Torino Metro Experience

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Civil works on Turin Metro, presentation for Post Graduate Master Course …

Civil works on Turin Metro, presentation for Post Graduate Master Course
TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES - Torino Italy

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  • 1. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Post Graduated Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES Subject of the lesson : Torino Metro Experience Lecturer : Piero Sartore, Giovanni Giacomin, Giorgio Fantauzzi Golden Sponsors Sponsors Academic Year: 2009-10
  • 2. POLITECNICO DI TORINOEXCAVATION MANAGEMENT IN TORINO METROPiero SartoreProject Management & Construction - Infrastructures & CivilHead of Departement (Tecnimont S.p.A. - Maire Tecnimont Group)Giovanni GiacominTBM & Tunneling Departement Director (Ghella S.p.A.)Giorgio FantauzziProject Leader (Tecnimont S.p.A. - Maire Tecnimont Group)Turin, 23 March 2010 Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 3. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Torino Metro Line 1 : General description GTT is the concessionary for design, construction and management of the Metro Line 1, one of the main infrastructures in the public transportation plan for the Torino area. The civil works design was governed by the VAL (Automated Light Vehicle) system characteristics. The train is 2.08 m wide, 52 m long and its maximum passenger capacity is 440 people (6 pass./m2). Base on width of train, a single 6.8 metre diameter circular tunnel contains the double track line has been chosen. The tunnel was bored by TBM. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 4. POLITECNICO DI TORINO 3.000 m tunnel bored using a TBM EPB (earth pressureTunnel balanced shield machines) 6 stations cut & cover with diaphragms. First stationStations (Marconi) was TBM job site and the last (Lingotto) with train interchange.Shaft 5 aeration shaft connecting surface and tunnel. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 5. POLITECNICO DI TORINOASPECT TO MANAGE:1. Type of Contract;2. Procurement;3. Design Process;4. Public opinion;5. Legislative conditioning;6. Environmental requirements;7. Executions of works;8. Design. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 6. POLITECNICO DI TORINO 1. Type of Contract Contract MilestonesProcurement and Construction. T0 – Start works – 08.01.2007 T1 – Areas modifications and mitigations – 10.01.2007 T2 – Access est Carducci – 06.07.2007Contract Time Schedule T3 – TBM Assembly – 23.01.2008 T4 – Finishing tunnel Marconi-Carducci – 23.06.2009Bid Procedures: 05.2006 – 07.2006 T5 – Finishing tunnel Carducci-Lingotto – 12.10.2009Client analysis: 07.2006 – 10.2006 T6 – Finishing Carducci and transitability Marconi, Nizza, Dante & Spezia, PL2, PL3, PL4, PL5, PL6 forNotice award: 12.2006 system – 13.11.2009Contract sign: 20.12.2006 T7 – Delivery Marconi, Nizza, Dante & Spezia for system – 03.05.2010Contract start: 07.01.2007 T8 – Delivery Lingotto and finish – 03.05.2010 Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 7. POLITECNICO DI TORINOOperations in one year:Job site alterationFacility relocationDiaphragms executionStation box executionSite cleaning and preparing for TBM installationsTBM assembly Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 8. POLITECNICO DI TORINO2. Procurement of TBMCriticalityShort period between notice to award and operation;Saturated market bearings from eolic request;High risk of failure of procurement.CountermeasuresMarket investigation about new TBM availability;Market investigation about used TBM availability;Risk plan to manage the acquisition. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 9. POLITECNICO DI TORINO2. Procurement of TBMSolutionUsed TBM from job site in Paris with contingency plan for refurbishment of machine.Main works: 1. Bearing inspection and service; 2. Service of cutter-haed; 3. Service of screw conveyor; 4. Change of belt; 5. Cylinder pressures tests 6. Certification of tanks (water and oil) 7. Certification of hyperbaric chamber; 8. Replacement of suctions sealing; 9. Replacement of cables; 10. Replacement of guidance and operation system; 11. Replacement of pressures cells. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 10. POLITECNICO DI TORINO3. Design Process;The main risk factors associated to the design phase were:• Soil geological conditions;• Presence of groundwater table;• Presence of existing buildings with different static conditions;• Interference with U/G and A/G existing facilities and utilities;• Environmental constraints;• Settlements. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 11. POLITECNICO DI TORINOThe parameters and uncertainties of a mechanized excavation of a tunnel in the middle of atown require to be accurately studied and monitored.The soil and above ground conditions, ground water and above-underground services,buildings and their conditions, are elements which have a great influence in the design andexecution of the project. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 12. POLITECNICO DI TORINOThe most important actions to be taken during the design and realization phaseswere:• Identification, study and management of the risks (which could be really high);• Soil and environment investigation;• Monitoring and connections among the different components.Actions were: Design phase • Continuous analysis of the design using monitoring data from construction Construction phase • Monitoring, inquiry and verification of design parameters applied to construction Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 13. POLITECNICO DI TORINOThe different steps of the processare:• Identification of the risks (initialone);• Reduction of the initial riskworking on the impact and/orpossibility of occurrence of anevent (i.e. provisional buildingworks, choice of the machinery,control of the TBM headpression);• Management of the residual risk (i.e. monitoring).The correct interpretation and handling of the above mentioned process cannot completelyeliminate the risk connected to the realization of whatever work, but provides theinstruments necessary to the Client, Designer and Builder to handle the events in a correctway. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 14. POLITECNICO DI TORINOThe residual risk, was been managed during the constructive phases by means of theimplementation of an integrated monitoring system to:• Guarantee the correct flow of information to permit designers to analyse and verifythe hypothesis used to develop the basic design;• Allows to understand the atypical phenomena giving the information necessary tosolve the problem. The project defines two parameters which identify the “attention” and “alarm” levels. • Attention level activates a specific control system in order to reach a more specific following of the event. •Alarm level requires the adoption of the counter-measures specifically studied for the event. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 15. POLITECNICO DI TORINODuring the execution phase the main aspects considered were:• Groundwater;• Lifting/settlements deriving from the consolidation process; GREAT AMOUNT OF INFORMATIONS• Movements deriving from the excavation works;• Settlements deriving from the TBM mechanized excavation.The balance between lack and redundancy of information is necessary to take the correctactions.• Little information could determine: situation where a danger is not consider an emergency situation; or could not promptly signal its occurrence;• Too much data could determine a situation of decisional paralysis. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 16. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Torino Metro Line 1 : Geology/GeotechnicsThe formation interested from the tunnel line is mainly constituted by fluvio-glacial and fluvio-Rissian deposit (Quaternary), of gravelsand and cobbles in silty matrix. Within this formation there are 4 units identified by specific granulometric characteristics anddifferent cementation:• unit 1 – superficial ground• unit 2 – gravel with sand from loose to slightly cemented• unit 3 – gravel with sand from weak to medium cemented• unit 4 - gravel with sand from medium to highly cemented.The tunnel excavation interested mainly unit 2 and 3. The ground water level varied from tunnel invert up to a maximum height of 7m measured at crown (Shaft n°6). Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 17. POLITECNICO DI TORINO 4. Public opinion;The insertion of infrastructure in aTurin urban environment shouldconsider that its layout is strictlyconnected to the site topography(highly populated environment) and tothe existing infrastructures andstructures.Even if they don’t interfere in a directway with the tunnel, they couldrepresent an obstacle to theconstruction of stations, ventilationshafts, access points and/oremergency accesses. The highinteraction level with the traffic andthe surface activities should becarefully studied in order to manageproblems with the public opinion. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 18. POLITECNICO DI TORINO 5. Legislative conditions; Legislative conditions Small areas of the construction sites Environmental requirementsinvolving a study of the executivephases, a precise planning of theprocurements and of thematerials evacuation equipmentin order to reach the identification of machineries necessary to minimize thetransmission of the vibrations to the adjacent buildings caused by their transit intunnels (wheeled vehicles, discharge belts, mud pumping, etc.) Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 19. POLITECNICO DI TORINOThe main aspects which were been highlighted and analyzed during contract:1. Consolidation typology and techniques;2. TBM (Tunnel Boring Machine) typology and features;3. Environmental monitoring;4. Structural monitoring. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 20. POLITECNICO DI TORINOTender design assumed as method:- Injections;- Sheet pile.Due to the presence of structures near orunder infrastructures or buildings and thegroundwater presence with the aim ofimproving the soil features and provisionalsupport systems necessary during theexcavation phase. Project HypothesisThe most important aspect to be considered isthe realization of a careful analysis of itsconsequences on the building structure and theexisting ones.For the first ones the major risks are due to:• Lack of an effective treatment;• Abnormal pressures;• Cracks and infiltrations;• Creep phenomena;For the second ones the major risks are due to: Turin – Line 1• Settlements and/or lifting of near structures; Real intervention• Damaging of the buildings;• Environment pollution. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 21. POLITECNICO DI TORINOThe choice of the service systems can be influenced by external elements, such as noiselimits, particular buildings and inhabitants, etc.For example, after the acoustic modeling of the Turin Metro the mortar production systemwas changed in order to improve the acoustic comfort of the people resident in the area.Turin – Line 1 – Mortar Production plant Turin – Line 1 – Final. No plant Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 22. POLITECNICO DI TORINO 5. Environmental requirements;The environmental requirements are increasingly important in the design process andconstruction of infrastructure in urban areas.Environmental Monitoring target: • Limitation of the construction activities impact • Compliance with the local environmental regulations • Immediate management of unforecast impacts by means of effective communication and specialized competencesThese aims can be achieved by: • Assessment of the environmental conditions before construction (Ante Operam Monitoring) •Evaluation and monitoring of the environmental quality during construction (Monitoring During Construction) • Correlation between the environment changes and the construction site progress • Immediate intervention when environmentally critical thresholds are exceeded Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 23. POLITECNICO DI TORINOThe study and intervention areas can be divided into 3 groups: 1. Environmental monitoring: a) Atmosphere b) Noise; c) Vibrations. 2. Management of excavation earth and rocks; 3. Green management.For the realization on the interventions in the Turin and Rome Metroshave been employed the following methodologies: a) Atmosphere monitoring methodologies Measurement of total inhalable dust; Measurement of dust lay; NO2 and C6H6 measurement. b) Noise monitoring methodologies: 24 hours measurements; 7 days measurements; Short period measurements in a living environment. c) Vibration monitoring methodologies: Short period measurements; Long period measurements. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 24. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Monitoring campaigns Comparison of the results obtained with the threshold limits Threshold limits exceeded Threshold limits met Open af an anomaly:Analysis of the possible causes which produced the criticalityand prompt execution of the mitigation interventions to solve Cleaning of pavements where and/or control the problems occurred there is the vehicles transit; maintenance of clearing brushes, etc. Examples of mitigation intervention realized Optimization of pumps acoustic insulation, etc. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 25. POLITECNICO DI TORINOAs specified before,also in this case it isextremely importantthe interactionproject-construction-monitoring-project,both for themanagement of theanomalies and for theimplementation of thethreshold limits forworks execution.In the specific Turin case, the ongoing atmosphere monitoring campaigns are realized on 28receptors with:• 35 measurements of total PM10 inhalable dust• 58 measurements of dust lay• 40 NO2 and C6H6 measurements Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 26. POLITECNICO DI TORINOIn the following chart havebeen highlighted the referenceand results with the trends andthe PM10 limits exceeding.In the following chart havebeen highlighted the resultswith the trends and the limitsexceeding of sedimentairborne dust. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 27. POLITECNICO DI TORINOIn the following chart havebeen highlighted the resultswith the trends and thebenzene limits exceeding.In the following chart havebeen highlighted the resultswith the trends and the NO2limits exceeding. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 28. POLITECNICO DI TORINO The noise monitoring campaigns are carried out on 20 receptors with:• 39 measurements semi-fixed workstations;• 41 measurements fixed workstations;• 15 short period measurements, living environment.In addition, to guarantee 24 hours/day – 7 days/week working conditions has beendeveloped an integrative monitoring system to define and control the limitsThe working and management Authorized Contractor Monitoring:flow can be represented by the Asks for the issue of aninteraction among the different •24 spot Authorization for a specificasubjects involved: monitored temporary activity •2 receptors Possible monitored withThe Designer and Contractor fixed definition of arequire the approval of the Municipality continuous monitored monitoringproject acoustic impact; the stations activity or “adcontrol Authority defines the •3 weekly Authority hoc” spotevaluation parameters and monitored Gives its technical- measurements receptors scientific support for as control of thegrants the authorization; then the evalutation of the most impactingthe Designer and Contractor issue of the activitiesmonitor the acoustic impact authorizationwhen the works are in progress, Gives authorizations andmainly during the execution of fixes the time thresholds limits, prescriptions tothe activities which have the limit the noisebiggest acoustic impact. emissions. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 29. POLITECNICO DI TORINOThe vibration monitoring campaigns are in progress and realized on 14 receptors:• 37 short period measurements• 10 long period measurements (24 hours) Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 30. POLITECNICO DI TORINOThe Excavation Material management is subject to both national and local regulations.Metro excavation operations normally produce two types of materials:• Treated soils• Untreated soilsTurin Metro project included a plan of re-use of the excavation soils following the aboveclassification, i.e.:• Soils and rocks from Stations, Wells, Surface excavations and walls are continuouslyassessed for re-use in quarries• Soils and rocks from excavation with TBM are temporarily disposed to be assessed andsubsequently re-used for backfilling, embankments and other compatible uses. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 31. POLITECNICO DI TORINO TBM Transport belt to TBM starting site Wagons and fixed crane Surface temporary depot Load and transport temporary area Discharge and creation of piles in the operational lots Trasport to final destination Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 32. POLITECNICO DI TORINO The temporary area is divided into operational lots, which are gradually filled to guarantee the traceability of the excavated material. The characterization is divided into the following phases: • During the excavation phase at the excavation TBM head; • At the temporary depot in every operation lot;to guarantee that each sample (which have been previously taken and analysedduring and after the decay phase) contains concentrations of elements inaccordance to the parameters analysed are lower than the concentration limitsprovided by the legislation. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 33. POLITECNICO DI TORINOManagement of the green elements.The ante-operam activities are:• Census of all the trees which could interfere with the works;• Evaluation, for each tree, of the interference percentage;• Evaluation of the possibility of maintaining the trees(properly protected by crashes) in the area;• Evaluation of the necessity of removing the trees;• Definition of the removal intervention typology (cuttingdown or transplanting) in accordance with: species dimension phytopathological status• Evaluation of the possibility of relocating the trees in originalsite, at the end of the works. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 34. POLITECNICO DI TORINOThe transplanting has been realized by special equipments in orderto safeguard the trees radical planting and guarantee a correctrooting in the new site. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 35. POLITECNICO DI TORINOTBM Selection – Application field. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 36. POLITECNICO DI TORINO The areas of TBM employment following the soil conditions can be represented as follows:The main requirements a TBM should have to work in a urban environment can be connected to:• Workers safety;• Realization of the excavation process, including: materials provision (inside the TBM); material discharge; easy maintenance of the TBM head.• Interaction with monitoring parameters;• Availability of equipments necessary to control the excavation head pressure;• Equipments to realize tests and surveys inwards;• Availability to realize additional treatments inwards;• Assembling, maintenance and disassembling flexibility;• Driving flexibility. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 37. POLITECNICO DI TORINOSoil correction. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 38. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Selected TBM Herrenknecht TBM (EPB) Marca e modello Mod. S-415 Tratte e lotti T2 - Lotto 2 Diametro di scavo [m] 7,750 Potenza [kW] 2000 Velocità di rotazione [rpm] 0,0 - 3,0 Spinta [kN] 55.750 Coppia [kNm] 14.648 Lunghezza scudo [m] 8,301. Fronte di attacco Lunghezza back-up [m] 802. Testa di scavo L conci [m] 1,403. Camera di scavo Sp conci [m] 0,304. Parete di pressione Diametro int [m] 6,885. Cilindro di spinta Copertura tipica [m] 126. Coclea Copertura max [m] 207. Conci L tratta [km] 3,18. Coda Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 39. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Previous projects:France – Tolosa 2003 -2005 Metro project [5.600m]France – Parigi 2006 - 2007 Water reservoir [1.800m] Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 40. POLITECNICO DI TORINOMain works: 1. Bearing inspection and service; 2. Service of cutter-haed; 3. Service of screw conveyor; 4. Change of belt; 5. Cylinder pressures tests 6. Certification of tanks (water and oil) 7. Certification of hyperbaric chamber; 8. Replacement of suctions sealing; 9. Replacement of cables; 10.Replacement of guidance and operation system; 11.Replacement of pressures cells. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 41. POLITECNICO DI TORINOCutter-head refurbishement Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 42. POLITECNICO DI TORINOCutter-head as dressed in Marconi Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 43. POLITECNICO DI TORINOCutter-head as dressed in Nizza Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 44. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 45. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 46. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 47. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Segmental lining Diametro esterno De = 7.48m Diametro interno Di = 6.88m Spessore s = 0.30m Raggio di progetto R = 261.8m Lunghezza media L = 1400mm Lunghezza minima Lmin = 1380mm Lunghezza massima Lmax = 1420mm Numero di conci n = 6 Volume anello Va = 9.4725m3 Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 48. POLITECNICO DI TORINO TBM Site installation Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 49. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Material and segments feeding Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 50. POLITECNICO DI TORINOThe correct choice of the TBM is the first step tomanage the excavation.Then it is necessary to identify and define theother equipments to be used, depending of jobsite conditions such as:• Trains or Dumper• Mortar or double-component systems• Purification systems – Water treatment plants• Compressors• Slurry Shield (SS) or Earth Pressure Balance(EPB) TBM• Service crane• Segment storage area Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 51. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 52. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Much removal Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 53. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 54. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 55. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 56. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 57. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Ancillaries Plants Elettroventilatore da 135 kW Torre di raffreddamento: 4 pompe da 11 kW + 1 elettroventilatore da 7,5 kWCarro ponte per sollevamento in superficie materiale di smarino, composto da 2 motori per l’argano di sollevamento da 135 kW, 4 motori di traslazione da 7,5 kW, 2 motori di traslazione da 4 kW Gru Potain 310 B Impianto di depurazione acqua (10 mc/h) Argano raccoglitore nastro Cabina elettrica di trasformazione 22.000/20.000 V GE per emergenza da 400 kW Mescolatore con invio malta in galleria Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 58. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 59. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 60. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 61. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Assembly Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 62. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 63. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 64. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 65. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Steel rings Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 66. POLITECNICO DI TORINOThrust Frame Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 67. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 68. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 69. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 70. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 71. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 72. POLITECNICO DI TORINOThe correct project and development of the soil stability system is extremely important.To guarantee the pressure control at the head of the front and to allow the formation of amaterial easy to be extracted from the screw conveyor it is necessary to put conditioningagents in the excavated soil, such as bentonite, foaming agents, polymers and thin material.In our case, we wear the TBM with a separate circuit of emergency injection of bentonite toavoid loosing pressure and settlements. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 73. POLITECNICO DI TORINOThe most important requirement for our job was the environment protection, in order topreserve the soil, buildings, utilities and already existing structures. Turin – Line 1 – Head of TBMFeatures in order to choose the correct excavation and TBM typology:• Settlements;• Interferences;• Depot of demolition materials, with particular attention to their feature and to pollutant agents;• Interface of the external monitoring systems with the parameters of TBM control;• Availability of areas to assemble, launch and extract the TBM. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 74. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Soil Conditioning Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 75. POLITECNICO DI TORINOSoil correction. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 76. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Mechanized excavation : Basic principles The Earth Pressure Balanced (EPB) tunnelling method owns it’s name from the way the front face of the TBM is supported during excavation, using earth pressure. The principles of the EPB-tunnelling method can described as follows (Kanayasu, Yamamoto and Kitahara, 1995): • The soil is excavated by rotating cutter heads; • The excavated soil is mechanically agitated and fills the face and an excavation chamber.; • Using the thrust of the shield machine, by means of hydraulic jacks, the excavated soil is pressurized to stabilize the excavation front (force equilibrium); • Control of the soil pressure in the chamber is done by adjusting the amount of soil discharged through the screw conveyor or other soil removal devices and the amount of soil excavated to counterbalance earth and groundwater pressure (volume equilibrium); • The excavated soil in the chamber and the screw conveyors work as a water seal. The earth pressure support method is generally used in cohesive soils, enabling it to be used as a supporting medium itself, with the use of conditioning materials if necessary. A Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 77. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Support pressure – Calculation Methods used on MetrotorinoMETHOD OF JANCSECZ & STEINER (1994)According to the model of Horn (1961), the three-dimensional failure scheme consistsof a soil wedge (lower part) and a soil silo (upper part). The vertical pressure resultingfrom the silo and acting on the soil wedge is calculated according to Terzaghi’ssolution.A three-dimensional earth pressure coefficient ka3 is defined as:ka3 = (sinβ · cos · – cos2β · tanφ – K · α · cosβ · tanφ/1.5)/(sinβ · cosβ + sin2β ·tanφ)where:K ≈ [1 – sinφ + tan2(45 + φ/2)]/2; α = (1 + 3 · t/D)/(1 + 2 · t/D).METHOD OF LECA & DORMIEUX (1990)This method is based on the upper and lower limit theorems with a 3D-modelling. Theupper(+) and lower (-) limit solutions are obtained by means of a cinematic and a staticmethod, respectively, giving thus an optimistic and a pessimistic estimation of the face-support pressure. In the case of dry condition, the face support pressure σT is (Ribacchi1994):σT = – c’ · ctgϕ’ + Qγ · γ · D/2 + Qs · (σs + c’ · ctgϕ’)where Qγ, Qs = non dimensional factors (from normograms), function of H/a and ϕ’; a= radius of the tunnel; H = thickness of the ground above the tunnel axis.METHOD OF ANOGNOSTOU & KOVARI (1996)This method, later referred to as A-K method, is based on the silo theory (Janssen 1895)and to the three-dimensional model of sliding mechanism proposed by Horn (1961).The analysis is performed in drained condition, and a difference between the stabilizingwater pressure and effective pressure in the plenum of an EPBS is presented. If there isa difference between the water pressure in the plenum and that in the ground,destabilizing seepage forces occur and a higher effective pressure is required at the face.However, accepting this flow, the total stabilizing pressure is lower than the pressurerequired in the case of an imposed hydrogeological balance. The effective stabilizingpressure (σ’) :σ’ = F0 · γ’ · D – F1 · c’ + F2 · γ’ · ∆h – F3 · c’ · ∆h/Dwhere F0,F1,F2,F3 are non-dimensional factors derived from normograms, which arefunction of H/D and ϕ’. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 78. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Support pressure – Calculation Methods used on MetrotorinoMETHOD OF DIN 4085 (GERMAN STANDARD)In this model, three-dimensional active earth pressure is calculated according to DIN 4085, which is based on the failuremechanism theory of Piaskowski & Kowalewski. The method divides the tunnel face into multiple horizontal strips.The three-dimensional active earth pressure acting on each strip is calculated with the two-dimensional active earthpressure method, adjusted by reduction factors. These factors are calculated depending upon the ratio of depth of thelayer to tunnel diameter.To ensure stability of the tunnel face, it is necessary to counterbalance the total force of active earth and water pressure.These forces are multiplied separately with safety factors as per the concept of partial factor of safetyPsupport= η a E a + η w WWhere, η a and η w are partial factors of safety for active earth pressure (Ea) and water pressure (W) respectively. Past experiences in Japan (from Kanayasu) MetroTorino P = k aσ v + σ w + 20 [kPa] Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 79. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Support pressure - Calculations using different methods 120 Spinta attiva Ka 110 100 Spinta a riposo 90 Ko 80 DIN 4085Pressure [kPa] 70 Anagnostou & 60 Kovari 50 Leca-Dormieux 40 30 Normativa olandese COB 20 Jancsecz & 10 Steiner 1097 PL2 1147 1197 1247 1297 NIZZA SHAFT STATION Chainage [m] Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 80. POLITECNICO DI TORINO EPB – SUPPORT PRESSURE Warning Pressure in working chamber Attention Po = 0.9 Pd Po = 1.2 Pd Alarm Po = 0.8 Pd Po = 1.3 Pd Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 81. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Excavation parameters control PENETRATION RATE [mm/min]The parameters, to be verified via the sensors and sensing equipment, are: EXCAVATION PHASE• Face-support pressure• Pressure and volume of the backfill grout of the annular void• Weight of the extracted material PRESSURE SENSORS [Bar] OPERATIONS – BUILDING RING SCREW CONVEYOR RATE [rpm] Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 82. POLITECNICO DI TORINOEPB –TBM OPERATION MODE Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 83. POLITECNICO DI TORINO END EXCAVATION PHASE END EXCAVATION PHASEPRESSURE INCREASE SCREW CONVEYOR STOPPED PRESSURIZED AIR/FOAM INFLOW Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 84. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Definition of normal and anomalous conditionsNormal excavating conditions are considered all those conditions, whose EPBS excavation characteristic parameters fall within the “attention”thresholdsAnomalous conditions are associated with:• Water inflows under pressure through the screw conveyor.• Sudden oscillations of the torque of the cutterhead.• Blockage of the cutterhead.• Anomalous pressure values in the excavation chamber.• Sudden and significant variations of the muck density in the excavation chamber.• Weight of the muck extracted by the screw conveyor surpassing the “attention” threshold.• Insufficient pressure and/or volume of the grout injected behind the lining.Pressure management in the work chamberSudden variations of the face-support pressure could be the warning signals resulting from torqueincreases or head blockages.In case the pressure increases:•The head rotating speed is reduced to <1 rpm.•The thrust is reduced so that penetration rate, Vp, is <10 mm/min.•The foam flow is increased by 20%,without increasing the muck discharge from the screw.In case the pressure diminishes:•Bentonite is injected to re-establish the design support pressure.•If pressure still does not increase, excavation is stopped and the screw gate is closed.•Bentonite and polymer injection is continued until the designed support-pressure is achieved. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 85. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Weight Management Special method statement, additional investigation Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 86. POLITECNICO DI TORINO The RINGThe tunnels have inner diameter of 6.8mt and is lined with pre-cast 30 cm thick segments in reinforced concrete,connected by EPDM gaskets to insure water tight conditions. Even withrather small curves and consequent assemblyoffsets of the segment ring, there is no water passage within the tunnel.Each 1.4 m long ring consists of 5 “normal” elements plus one “key” element that enables the closure of the ring, a“universal” lock that permits to adapt the ring to any kind of radius, from the minimum to the linear one, by a simplerotation of every ring compared to the previous one along the tunnel axis at a given angle.The injection of mortar behind the segments, performed immediately at the beginning of the excavation procedures,ensures the reduction of superficial collapse and the correct confinement/bedding of the lining. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 87. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Segment Design Steps Generally, design steps for TBM tunnels could be as follows (ITA,2000): Step 1: Define geometric parameters Alignment, excavation diameter, lining diameter, lining thickness, width of ring, segment system, joint connections Step 2: Determine geotechnical data Shear strength of soil, deformation modulus, earth pressure coefficient Step 3: Select critical sections Influence of overburden, surcharge, groundwater, adjacent structures Step 4: Determine mechanical data of TBM Confinement pressure, overcut, shield tail conicality, TBM length, total thrust pressure, number of thrusts, number of pads, pad dimensions, grouting pressure, space for installation. All these structural parameters associated with TBM characteristics may have potential impact on ring stress analysis. Step 5: Define material properties Concrete: compressive strength, modulus of elasticity Reinforcement: type, tensile strength Gasket: type, dimensions, allowable gap, elastic capacity Step 6: Design loads Soil pressure, water pressure, construction loads etc. Step 7: Design models Empirical model, analytical model, numerical model Step 8: Computational results Response: axial force, moment, shear Deformation: deflection Detailing: reinforcement, joints, groove Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 88. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Loading Conditions The tunnel lining behind the TBM must be capable of withstanding all loads/actions and combined actions without deforming, especially during ring erection and advance. Single-shell reinforced concrete segmental rings behind the TBM, can be designed to fulfill those demands. Secondary lining can also be constructed with cast-in- place concrete as a structural member of the segmental lining. There are many loading cases for the segmental lining of tunnels driven by TBMs. The following loads shall normally be considered in designing the lining of the shield tunnel (JSCE, 1996): (1) Vertical and horizontal earth pressure (2) Water pressure (3) Dead weight (4) Effects of surcharge (5) Soil reaction (6) Internal loads (7) Construction loads (8) Effects of earthquakes (9) Effects of two or more shield tunnels construction (10) Effects of working in the vicinity (11) Effects of ground subsidence (12) Others Various combinations of the loads can be considered according to the purpose of the tunnel usage. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 89. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Geostatical LoadsThis load case analyses the load effects on lining segments and ground. For MetroTorino we employed FLAC to predict axial load andbending Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 90. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Thrust Jacking Loading The functions of the linings during tunnel construction are to sustain jack thrust for advancing a shield machine and to withstand the back-fill grouting pressure. The linings have also the function as a tunnel lining structure immediately after the shield is advanced. Thrust force of shield jacks is a temporary load which acts on the segment as a reaction force against it while advancement the shield machine and is the most influential load to the segment among the construction loads. Several verifications must be done for the jacking load effects on the segment, such as contact pressure, bursting forces in the radial direction, and bursting forces in the circumferential direction. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 91. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Grouting Loads Primary grouting pressure applied to fill up the tail void behind the TBM is believed to govern both deformations and internal lining forces, as well as affect surface settlements. The grouting pressure acting on the outer surface (extrados) when the ring leaves the shield. For normal conditions, when a highly flowable mortar is used, the grouting pressure can be calculated constant around the ring. The annular grouting of the ring, with a grouting pressure minimum one bar (1 bar) higher than the surrounding water pressure, prestresses the ring and the enclosing ground. Secondary grouting pressure is an extending regular grout pressure. These transient type loads result from a localized increase in grouting pressure ("local pumping thrust") directly behind the segment grouting holes. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 92. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Storage Loads After mould stripping, segments are set down and stacked on supports. Timber blocks are usually placed between segments taking care that they are aligned with the supports. Storage and handling (e.g. turning, packing and then loading-out operations, supply to the workface…) influence the bending moment. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 93. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Handling Loads During erection, the lining is subjected to a number of loads such as: forces resulting from segments overhanging during ring assembly; possible bumping impact loads; loads applied by the assembly systems retained (bolts, anchor bolts or plugs) it is necessary to consider the increasing in the mass forces due to dynamic effects. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 94. POLITECNICO DI TORINOPossible future excavations next to structuresPossible future buildings must be considered in the analysis, assumingsome restricitions. As an example (zone 4B):•Vertical restrictions - Excavations shall not exceed a total depth of 8 m.•Lateral restrictions - No future excavations shall take place within an areaof 5 m above the tunnel crown and 17 m on either side of the tunnel centreline.Trailer LoadingTrailer chassis and other service loads can be applied on lining, includingmain bearing loads, divided by number of wheels .The loads induced by thetrailer and by any fixations in the segments normally do not influence thereinforcement. During discussions with TBM manufacturer, it is necessaryto state whether "Main Bearing Load" will be included in this type of analysisor not.Fire loadConcrete tunnels are vulnerable to elevated temperatures caused by fire.Tests have shown that when the temperature of the reinforcement reaches300˚C, the bond between the rebar and concrete will be significantlyreduced, leading to irreparable sagging and possible collapse of the totalstructure. Moreover, when concrete is exposed to fire temperatures asexperienced in tunnels, concrete spalling often occurs. Tunnel cross-sectionsmust be analyzed to consider fire loading. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 95. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Settlement and Volume loss Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 96. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Settlement and Volume loss In a properly supported non-TBM tunnel, 70-80% of total surface settlement is due to deformations ahead of tunnel face. In a shield-driven excavation, the fraction varies significantly (<< 70%) depending on the method. As an example, until a recent date, the following distribution of settlements to the surface was observed: - 10 to 20 % caused by the face; - 40 to 50 % caused by the void along the shield; -30 to 50 % caused at the end of the tail seal. The net volume of the surface settlement trough will be approximately equal to the volume loss at the tunnel in most ground conditions. If the ground response is at constant volume (i.e. undrained), the relationship will be exact. The hypothesis will be checked especially if the ground is clayish and the overburden is thin. The magnitude of the volume loss VL depends on many different factors: soil type tunnelling method rate of tunnel advance tunnel size form of temporary and primary support Before the magnitude of ground movements can be predicted it is necessary to estimate the expected ground loss. This estimate will be based on case history data and should include an engineering appraisal that takes into account the proposed tunnelling method and site conditions. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 97. POLITECNICO DI TORINOSettlements calculation : Numerical method Paratie con solettone copertura e piano atrio di contrasto 0.0 -0.5 Cedimento [mm] -1.0 -1.5 -2.0 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 Distanza fondazioni-paratia [m] Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 98. POLITECNICO DI TORINOSettlements calculation : Empirical method Empirical methods are used to assess the settlements using formulas that are based on empirical relations between available data. This data has been collected and assessed by a lot of researchers and for a lot of different projects. Peck (1969) was the first to propose that the surface settlement profile could be represented by a Gaussian distribution curve. In Turin Metro volume loss was about 0.3-0.5% Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 99. POLITECNICO DI TORINOSettlements calculation : Building damage assessment DATI DI INPUT OUTPUT Interferenza n° 1000 Cedimento massimo singola canna [cm] -3.7 Volume perso [%] 1 Diametro Galleria [m] 7.90 Copertura [m] 10 Cedimento vertice SX [cm] 0.00 Parametro K 0.375 Cedimento vertice DX[cm] -0.85 Distanza tra gli assi [m] 0 Rapporto δ/L zona di Hogging 0.000309 Rapporto δ/L zona di Sagging - Ascissa SX edificio [m] -24.4 Epsilon terreno Hogging [%] 0.036551 Ascissa DX edificio [m] -9.4 Epsilon terreno Sagging [%] 0.00 Altezza [m] 7.1 Rapporto E/G 12.5 Epsilon flessionale Hogging [%] 0.046273 Epsilon flessionale Sagging [%] 0.000000 Epsilon Tagliante Hogging [%] 0.050410 Epsilon Tagliante Sagging [%] 0.00 EPSILON MASSIMA 0.050410 CATEGORIA DI DANNO 1 Cedimenti [cm] -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 -1.5 -2 -2.5 -3 Canna sx -3.5 Canna dx -4 Totale Deformazioni Epsilon [%] -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 0.2 EPS MAX flex hog 0.0007816 EPS MAX flex sag 0.0016316 0.1 EPS MAX tag hog 0.0006761 EPS MAX tag sag 0 0.0014412 -0.1 -0.2 -0.3 -0.4 Canna sx -0.5 Canna dx Totale Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 100. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Soil improvement solutions have been implemented where the assessments indicate potential risk of damage to the pre-existing structures. Such interventions include improving the properties of the ground and mitigating the deforming effects induced by tunnelling by means of low-pressure cement injection grouting. A consolidated slab is created above the tunnel section in order to avoid any localized instability from developing around it. Different grouting geometry have been defined, based on relative position between the tunnel and pre-existing structures, as well as site accessibility and surface site areas use. The project includes full-face cement grouting in the areas adjacent to the stations where the TBM will enter into or exit from the stations: the diaphragm walls in these particular areas will be partially demolished to let the TBMs in and out. In accordance with the environmental conditions, the drilling and grouting operations were done from the surface and/or from in service shafts and tunnels. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 101. POLITECNICO DI TORINO MONITORING• STRUCTURAL MONITORING: – TENSION (STRAIN GAUGES, LOAD CELLS, etc.) – DEFORMATION, SETTLEMENT (INCLINOMETERS, OPTICAL TARGET, etc.)• BUILDING MONITORING: – BUILDINGS DISPLACEMENTS (TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYING, ELECTRONIC LEVEL, CONTINUOUS MONITORING, CLINOMETER, etc.) – CRACK GROWTH (CRACK MONITOR) – VIBRATION (VIBROMETER) BE: Strain gauge CTC: Optical target IN: Inclinometer Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 102. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Interferences with subservices Example: existing sanitary sewer Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 103. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Interferences with subservices Example: existing sanitary sewer Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 104. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Interferences with subservices Example: existing sanitary sewer Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 105. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Interferences with subservices Example: rain water sewer Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 106. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 107. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 108. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 109. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 110. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 111. POLITECNICO DI TORINOTorino metro urban project should take account of a multidisciplinary approach thatconsiders all the processes of the entire lifecycle and performance of the works.The integrated methodological approach, implemented in the execution of projects andworks of construction into urban areas, must necessarily involve the adoption of a process ofcontinual revision of the initial assumptions of the design, through the continuousanalysis of monitoring data for proper risk management. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 112. POLITECNICO DI TORINO Multidisciplinary analysis; Design review; Management of environmental issues; Management of public opinion;are elements that are becoming increasingly important in the execution of a project and the subsequent works.This approach addresses the proper way to proceed towards subjects who are able to manage not only the design phase, but also the construction phase to ensure consistency in approach, construction and commitment during the whole lifecycle of the project. Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master Course TUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
  • 113. POLITECNICO DI TORINOTHANK YOU Academic Year: 2009-10 Post Graduate Master CourseTUNNELLING AND TUNNEL BORING MACHINES