Book I: “Rhetoric is the counterpart of Dialectic”
Rhetorical Approach: Process of discovering all the available means of “artistic” persuasion on any subject.
In Essence : It is a creative method of Persuasion Mostly used by Businesses in advertising, Politicians, and Organizations who are interested in financial gain, to convince others of their views/positions.
(1) Initial Ethos: The type of ethos that is based on the arguer’s credentials, status, and/or reputation.
(2) Derived Ethos: The type of ethos/credibility that results from what the speaker says in a message:
NOTE: The quality of Logos and Pathos can determine the derived ethos of a speaker’s intended message.
“ Doctor (with Credentials) informs an audience about the spread of Swine Flu in Mexico.” “ Oprah (with status and reputation) attempts to persuade an audience to Vote for Obama.” Both have Initial Ethos – But have Different Derived Ethos
The Apology (Defense-Speech): Is Plato’s Account of Socrates’ defense at his trial and execution.
Formal Legal Accusation against Socrates : "Socrates is committing an injustice, in that he inquires into things below the earth and in the sky, and makes the weaker argument the stronger, and teaches others to follow his example" (18b-c).
(In Essence: Disrespect toward the Gods and Corruption of the Youth )
Socrates was found guilty by 500 jurors of Athens and was sentenced to death by drinking a poisonous Hemlock.
Value of His Speech:
The need to do what one thinks is right
The need to pursue knowledge
Doing both even in the face of Death and Social Opposition
(2007, March 10). Presocratic Philosophy. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy . Retrieved January 26, 2011, from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/presocratics/
(2004, October 10). Sophists. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy . Retrieved January 26, 2011, from http://www.iep.utm.edu/sophists
Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2010). Critical Thinking Development: A Stage Theory With Implications for Instruction. The Critical Thinking Community: Foundation for Critical Thinking . Retrieved January 22, 2011, from http://www.criticalthinking.org/articles/ct-development-a-stage-theory.cfm