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Critical Thinking & Greek Civilization (Extra Credit)- Speech 104 - Allen Arambula
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Critical Thinking & Greek Civilization (Extra Credit)- Speech 104 - Allen Arambula

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  • 1. By: Allen Arambula Los Angeles Valley College Speech 104—Argumentation
  • 2.  
  • 3.
    • Sophist was a name given to teachers who specialized in the teaching of philosophy and rhetoric.
    • The Sophists taught "arête" (quality, excellence) as the highest value and determinant of one's actions in life.
    • They explored ethical and political questions such as:
        • Does law or conventional thought establish what is right and wrong? Or is it a matter of nature?
    • Primary Roles of a Sophist: Mentor, Teachers, Ethical and Political Advisors, and Lecturer
    • Renowned Sophists: Protagoras, Gorgias, Thrasymachus, and Hippias
  • 4.
    • Sophists were NOT Philosophers but taught any subject for which there was a popular demand, including: Rhetoric, Politics, Grammar, Etymology, History, Physics, and Mathematics.
    • Ethics and Politics became the most prominent aspects of Greek Philosophy because of The Sophists
  • 5.
    • Most Prominent Elements of Sophist Philosophy was:
    • Skepticism
    • Skepticism gave rise to:
      • Phenomenalism : The belief that we can only know ideas present in our mind.
      • Empiricism: The belief that experience, by way of the senses, is our only source by which one can acquire knowledge.
      • Relativism: Theory that truth has no absolute existence, but depends upon the individual and situation in which a person finds his or herself.
  • 6.  
  • 7.
    • Dialectic Approach: A type of dialogue or discourse during which a number of positions are examined and reflected on through the process of question and answer.
    • Plato believed that the Dialectic Approach was the most productive way to solve conflict.
    • The Dialectic Approach involves:
      • Developing an Open Thesis/Position & an Antithesis/Opposite Position
    • Goal/Purpose: To arrive at a Synthesis/Agreement (According to Plato: Absolute Truth)
      • Synthesis = Absolute Truth
        • This could be the original Thesis, Antithesis, or a new position developed during the dialogue process.
  • 8.
    • The Dialectic Approach involves:
      • Developing an Open Thesis/Position & an Antithesis/Opposite Position
        • Example: Trial Court Attorney’s debate over the guilt or innocence of their clients in search for an absolute truth.
    • Goal/Purpose: To arrive at a Synthesis/Agreement (According to Plato: Absolute Truth)
      • Synthesis = Absolute Truth
        • This could be the original Thesis, Antithesis, or a new position developed during the dialogue process.
  • 9.
    • “ The Rhetoric”:
    • Book I: “Rhetoric is the counterpart of Dialectic”
    • Rhetorical Approach: Process of discovering all the available means of “artistic” persuasion on any subject.
    • In Essence : It is a creative method of Persuasion  Mostly used by Businesses in advertising, Politicians, and Organizations who are interested in financial gain, to convince others of their views/positions.
  • 10.
    • Aristotle suggests that The Art of Persuasion involves the Use of 3 Elements of Proof:
    • (1) Logos: The use of logic/reason to support a decision.
    • (Logical appeals are primarily directed at our reasoning capabilities)
    • (2) Pathos: The use of emotional and motivational appeals to support a decision.
    • (These are directed to the wishes, wants, desires, goals, and needs of the person who we want acceptance from)
    • (3) Ethos: The use of source credibility to support a conclusion.
    • (Ethos is the image of the source held in the mind(s) of the audience)
    • Source Credibility can be obtained in two ways:
    • (1) Initial Ethos: The type of ethos that is based on the arguer’s credentials, status, and/or reputation.
    • (2) Derived Ethos: The type of ethos/credibility that results from what the speaker says in a message:
      • The quality of Logos and Pathos can determine the derived ethos of a speaker’s intended message.
  • 11.
    • Source Credibility can be obtained in two ways:
    • (1) Initial Ethos: The type of ethos that is based on the arguer’s credentials, status, and/or reputation.
    • (2) Derived Ethos: The type of ethos/credibility that results from what the speaker says in a message:
    • NOTE: The quality of Logos and Pathos can determine the derived ethos of a speaker’s intended message.
    “ Doctor (with Credentials) informs an audience about the spread of Swine Flu in Mexico.” “ Oprah (with status and reputation) attempts to persuade an audience to Vote for Obama.” Both have Initial Ethos – But have Different Derived Ethos
  • 12.
    • The Apology (Defense-Speech): Is Plato’s Account of Socrates’ defense at his trial and execution.
    • Formal Legal Accusation against Socrates : "Socrates is committing an injustice, in that he inquires into things below the earth and in the sky, and makes the weaker argument the stronger, and teaches others to follow his example" (18b-c).
    • (In Essence: Disrespect toward the Gods and Corruption of the Youth )
    • Socrates was found guilty by 500 jurors of Athens and was sentenced to death by drinking a poisonous Hemlock.
    • Value of His Speech:
      • The need to do what one thinks is right
      • The need to pursue knowledge
        • Doing both even in the face of Death and Social Opposition
  • 13.
    • The Rise of the Method of Elenchus (The Socratic Method)
    • Socrates Utilized the Method of Elenchus to create a self-defense argument against the accusations the were brought against him.
    • The Elenchus is a method of questioning that is similar in meaning to what is now commonly referred to in the court of law as, “Cross-Examination.”
    • The Method of Elenchus: A kind of dialogue that consists on asking questions to let the other person realize logical errors or inconsistencies in his or her philosophy.
    • Example : Trial attorneys utilize the Method of Elenchus to uncover the validity of the testimony of an Eyewitness or Expert Witness testimony in a court of law.
    • – This is done by proposing a series of questions in such a way that the witness will ultimately contradict his or her self.
  • 14.
    • The Socratic Elenchus eventually gave rise to the dialectic method.
    • Dialectic: A method of discourse in which two or more people who have opposing views wish to seek the truth of a matter in question by exchanging their viewpoints and applying reason.
  • 15.
    • Application of The Dialectical Method
    • Plato’s Dialogues: The Euthyphro
    • Socrates asks Euthyphro to provide a definition of piety.
    • Euthyphro responds that “pious is that which is loved by the gods.” That is, everything that the gods love is pious/sacred and that which they don’t, is not.
    • Socrates eventually leads Euthyphro to agree that the gods are quarrelsome because the gods disagree as to what they believe is pious and impious (Love and Hatred).
    • Socrates reasons that there is at least one thing that exists which certain gods love, but other gods hate.
    • Euthyphro agrees, and Socrates concludes that if Euthyphro’s definition is acceptable, then there must be something that is both loved and hated by the gods.
    • In this way, Euthyphro is brought to realize with Socrates’s dialectical method that his definition is not sufficiently meaningful.
  • 16.
    • (2007, March 10). Presocratic Philosophy. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy . Retrieved January 26, 2011, from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/presocratics/
    • (2004, October 10). Sophists. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy . Retrieved January 26, 2011, from http://www.iep.utm.edu/sophists
    • Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2010). Critical Thinking Development: A Stage Theory With Implications for Instruction. The Critical Thinking Community: Foundation for Critical Thinking . Retrieved January 22, 2011, from http://www.criticalthinking.org/articles/ct-development-a-stage-theory.cfm