Sustainable Legal Framework for Open Access to Research Data

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The presentation explores various issues (legal and ethical) affected open access to research data.

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Sustainable Legal Framework for Open Access to Research Data

  1. 1. Building a Sustainable Framework for Open Access to Research Data Through Information and Communication Technologies <ul><li>Gideon Emcee Christian </li></ul><ul><li>telecentre.org </li></ul><ul><li>December 2009 </li></ul>International Development Research Centre
  2. 2. The Outline <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Data rights in US and EU </li></ul><ul><li>Frameworks for open data </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Factual Trend in Open Data </li></ul><ul><li>Open Access and Data Utility </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Removal of access barriers to macro/publicly available data. </li></ul><ul><li>In-depth access to other aspect of an openly accessible data e.g. access to micro-data </li></ul>Open Data
  4. 4. Data rights <ul><li>Data rights in US </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fiest v. Rural - “ originality” or “sweat of the brow” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data rights in EU </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EU Database Directive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>conventional copyright protection – originality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ sui generis’ protection – not a real IPR, meant to protect economic interest in database creation, restrict whole or substantial copying </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Data rights are transferable </li></ul>
  5. 5. Frameworks for open data <ul><ul><li>Open data contract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>International HapMap Project </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Content Licenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GNU Free Documentation License (GNU FDL) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Based copyleft principle (share-alike) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>suitable for works whose purpose is instruction or reference </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creative Commons (CC) license </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attribution (BY) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Commercial (NC) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No Derivative (ND) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Share-Alike (SA) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Creative Commons <ul><ul><li>Free to use any or combination of the CC licensing condition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subsists with copyright </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uniprot Project (BY+ND) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Criticism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Remote control” over downstream user of data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some conditions are not compatible e.g ND+SA </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Open Data Commons <ul><ul><li>Standard for copyright protection differs from one legal jurisdiction to another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contractual terms and conditions may carry legal weight in jurisdictions but not in another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Various conditions in CC licence may operate against data integration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data commons requires rightsholders to dedicate their works to the public domain for the benefit of the public and relinquish all rights in the work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The principle is to return data to public domain and grease the wheel of research and inovation. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Open Data Commons <ul><li>Public Domain Dedication and License (PDDL) </li></ul><ul><li>Science Commons Data Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>Creative Commons Zero (CC0) licence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The person who associated a work with this document has dedicated the work to the Commons by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Criticism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ No right reserved” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of attribution </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Ethical Issues <ul><li>Privacy and confidentiality - Remsburg v. Docusearch </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy v. Open Access </li></ul>Privacy Advocates OA Advocates Definition 1 Open Access to public data Definition 2 Access to micro data
  10. 10. dbGaP Project <ul><li>Involved collection of highly sensitive genetic information. </li></ul><ul><li>Has the goal of making the data freely and widely accessible. </li></ul><ul><li>The database developed two levels of access – open and controlled access. </li></ul><ul><li>Prior informed consent – Hapmap Project </li></ul>
  11. 11. Factual Trend in Open Data <ul><li>Of 12 randomly selected pure and social sciences data archive, only 4 has full open access. </li></ul><ul><li>A growing number of pure science databases are adopting full open access policy than other disciplines. </li></ul><ul><li>Research funders play a crucial role in enhancing open access to research data. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Archive or Database Level of access Type of Data 1 GenBank Full Open Access Pure science 2 The protein data bank Full Open Access Pure science 3 Universal Protein Resource Full Open Access Pure science 4 HapMap Full Open Access Pure science 5 dbGaP Open Access/restricted access Pure science 6 Afrobarometer Full Open Access/Delayed data release Social science 7 ZACAT - GESIS Online Study Catalogue Open Access/Restricted Access Social science and others 8 Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research Open Access/Restricted Access Social science and others 9 Economic and Social Data Service Restricted Access Social science and others 10 Odesi (Ontario) Restricted Access Social science 11 ADPSS Socio Data Restricted Access Social science 12 UK Data Archives Restricted Access Social sciences and humanities
  13. 13. ZACAT - GESIS Online Study Catalogue
  14. 14. The Relationship between Openness and Utility <ul><li>Number of downloads and visits to database not a good tool for measuring data utility </li></ul><ul><li>The number of research publications emanating from data derives from a database or archive is a much better yardstick. </li></ul><ul><li>But it is often very difficult for open access archives to keep an accurate track of the number of publications resulting from their data. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Tracked Research publications based on the Hapmap Project
  16. 16. Areas for further research <ul><li>What is the yardstick for determining the most appropriate framework for open data access? </li></ul><ul><li>To what extent should ethical concerns appropriately restrict access to research data? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the empirical correlation between openness and data utility? </li></ul>
  17. 17. Acknowledgments <ul><li>Frank Tulus </li></ul><ul><li>Michael Clarke </li></ul><ul><li>Telecentre.org </li></ul><ul><li>CTAP - IDRC </li></ul>[email_address]

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