manage the acquisition.
  9. 9. POLITECNICO DI TORINO 2. Procurement of TBM Solution Used TBM from job site in Paris with contingency plan for refurbishment of machine. Main works: Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES 1. Bearing inspection and service; 2. Service of cutter-haed; 3. Service of screw conveyor; 4. Change of belt; 5. Cylinder pressures tests 6. Certification of tanks (water and oil) 7. Certification of hyperbaric chamber; 8. Replacement of suctions sealing; 9. Replacement of cables; 10. Replacement of guidance and operation system; 11. Replacement of pressures cells.
  10. 10. POLITECNICO DI TORINO • Soil geological conditions; • Presence of groundwater table; • Presence of existing buildings with different static conditions; 3. Design Process; The main risk factors associated to the design phase were: Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES • Presence of existing buildings with different static conditions; • Interference with U/G and A/G existing facilities and utilities; • Environmental constraints; • Settlements.
  11. 11. POLITECNICO DI TORINO The parameters and uncertainties of a mechanized excavation of a tunnel in the middle of a town require to be accurately studied and monitored. The soil and above ground conditions, ground water and above-underground services, buildings and their conditions, are elements which have a great influence in the design and execution of the project. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  12. 12. POLITECNICO DI TORINO The most important actions to be taken during the design and realization phases were: • Identification, study and management of the risks (which could be really high); • Soil and environment investigation; • Monitoring and connections among the different components. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES Actions were: Design phase • Continuous analysis of the design using monitoring data from construction Construction phase • Monitoring, inquiry and verification of design parameters applied to construction
  13. 13. POLITECNICO DI TORINO The different steps of the process are: • Identification of the risks (initial one); • Reduction of the initial risk working on the impact and/or possibility of occurrence of an event (i.e. provisional building Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES event (i.e. provisional building works, choice of the machinery, control of the TBM head pression); • Management of the residual risk (i.e. monitoring). The correct interpretation and handling of the above mentioned process cannot completely eliminate the risk connected to the realization of whatever work, but provides the instruments necessary to the Client, Designer and Builder to handle the events in a correct way.
  14. 14. POLITECNICO DI TORINO The residual risk, was been managed during the constructive phases by means of the implementation of an integrated monitoring system to: • Guarantee the correct flow of information to permit designers to analyse and verify the hypothesis used to develop the basic design; • Allows to understand the atypical phenomena giving the information necessary to solve the problem. The project defines two parameters which identify the “attention” and “alarm” levels. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES “alarm” levels. • Attention level activates a specific control system in order to reach a more specific following of the event. •Alarm level requires the adoption of the counter-measures specifically studied for the event.
  15. 15. POLITECNICO DI TORINO During the execution phase the main aspects considered were: • Groundwater; • Lifting/settlements deriving from the consolidation process; • Movements deriving from the excavation works; • Settlements deriving from the TBM mechanized excavation. GREAT AMOUNT OF INFORMATIONS Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES The balance between lack and redundancy of information is necessary to take the correct actions. • Little information could determine: situation where a danger is not consider an emergency situation; or could not promptly signal its occurrence; • Too much data could determine a situation of decisional paralysis.
  16. 16. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Torino Metro Line 1 : Geology/Geotechnics Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES The formation interested from the tunnel line is mainly constituted by fluvio-glacial and fluvio-Rissian deposit (Quaternary), of gravel sand and cobbles in silty matrix. Within this formation there are 4 units identified by specific granulometric characteristics and different cementation: • unit 1 – superficial ground • unit 2 – gravel with sand from loose to slightly cemented • unit 3 – gravel with sand from weak to medium cemented • unit 4 - gravel with sand from medium to highly cemented. The tunnel excavation interested mainly unit 2 and 3. The ground water level varied from tunnel invert up to a maximum height of 7 m measured at crown (Shaft n°6).
  17. 17. POLITECNICO DI TORINO 4. Public opinion; The insertion of infrastructure in a Turin urban environment should consider that its layout is strictly connected to the site topography (highly populated environment) and to the existing infrastructures and structures. Even if they don’t interfere in a direct Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES Even if they don’t interfere in a direct way with the tunnel, they could represent an obstacle to the construction of stations, ventilation shafts, access points and/or emergency accesses. The high interaction level with the traffic and the surface activities should be carefully studied in order to manage problems with the public opinion.
  18. 18. POLITECNICO DI TORINO 5. Legislative conditions; Legislative conditions Small areas of the construction sites Environmental requirements Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES involving a study of the executive phases, a precise planning of the procurements and of the materials evacuation equipment in order to reach the identification of machineries necessary to minimize the transmission of the vibrations to the adjacent buildings caused by their transit in tunnels (wheeled vehicles, discharge belts, mud pumping, etc.)
  19. 19. POLITECNICO DI TORINO The main aspects which were been highlighted and analyzed during contract: 1. Consolidation typology and techniques; 2. TBM (Tunnel Boring Machine) typology and features; 3. Environmental monitoring; 4. Structural monitoring. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES 4. Structural monitoring.
  20. 20. POLITECNICO DI TORINO The most important aspect to be considered is Tender design assumed as method: - Injections; - Sheet pile. Due to the presence of structures near or under infrastructures or buildings and the groundwater presence with the aim of improving the soil features and provisional support systems necessary during the excavation phase. Project Hypothesis Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES The most important aspect to be considered is the realization of a careful analysis of its consequences on the building structure and the existing ones. For the first ones the major risks are due to: • Lack of an effective treatment; • Abnormal pressures; • Cracks and infiltrations; • Creep phenomena; For the second ones the major risks are due to: • Settlements and/or lifting of near structures; • Damaging of the buildings; • Environment pollution. Project Hypothesis Real intervention Turin – Line 1
  21. 21. POLITECNICO DI TORINO The choice of the service systems can be influenced by external elements, such as noise limits, particular buildings and inhabitants, etc. For example, after the acoustic modeling of the Turin Metro the mortar production system was changed in order to improve the acoustic comfort of the people resident in the area. Turin – Line 1 – Mortar Production plant Turin – Line 1 – Final. No plant Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  22. 22. POLITECNICO DI TORINO 5. Environmental requirements; The environmental requirements are increasingly important in the design process and construction of infrastructure in urban areas. Environmental Monitoring target: • Limitation of the construction activities impact • Compliance with the local environmental regulations • Immediate management of unforecast impacts by means of effective communication and specialized competences Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES communication and specialized competences These aims can be achieved by: • Assessment of the environmental conditions before construction (Ante Operam Monitoring) •Evaluation and monitoring of the environmental quality during construction (Monitoring During Construction) • Correlation between the environment changes and the construction site progress • Immediate intervention when environmentally critical thresholds are exceeded
  23. 23. POLITECNICO DI TORINO The study and intervention areas can be divided into 3 groups: 1. Environmental monitoring: a) Atmosphere b) Noise; c) Vibrations. 2. Management of excavation earth and rocks; 3. Green management. For the realization on the interventions in the Turin and Rome Metros have been employed the following methodologies: Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES a) Atmosphere monitoring methodologies Measurement of total inhalable dust; Measurement of dust lay; NO2 and C6H6 measurement. b) Noise monitoring methodologies: 24 hours measurements; 7 days measurements; Short period measurements in a living environment. c) Vibration monitoring methodologies: Short period measurements; Long period measurements.
  24. 24. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Monitoring campaigns Comparison of the results obtained with the threshold limits Threshold limits exceeded Threshold limits met Open af an anomaly: Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES Cleaning of pavements where there is the vehicles transit; maintenance of clearing brushes, etc. Optimization of pumps acoustic insulation, etc. Open af an anomaly: Analysis of the possible causes which produced the criticality and prompt execution of the mitigation interventions to solve and/or control the problems occurred Examples of mitigation intervention realized
  25. 25. POLITECNICO DI TORINO As specified before, also in this case it is extremely important the interaction project-construction- monitoring-project, both for the management of the anomalies and for the implementation of the threshold limits for Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES threshold limits for works execution. In the specific Turin case, the ongoing atmosphere monitoring campaigns are realized on 28 receptors with: • 35 measurements of total PM10 inhalable dust • 58 measurements of dust lay • 40 NO2 and C6H6 measurements
  26. 26. POLITECNICO DI TORINO In the following chart have been highlighted the reference and results with the trends and the PM10 limits exceeding. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES In the following chart have been highlighted the results with the trends and the limits exceeding of sediment airborne dust.
  27. 27. POLITECNICO DI TORINO In the following chart have been highlighted the results with the trends and the benzene limits exceeding. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES In the following chart have been highlighted the results with the trends and the NO2 limits exceeding.
  28. 28. POLITECNICO DI TORINO The noise monitoring campaigns are carried out on 20 receptors with: • 39 measurements semi-fixed workstations; • 41 measurements fixed workstations; • 15 short period measurements, living environment. In addition, to guarantee 24 hours/day – 7 days/week working conditions has been developed an integrative monitoring system to define and control the limits The working and management flow can be represented by the interaction among the different subjects involved: Contractor Asks for the issue of an Authorization for a specifica temporary activity •24 spot monitored Authorized Monitoring: Possible definition of a continuous monitoring activity or “ad hoc” spot measurements as control of the most impacting activities subjects involved: The Designer and Contractor require the approval of the project acoustic impact; the control Authority defines the evaluation parameters and grants the authorization; then the Designer and Contractor monitor the acoustic impact when the works are in progress, mainly during the execution of the activities which have the biggest acoustic impact. Municipality temporary activity Gives authorizations and fixes the time thresholds limits, prescriptions to limit the noise emissions. Authority Gives its technical- scientific support for the evalutation of the issue of the authorization monitored •2 receptors monitored with fixed monitored stations •3 weekly monitored receptors Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  29. 29. POLITECNICO DI TORINO The vibration monitoring campaigns are in progress and realized on 14 receptors: • 37 short period measurements • 10 long period measurements (24 hours) Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  30. 30. POLITECNICO DI TORINO The Excavation Material management is subject to both national and local regulations. Metro excavation operations normally produce two types of materials: • Treated soils • Untreated soils Turin Metro project included a plan of re-use of the excavation soils following the above classification, i.e.: • Soils and rocks from Stations, Wells, Surface excavations and walls are continuously Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES • Soils and rocks from Stations, Wells, Surface excavations and walls are continuously assessed for re-use in quarries • Soils and rocks from excavation with TBM are temporarily disposed to be assessed and subsequently re-used for backfilling, embankments and other compatible uses.
  31. 31. POLITECNICO DI TORINO TBM Transport belt to TBM starting site Wagons and fixed crane Surface temporary depot Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES Load and transport temporary area temporary depot Discharge and creation of piles in the operational lots Trasport to final destination
  32. 32. POLITECNICO DI TORINO The temporary area is divided into operational lots, which are gradually filled to guarantee the traceability of the excavated material. The characterization is divided into the following phases: • During the excavation phase at the excavation TBM head; • At the temporary depot in every operation lot; Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES to guarantee that each sample (which have been previously taken and analysed during and after the decay phase) contains concentrations of elements in accordance to the parameters analysed are lower than the concentration limits provided by the legislation.
  33. 33. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Management of the green elements. The ante-operam activities are: • Census of all the trees which could interfere with the works; • Evaluation, for each tree, of the interference percentage; • Evaluation of the possibility of maintaining the trees (properly protected by crashes) in the area; • Evaluation of the necessity of removing the trees; Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES • Evaluation of the necessity of removing the trees; • Definition of the removal intervention typology (cutting down or transplanting) in accordance with: species dimension phytopathological status • Evaluation of the possibility of relocating the trees in original site, at the end of the works.
  34. 34. POLITECNICO DI TORINO The transplanting has been realized by special equipments in order Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES to safeguard the trees radical planting and guarantee a correct rooting in the new site.
  35. 35. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES TBM Selection – Application field.
  36. 36. POLITECNICO DI TORINO The areas of TBM employment following the soil conditions can be represented as follows: Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES The main requirements a TBM should have to work in a urban environment can be connected to: • Workers safety; • Realization of the excavation process, including: materials provision (inside the TBM); material discharge; easy maintenance of the TBM head. • Interaction with monitoring parameters; • Availability of equipments necessary to control the excavation head pressure; • Equipments to realize tests and surveys inwards; • Availability to realize additional treatments inwards; • Assembling, maintenance and disassembling flexibility; • Driving flexibility.
  37. 37. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES Soil correction.
  38. 38. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Selected TBM TBM (EPB) Marca e modello Herrenknecht Mod. S-415 Tratte e lotti T2 - Lotto 2 Diametro di scavo [m] 7,750 Potenza [kW] 2000 Velocità di rotazione [rpm] 0,0 - 3,0 Spinta [kN] 55.750 Coppia [kNm] 14.648 Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES Coppia [kNm] 14.648 Lunghezza scudo [m] 8,30 Lunghezza back-up [m] 80 L conci [m] 1,40 Sp conci [m] 0,30 Diametro int [m] 6,88 Copertura tipica [m] 12 Copertura max [m] 20 L tratta [km] 3,1 1. Fronte di attacco 2. Testa di scavo 3. Camera di scavo 4. Parete di pressione 5. Cilindro di spinta 6. Coclea 7. Conci 8. Coda
  39. 39. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Previous projects: France – Tolosa 2003 -2005 Metro project [5.600m] France – Parigi 2006 - 2007 Water reservoir [1.800m] Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  40. 40. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Main works: 1. Bearing inspection and service; 2. Service of cutter-haed; 3. Service of screw conveyor; 4. Change of belt; 5. Cylinder pressures tests 6. Certification of tanks (water and oil) 7. Certification of hyperbaric chamber; Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES 7. Certification of hyperbaric chamber; 8. Replacement of suctions sealing; 9. Replacement of cables; 10.Replacement of guidance and operation system; 11.Replacement of pressures cells.
  41. 41. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Cutter-head refurbishement Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  42. 42. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Cutter-head as dressed in Marconi Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  43. 43. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Cutter-head as dressed in Nizza Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  44. 44. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  45. 45. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  46. 46. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  47. 47. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Segmental lining Diametro esterno De = 7.48m Diametro interno Di = 6.88m Spessore s = 0.30m Raggio di progetto R = 261.8m Lunghezza media L = 1400mm Lunghezza minima Lmin = 1380mm Lunghezza massima Lmax = 1420mm Numero di conci n = 6 Volume anello Va = 9.4725m3 Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES Volume anello Va = 9.4725m3
  48. 48. POLITECNICO DI TORINO TBM Site installation Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  49. 49. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Material and segments feeding Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  50. 50. POLITECNICO DI TORINO The correct choice of the TBM is the first step to manage the excavation. Then it is necessary to identify and define the other equipments to be used, depending of job site conditions such as: • Trains or Dumper • Mortar or double-component systems Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES • Mortar or double-component systems • Purification systems – Water treatment plants • Compressors • Slurry Shield (SS) or Earth Pressure Balance (EPB) TBM • Service crane • Segment storage area
  51. 51. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  52. 52. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Much removal Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  53. 53. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  54. 54. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  55. 55. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  56. 56. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  57. 57. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Ancillaries Plants Elettroventilatore da 135 kW Torre di raffreddamento: 4 pompe da 11 kW + 1 elettroventilatore da 7,5 kW Carro ponte per sollevamento in superficie materiale di smarino, composto da 2 motori per l’argano di sollevamento da 135 kW, 4 motori di traslazione da 7,5 kW, 2 motori di traslazione da 4 kW Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES traslazione da 4 kW Gru Potain 310 B Impianto di depurazione acqua (10 mc/h) Argano raccoglitore nastro Cabina elettrica di trasformazione 22.000/20.000 V GE per emergenza da 400 kW Mescolatore con invio malta in galleria
  58. 58. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  59. 59. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  60. 60. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  61. 61. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Assembly Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  62. 62. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  63. 63. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  64. 64. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  65. 65. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Steel rings Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  66. 66. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Thrust Frame Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  67. 67. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  68. 68. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  69. 69. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  70. 70. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  71. 71. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  72. 72. POLITECNICO DI TORINO The correct project and development of the soil stability system is extremely important. To guarantee the pressure control at the head of the front and to allow the formation of a material easy to be extracted from the screw conveyor it is necessary to put conditioning agents in the excavated soil, such as bentonite, foaming agents, polymers and thin material. In our case, we wear the TBM with a separate circuit of emergency injection of bentonite to avoid loosing pressure and settlements. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  73. 73. POLITECNICO DI TORINO The most important requirement for our job was the environment protection, in order to preserve the soil, buildings, utilities and already existing structures. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES Features in order to choose the correct excavation and TBM typology: • Settlements; • Interferences; • Depot of demolition materials, with particular attention to their feature and to pollutant agents; • Interface of the external monitoring systems with the parameters of TBM control; • Availability of areas to assemble, launch and extract the TBM. Turin – Line 1 – Head of TBM
  74. 74. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Soil Conditioning Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  75. 75. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES Soil correction.
  76. 76. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Mechanized excavation : Basic principles The Earth Pressure Balanced (EPB) tunnelling method owns it’s name from the way the front face of the TBM is supported during excavation, using earth pressure. The principles of the EPB-tunnelling method can described as follows (Kanayasu, Yamamoto and Kitahara, 1995): • The soil is excavated by rotating cutter heads; • The excavated soil is mechanically agitated and fills the face and an excavation chamber.; • Using the thrust of the shield machine, by means of hydraulic jacks, the excavated soil is pressurized to stabilize the excavation front (force equilibrium); • Control of the soil pressure in the chamber is done by adjusting the amount of soil discharged through the screw conveyor or other soil removal devices and the amount of soil excavated to counterbalance earth and groundwater pressure (volume equilibrium); • The excavated soil in the chamber and the screw conveyors work as Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES a water seal. The earth pressure support method is generally used in cohesive soils, enabling it to be used as a supporting medium itself, with the use of conditioning materials if necessary. A
  77. 77. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Support pressure – Calculation Methods used on Metrotorino METHOD OF LECA & DORMIEUX (1990) This method is based on the upper and lower limit theorems with a 3D-modelling. The upper(+) and lower (-) limit solutions are obtained by means of a cinematic and a static method, respectively, giving thus an optimistic and a pessimistic estimation of the face- METHOD OF JANCSECZ & STEINER (1994) According to the model of Horn (1961), the three-dimensional failure scheme consists of a soil wedge (lower part) and a soil silo (upper part). The vertical pressure resulting from the silo and acting on the soil wedge is calculated according to Terzaghi’s solution. A three-dimensional earth pressure coefficient ka3 is defined as: ka3 = (sinβ · cos · – cos2β · tanφ – K · α · cosβ · tanφ/1.5)/(sinβ · cosβ + sin2β · tanφ) where: K ≈ [1 – sinφ + tan2(45 + φ/2)]/2; α = (1 + 3 · t/D)/(1 + 2 · t/D). Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES method, respectively, giving thus an optimistic and a pessimistic estimation of the face- support pressure. In the case of dry condition, the face support pressure σT is (Ribacchi 1994): σT = – c’ · ctgϕ’ + Qγ · γ · D/2 + Qs · (σs + c’ · ctgϕ’) where Qγ, Qs = non dimensional factors (from normograms), function of H/a and ϕ’; a = radius of the tunnel; H = thickness of the ground above the tunnel axis. METHOD OF ANOGNOSTOU & KOVARI (1996) This method, later referred to as A-K method, is based on the silo theory (Janssen 1895) and to the three-dimensional model of sliding mechanism proposed by Horn (1961). The analysis is performed in drained condition, and a difference between the stabilizing water pressure and effective pressure in the plenum of an EPBS is presented. If there is a difference between the water pressure in the plenum and that in the ground, destabilizing seepage forces occur and a higher effective pressure is required at the face. However, accepting this flow, the total stabilizing pressure is lower than the pressure required in the case of an imposed hydrogeological balance. The effective stabilizing pressure (σ’) : σ’ = F0 · γ’ · D – F1 · c’ + F2 · γ’ · ∆h – F3 · c’ · ∆h/D where F0,F1,F2,F3 are non-dimensional factors derived from normograms, which are function of H/D and ϕ’.
  78. 78. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Past experiences in Japan (from Kanayasu) METHOD OF DIN 4085 (GERMAN STANDARD) In this model, three-dimensional active earth pressure is calculated according to DIN 4085, which is based on the failure mechanism theory of Piaskowski & Kowalewski. The method divides the tunnel face into multiple horizontal strips. The three-dimensional active earth pressure acting on each strip is calculated with the two-dimensional active earth pressure method, adjusted by reduction factors. These factors are calculated depending upon the ratio of depth of the layer to tunnel diameter. To ensure stability of the tunnel face, it is necessary to counterbalance the total force of active earth and water pressure. These forces are multiplied separately with safety factors as per the concept of partial factor of safety Psupport= η a E a + η w W Where, η a and η w are partial factors of safety for active earth pressure (Ea) and water pressure (W) respectively. Support pressure – Calculation Methods used on Metrotorino Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES MetroTorino [kPa]20' ++= wvakP σσ
  79. 79. POLITECNICO DI TORINO 70 80 90 100 110 120 Pressure[kPa] Support pressure - Calculations using different methods Spinta attiva Ka Spinta a riposo Ko DIN 4085 Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES 10 20 30 40 50 60 1097 1147 1197 1247 1297 Pressure[kPa] Chainage [m] Anagnostou & Kovari Leca-Dormieux Normativa olandese COB Jancsecz & Steiner PL2 SHAFT NIZZA STATION
  80. 80. POLITECNICO DI TORINO EPB – SUPPORT PRESSURE Warning Pressure in working chamber Attention Po = 0.9 Pd Po = 1.2 Pd Alarm Po = 0.8 Pd Po = 1.3 Pd Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  81. 81. POLITECNICO DI TORINO PENETRATION RATE [mm/min] PRESSURE SENSORS [Bar] Excavation parameters control The parameters, to be verified via the sensors and sensing equipment, are: • Face-support pressure • Pressure and volume of the backfill grout of the annular void • Weight of the extracted material EXCAVATION PHASE OPERATIONS – BUILDING RING Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES SCREW CONVEYOR RATE [rpm]
  82. 82. POLITECNICO DI TORINO EPB –TBM OPERATION MODE Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  83. 83. POLITECNICO DI TORINO END EXCAVATION PHASE END EXCAVATION PHASE Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES PRESSURIZED AIR/FOAM INFLOW SCREW CONVEYOR STOPPED PRESSURE INCREASE
  84. 84. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Definition of normal and anomalous conditions Normal excavating conditions are considered all those conditions, whose EPBS excavation characteristic parameters fall within the “attention” thresholds Anomalous conditions are associated with: • Water inflows under pressure through the screw conveyor. • Sudden oscillations of the torque of the cutterhead. • Blockage of the cutterhead. • Anomalous pressure values in the excavation chamber. • Sudden and significant variations of the muck density in the excavation chamber. • Weight of the muck extracted by the screw conveyor surpassing the “attention” threshold. • Insufficient pressure and/or volume of the grout injected behind the lining. Pressure management in the work chamber Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES Pressure management in the work chamber Sudden variations of the face-support pressure could be the warning signals resulting from torque increases or head blockages. In case the pressure increases: •The head rotating speed is reduced to <1 rpm. •The thrust is reduced so that penetration rate, Vp, is <10 mm/min. •The foam flow is increased by 20%,without increasing the muck discharge from the screw. In case the pressure diminishes: •Bentonite is injected to re-establish the design support pressure. •If pressure still does not increase, excavation is stopped and the screw gate is closed. •Bentonite and polymer injection is continued until the designed support-pressure is achieved.
  85. 85. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Weight Management Special method statement, additional investigation Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  86. 86. POLITECNICO DI TORINO The tunnels have inner diameter of 6.8mt and is lined with pre-cast 30 cm thick segments in reinforced concrete, connected by EPDM gaskets to insure water tight conditions. Even withrather small curves and consequent assembly offsets of the segment ring, there is no water passage within the tunnel. Each 1.4 m long ring consists of 5 “normal” elements plus one “key” element that enables the closure of the ring, a “universal” lock that permits to adapt the ring to any kind of radius, from the minimum to the linear one, by a simple rotation of every ring compared to the previous one along the tunnel axis at a given angle. The injection of mortar behind the segments, performed immediately at the beginning of the excavation procedures, ensures the reduction of superficial collapse and the correct confinement/bedding of the lining. The RING Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  87. 87. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Segment Design Steps Generally, design steps for TBM tunnels could be as follows (ITA,2000): Step 1: Define geometric parameters Alignment, excavation diameter, lining diameter, lining thickness, width of ring, segment system, joint connections Step 2: Determine geotechnical data Shear strength of soil, deformation modulus, earth pressure coefficient Step 3: Select critical sections Influence of overburden, surcharge, groundwater, adjacent structures Step 4: Determine mechanical data of TBM Confinement pressure, overcut, shield tail conicality, TBM length, total thrust pressure, number of thrusts, number of pads, pad dimensions, grouting pressure, space for installation. All these structural parameters associated with TBM characteristics may have potential impact on ring stress analysis. Step 5: Define material properties Concrete: compressive strength, modulus of elasticity Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES Concrete: compressive strength, modulus of elasticity Reinforcement: type, tensile strength Gasket: type, dimensions, allowable gap, elastic capacity Step 6: Design loads Soil pressure, water pressure, construction loads etc. Step 7: Design models Empirical model, analytical model, numerical model Step 8: Computational results Response: axial force, moment, shear Deformation: deflection Detailing: reinforcement, joints, groove
  88. 88. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Loading Conditions The tunnel lining behind the TBM must be capable of withstanding all loads/actions and combined actions without deforming, especially during ring erection and advance. Single-shell reinforced concrete segmental rings behind the TBM, can be designed to fulfill those demands. Secondary lining can also be constructed with cast-in- place concrete as a structural member of the segmental lining. There are many loading cases for the segmental lining of tunnels driven by TBMs. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES tunnels driven by TBMs. The following loads shall normally be considered in designing the lining of the shield tunnel (JSCE, 1996): (1) Vertical and horizontal earth pressure (2) Water pressure (3) Dead weight (4) Effects of surcharge (5) Soil reaction (6) Internal loads (7) Construction loads (8) Effects of earthquakes (9) Effects of two or more shield tunnels construction (10) Effects of working in the vicinity (11) Effects of ground subsidence (12) Others Various combinations of the loads can be considered according to the purpose of the tunnel usage.
  89. 89. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Geostatical Loads This load case analyses the load effects on lining segments and ground. For MetroTorino we employed FLAC to predict axial load and bending Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  90. 90. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Thrust Jacking Loading The functions of the linings during tunnel construction are to sustain jack thrust for advancing a shield machine and to withstand the back-fill grouting pressure. The linings have also the function as a tunnel lining structure immediately after the shield is advanced. Thrust force of shield jacks is a temporary load which acts on the segment as a reaction force against it while advancement the shield machine and is the most influential load to the segment among the construction loads. Several verifications must be done for the jacking load effects on the segment, such as contact pressure, bursting forces in the radial direction, and bursting forces in the circumferential direction. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  91. 91. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Grouting Loads Primary grouting pressure applied to fill up the tail void behind the TBM is believed to govern both deformations and internal lining forces, as well as affect surface settlements. The grouting pressure acting on the outer surface (extrados) when the ring leaves the shield. For normal conditions, when a highly flowable mortar is used, the grouting pressure can be calculated constant around the ring. The annular grouting of the ring, with a grouting pressure minimum one bar (1 bar) higher than the surrounding water pressure, prestresses the ring and the enclosing ground. Secondary grouting pressure is an extending regular grout pressure. These transient type loads result from a localized increase in grouting pressure ("local pumping thrust") directly behind the segment grouting holes. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  92. 92. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Storage Loads After mould stripping, segments are set down and stacked on supports. Timber blocks are usually placed between segments taking care that they are aligned with the supports. Storage and handling (e.g. turning, packing and then loading-out operations, supply to the workface…) influence the bending moment. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  93. 93. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Handling Loads During erection, the lining is subjected to a number of loads such as: forces resulting from segments overhanging during ring assembly; possible bumping impact loads; loads applied by the assembly systems retained (bolts, anchor bolts or plugs) it is necessary to consider the increasing in the mass forces due to dynamic effects. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  94. 94. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Trailer Loading Trailer chassis and other service loads can be applied on lining, including main bearing loads, divided by number of wheels .The loads induced by the trailer and by any fixations in the segments normally do not influence the Possible future excavations next to structures Possible future buildings must be considered in the analysis, assuming some restricitions. As an example (zone 4B): •Vertical restrictions - Excavations shall not exceed a total depth of 8 m. •Lateral restrictions - No future excavations shall take place within an area of 5 m above the tunnel crown and 17 m on either side of the tunnel centre line. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES trailer and by any fixations in the segments normally do not influence the reinforcement. During discussions with TBM manufacturer, it is necessary to state whether "Main Bearing Load" will be included in this type of analysis or not. Fire load Concrete tunnels are vulnerable to elevated temperatures caused by fire. Tests have shown that when the temperature of the reinforcement reaches 300˚C, the bond between the rebar and concrete will be significantly reduced, leading to irreparable sagging and possible collapse of the total structure. Moreover, when concrete is exposed to fire temperatures as experienced in tunnels, concrete spalling often occurs. Tunnel cross-sections must be analyzed to consider fire loading.
  95. 95. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Settlement and Volume loss Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  96. 96. POLITECNICO DI TORINO In a properly supported non-TBM tunnel, 70-80% of total surface settlement is due to deformations ahead of tunnel face. In a shield-driven excavation, the fraction varies significantly (<< 70%) depending on the method. As an example, until a recent date, the following distribution of settlements to the surface was observed: - 10 to 20 % caused by the face; - 40 to 50 % caused by the void along the shield; -30 to 50 % caused at the end of the tail seal. The net volume of the surface settlement trough will be approximately equal to the volume loss at the tunnel in most ground conditions. If the ground response is at constant volume (i.e. undrained), the relationship will be exact. The hypothesis will be checked especially if the ground is clayish and the overburden is thin. The magnitude of the volume loss VL depends on many different factors: soil type tunnelling method rate of tunnel advance tunnel size Settlement and Volume loss tunnel size form of temporary and primary support Before the magnitude of ground movements can be predicted it is necessary to estimate the expected ground loss. This estimate will be based on case history data and should include an engineering appraisal that takes into account the proposed tunnelling method and site conditions. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  97. 97. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Settlements calculation : Numerical method Paratie con solettone copertura e piano atrio di contrasto -2.0 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 141516171819202122232425262728 Distanza fondazioni-paratia [m] Cedimento[mm] Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  98. 98. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Settlements calculation : Empirical method Empirical methods are used to assess the settlements using formulas that are based on empirical relations between available data. This data has been collected and assessed by a lot of researchers and for a lot of different projects. Peck (1969) was the first to propose that the surface settlement profile could be represented by a Gaussian distribution curve. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES In Turin Metro volume loss was about 0.3-0.5%
  99. 99. POLITECNICO DI TORINO -3.7 Volume perso [%] 1 Diametro Galleria [m] 7.90 Copertura [m] 10 0.00 Parametro K 0.375 -0.85 Distanza tra gli assi [m] 0 0.000309 - Ascissa SX edificio [m] -24.4 0.036551 Ascissa DX edificio [m] -9.4 0.00 Altezza [m] 7.1 Rapporto E/G 12.5 0.046273 0.000000 0.050410 0.00 0.050410 1 Epsilon terreno Hogging [%] DATI DI INPUT Cedimento massimo singola canna [cm] OUTPUT Interferenza n° 1000 Cedimento vertice SX [cm] Cedimento vertice DX[cm] Rapporto δ/L zona di Hogging Rapporto δ/L zona di Sagging CATEGORIA DI DANNO Epsilon terreno Sagging [%] Epsilon flessionale Hogging [%] Epsilon flessionale Sagging [%] EPSILON MASSIMA Epsilon Tagliante Hogging [%] Epsilon Tagliante Sagging [%] Cedimenti [cm] Settlements calculation : Building damage assessment Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES EPS MAX flex hog 0.0007816 EPS MAX flex sag 0.0016316 EPS MAX tag hog 0.0006761 EPS MAX tag sag 0.0014412 Deformazioni Epsilon [%] -0.5 -0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0 0.1 0.2 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 Canna sx Canna dx Totale Cedimenti [cm] -4 -3.5 -3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 Canna sx Canna dx Totale
  100. 100. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Soil improvement solutions have been implemented where the assessments indicate potential risk of damage to the pre-existing structures. Such interventions include improving the properties of the ground and mitigating the deforming effects induced by tunnelling by means of low-pressure cement injection grouting. A consolidated slab is created above the tunnel section in order to avoid any localized instability from developing around it. Different grouting geometry have been defined, based on relative position between the tunnel and pre-existing structures, as well as site accessibility and surface site areas use. The project includes full-face cement grouting in the areas adjacent to the stations where the TBM will enter into or exit from the stations: the diaphragm walls in these particular areas will be partially demolished to let the TBMs in and out. In accordance with the environmental conditions, the drilling and grouting operations were Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES environmental conditions, the drilling and grouting operations were done from the surface and/or from in service shafts and tunnels.
  101. 101. POLITECNICO DI TORINO MONITORING • STRUCTURAL MONITORING: – TENSION (STRAIN GAUGES, LOAD CELLS, etc.) – DEFORMATION, SETTLEMENT (INCLINOMETERS, OPTICAL TARGET, etc.) • BUILDING MONITORING: – BUILDINGS DISPLACEMENTS (TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYING, ELECTRONIC LEVEL, CONTINUOUS MONITORING, CLINOMETER, etc.) – CRACK GROWTH (CRACK MONITOR) – VIBRATION (VIBROMETER) Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES BE: Strain gauge CTC: Optical target IN: Inclinometer
  102. 102. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Interferences with subservices Example: existing sanitary sewer Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  103. 103. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Interferences with subservices Example: existing sanitary sewer Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  104. 104. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Interferences with subservices Example: existing sanitary sewer Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  105. 105. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Interferences with subservices Example: rain water sewer Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  106. 106. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  107. 107. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  108. 108. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  109. 109. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  110. 110. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  111. 111. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Torino metro urban project should take account of a multidisciplinary approach that considers all the processes of the entire lifecycle and performance of the works. The integrated methodological approach, implemented in the execution of projects and works of construction into urban areas, must necessarily involve the adoption of a process of continual revision of the initial assumptions of the design, through the continuous analysis of monitoring data for proper risk management. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  112. 112. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Multidisciplinary analysis; Design review; Management of environmental issues; Management of public opinion; are elements that are becoming increasingly important in the execution of a project Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES are elements that are becoming increasingly important in the execution of a project and the subsequent works. This approach addresses the proper way to proceed towards subjects who are able to manage not only the design phase, but also the construction phase to ensure consistency in approach, construction and commitment during the whole lifecycle of the project.
  113. 113. POLITECNICO DI TORINO THANK YOU Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES THANK YOU

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