Internacional water-resources-issues

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Internacional water-resources-issues

  1. 1. INTERNATIONAL WATER- RESOURCES ISSUES Some Concepts and Case Studies
  2. 2. Water-Resources Management Concept
  3. 3. Examples of Global Water Issues• Human health (water supply/sanitation)• Food and agriculture• Mining and industry• Other water uses – recreation & fishing• Political conflicts• Lack of regulatory enforcement• Discussion, opinions, and questions
  4. 4. A “check list” – to keep in mind during this presentation:• Water availability (supply) – quantity & quality• Water-resources sustainability (climate change)• Water law, administration, and enforcement• Studies and decisions with limited data – Characterization assessments – Model applications (calibration/verification/simulation)• IWRM – the current “silver bullet”
  5. 5. Topics of Interest• Definition of “basin”• Transboundary basins• Basin organizations• Water development• Trade-offs – impacts• Structural issues• Institutional issues• IWRM approaches• built into governmental• agencies (Africa, EU)
  6. 6. Global Population and Water-Use Trends Source: Gleick (1998)
  7. 7. Uso del Agua - Algunos datos• Per cápita alcanzó su punto máximo la extracción de agua en los EE.UU. en 1975 (2.300 m3/p/yr), pasando de 500 en 1900 y m3/p/yr actualmente m3/p/yr 2000. Las demandas globales están aumentando 4.3 por ciento / año.• El mayor uso de agua en el mundo se da en la agricultura de regadío, este uso es en gran medida ineficaz. De baja energía aplicación de precisión (LEPA) puede aumentar la eficiencia de rociadores 60 a 70 hasta tanto como 95 por ciento. El riego por goteo es cada vez más utilizados.• El precio del agua juega un papel clave en el uso del agua.*Fuente: Gleick (1998), The World’s Water.
  8. 8. Drinking Water & Basic Sanitation -- Some Facts• First Roman aqueducts – 312 B.C. Eventually, nine water systems conveyed through an extensive system of lead pipes. Per-capita water supply matched much of the modern industrialized world. Well-built sewers drained the city. [Lead became the “downfall” of this empire]• 1990 estimates include 1.2 billion population without safe drinking water and 1.7 billion without sanitation.• 2012 estimates conclude that unsafe water and poor sanitation will kill more children than malaria, AIDS, and accidents combined. Most deaths come from diarrheal disease, and 90% of the victims are children under the age of five.*Sources: WHO (1996); Gleick (1998), The World’s Water; Water & Wastes Digest (2012)
  9. 9. International Water-Resources Examples• Nepal• Republic of Yemen• Chile (2nd, regional GW development/basin study)• Argentina• Mexico (various regional studies; WQ network design)• Mali – groundwater contamination/airport• Panama – rural and municipal water supplies• Pakistan – salinity control & reclamation• NW PR China – master water-resources planning• The Philippines – City of Manila water supply
  10. 10. Case Study 1 – Koshi River Basin, Nepal
  11. 11. Himalayan Mountains, Nepal
  12. 12. Water-Resources Issues and Concerns, Nepal• Koshi – A transnational river basin• Climate change – Changes in seasonal streamflow variations – Water-management implications• Deforestation• Land-use changes• Erosion and sedimentation• Water supply and sanitation (sewage treatment)
  13. 13. Water-Resources Management Components and Tools -- Nepal• Data – Precipitation (rainfall, snow) – areal and temporal patterns – Streamflow monitoring – sites, data gaps, etc. – Land use – Geology and soils – Socio-economic -- population, agriculture, etc.• Physical-process hydrologic model(s)• Hypothetical scenarios – climate, land use, etc.
  14. 14. Components of a Hydrologic Model (J2000)
  15. 15. Kosi River, Nepal – Actual vs. Model-Simulated Monthly Streamflows for Assumed Scenarios
  16. 16. Case Study 2 -- Republic of Yemen – A Water-Shortage Land
  17. 17. Islamic Water Law and Environmental Protection
  18. 18. What are the water issues in Yemen?• Water scarcity (with focus on groundwater)• High population-growth rates• Policy and institutions• Water contamination (pollution)• Lack of sustainable goals (planning/management)• Water awareness and education• Ineffectiveness of financial-donor projects – The World Bank – Various U.N. agencies (primarily UNDP) – Other national governments (e.g., The Netherlands)
  19. 19. Physiographic Zones in Yemen
  20. 20. Sana’a, the Capital of Yemen• 1962 population, 62,000• 1998 population, 1.2 M• Approx. 15% sewered• Water supply – Some wells; WQ issues – Water trucks to cisterns• Migration to suburbs• Old city/zuk in center – UNESCO cultural site – Wadi served as road
  21. 21. Yemen Photos – Water/Waste“Management” in Sana’a, the Capital
  22. 22. Yemen Photos – Al Mukallah Region
  23. 23. Yemen Photos – Rural Water Supply & Irrigation
  24. 24. Yemen Photo – Desertification & Dune Control
  25. 25. Case Study 3 – Mendoza Province, Argentina FAO Consultancy (2001-2002)• What are the hydrologic/institutional issues? – Increased water use – agriculture, municipal, industrial – Groundwater contamination – salinity, other WQ issues – Water administration – surface water vs. groundwater• What are the engineering “solutions”? – Build a large dam – Line irrigation canals – Regulate well-construction specifications• Other – water pricing; water-use regulation
  26. 26. Landsat Image Mendoza Irrigation System
  27. 27. Poor Well Construction & Aquifer Contamination
  28. 28. PROSPECTIVA DE LA PROBLEMÁTICA DE LA CUENCA NORTE DE MENDOZA El cambio estructural que introduce la construcción del dique de Potrerillos, producirá una serie de impactos en el sitema hídrico e hidrogeológico.Instituto Nacional del AguaCentro de Economía, Legislación y Administración del Agua
  29. 29. Case Study 4 -- Concepción, Chile – Pollution Control Plan
  30. 30. Point-Source Pollution Sources and Public Perception 10 km QUIRIQUINA 5 km ISLAND 1 km TOME TUMBES PENINSULA N CONCEPCION BAY W I W I LIRQUENSAN VICENTE RO CU ANBAY T W R IVE NR O TALCAHUANO AT PENCO LIE IP CH DA A HU I AN S AL IC EM LENGA CH I CONCEPCION HUALPEN W* ANDALIEN RIVER BIO BIO RIVE R Laguna Pineda Nonguen Laguna Creek SAN PEDRO Chica Laguna Grande
  31. 31. Issues and Study Approaches, Concepción and San Vicente Bays, Chile• Fish kills (oxygen-depleted waters)• Pollution controls of fish-processing plants• Identification of other sources of pollution – Steel and metallurgy – Textile – Chemicals and cement – Refinery and hydrocarbon (oil/LPG) off-loading – Domestic (municipal) sewage• Bay water-quality/hydraulic study (DHI MIKE 3 model)• Pollution Control Plan (PCP) for CONAMA• Technical transfer and training• Stakeholder identification and involvement• Local technical collaboration and public meetings
  32. 32. Bay Transects andExample of DHI’s Model Data Input
  33. 33. Lessons Learned and Reality Check• Mendoza, Argentina – Engineering structural components have inherent environmental and socio-economic trade-offs – Water administration and pricing – key attributes• Concepción, Chile – Initial perceptions on causes may need to be modified – Important data-model links & non-technical factors – Role of regulatory controls – consistent with real world
  34. 34. Thanks for your interest in this topic
  35. 35. For more information, visit our web:CONSULTING RESEARCH CAPACITATION CAPACITATION CAREEREnvironmental Waste dump Groundwater Applied hydrology Challenge flow seepage modeling Bioremediation of Applied MiningClimate change Opportunities tailings hydrogeology hydrogeology Groundwater GIS in water Acid rock Mine drainage Our team modeling management drainage Distributed Design of Hydropower Mission and Soil cover design hydrological monitoring plants vision modeling networks Monitoring Contact systems Gidahatari

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