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Critical Stylistics
Critical Stylistics
Critical Stylistics
Critical Stylistics
Critical Stylistics
Critical Stylistics
Critical Stylistics
Critical Stylistics
Critical Stylistics
Critical Stylistics
Critical Stylistics
Critical Stylistics
Critical Stylistics
Critical Stylistics
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Critical Stylistics

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An overview of the ten textual tools for the investigation of textual ideology proposed by Jeffries (2010).

An overview of the ten textual tools for the investigation of textual ideology proposed by Jeffries (2010).

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  • 1. Critical Stylistics Gibreel Sadeq Alaghbary Fulbright Scholar, SDSU Taiz University, YEMEN April 20th, 2013
  • 2. Critical Stylistics Critical linguistics Critical discourse analysis Functional linguistics
  • 3. Critical Stylistics Proponent : Lesley Jeffries Year : 2010 Informed by : Critical Stylistics: Roger Fowler et all (1979), Simpson (1993) CDA: Fairclough (1989), Fowler (1991), Van Dijk (2006) Functional Linguistics: Halliday (1994) Aim : “understand the precise ways in which texts may transmit, reinforce or inculcate ideologies in their readers” (Jeffries 2010, p. 12)
  • 4. Tools of Analysis (Structural, 1) Fowler et al (1979), Fairclough (1989), Fowler (1991), Simpson (1993), Halliday (1994) Naming Alternative nouns Choice of nouns to name vs to indicate attitude (reference vs. ideological evaluation) Modification within NP S=NP(given; assumed; My dog)+VP(new; proposition; won) Propositional version allows questioning Nominalization Packaging a MAI verb (usually an evaluative qualification) into the head noun of an NP, passing it on as an assumed nominal Theory informing tool lexical semantics, generative linguistics, derivational morphology
  • 5. Tools of Analysis (Structural, 2) Fowler et al (1979), Fairclough (1989), Fowler (1991), Simpson (1993), Halliday (1994) Agency and Transitivity Agency Analysis of causation patterns in the clause structure (the semantic roles of NPs in relation to the verbal elements) Transitivity Analysis of the semantic structure of verbal element in the clause: how a speaker conceptualizes a situation (as action, event or state) and the ideological consequence of the transitivity choice for the discourse recipient. Theory informing tool systemic functional linguistics
  • 6. Tools of Analysis (Structural, 3) Fowler et al (1979), Fairclough (1989), Fowler (1991), Simpson (1993), Halliday (1994) Exemplifying and Enumerating With exemplifying, the list is indicative but with enumerating, the list is comprehensive. Two-part (invokes equivalence or opposition); three-part (implications of completeness vs actual comprehensiveness; or four-part (invitation to add) lists. Theory informing tool text linguistics
  • 7. Tools of Analysis (Structural, 4) Fowler et al (1979), Fairclough (1989), Fowler (1991), Simpson (1993), Halliday (1994) Prioritizing How a speaker prioritizes or downplays parts of the content of the utterance. Subordination The lower the level of subordination, the less accessible the content to close questioning. Information Structure Cleft constructions (prioritizes a nominal element and downplays the original proposition) Transformation Adjectival (resulting NP is downplayed in relation to the rest of clause) Ideological viewpoints that are tacitly advanced without being built into the main proposition of the utterance Theory informing tool generative linguistics
  • 8. Tools of Analysis (Structural, 5) Fowler et al (1979), Fairclough (1989), Fowler (1991), Simpson (1993), Halliday (1994) Negating The construction of non-existent worlds in a particular narrative to enhance that narrative and influence discourse recipients into fearing, desiring or believing the conjured up reality; it is an implicature resulting from flouting the maxim of relation. Theory informing tool morpho-syntax
  • 9. Tools of Analysis (Structural,6) Fowler et al (1979), Fairclough (1989), Fowler (1991), Simpson (1993), Halliday (1994) Representing others’ speech Speech Narrator’s report of speech Narrator’s report of speech act Indirect speech Free indirect speech Direct speech Thought Narrator’s report of thought Narrator’s report of though act Indirect though Free indirect thought Direct thought Theory informing tool syntax
  • 10. Tools of Analysis (Pragma-semantic, 1) Fowler et al (1979), Fairclough (1989), Fowler (1991), Simpson (1993), Halliday (1994) Equating and Contrasting Textual construction of equivalence How texts set up new synonyms, thus triggering a host of semantic equivalence relations between concepts conventionally not thought of as synonymous Textual construction of opposites How texts set up new opposites, thus triggering a host of semantic opposition relations between concepts conventionally not thought of as in opposition Theory informing tool lexical semantics
  • 11. Tools of Analysis (Pragma-semantic, 2) Fowler et al (1979), Fairclough (1989), Fowler (1991), Simpson (1993), Halliday (1994) Implying and Assuming Presuppositions Assumptions built into the text to build a ‘consensual’ reality Definite NPs generate existential presuppositions ; Change of state verbs, factive verbs, cleft constructions, iteratives, comparatives all trigger logical presuppositions Entailments Propositions generated by lexical semantic relations; used to avoid making commitments and/or being held accountable. Implicatures Implied pragmatic meanings resulting from flouting the Gricean maxims of CP: conversational, conventional and particularized Theory informing tool pragmatics
  • 12. Tools of Analysis (Pragma-semantic, 3) Fowler et al (1979), Fairclough (1989), Fowler (1991), Simpson (1993), Halliday (1994) Modality Epistemic: indicates producers’ certainty about proposition Deontic: producer’s opinion about necessity of proposition Boulomaic: producer’s desirability of the proposition Modals explicitly give the discourse producer’s opinion (certainty, necessity, and desirability) about the proposition. Modal meanings hypothesize alternative versions of reality which the discourse recipient may adopt or be influenced by. Authors may as well choose to make unmodalized (categorical) utterances which assert the propositions. Theory informing tool semantics, functional linguistics
  • 13. Tools of Analysis (Pragma-semantic, 4) Fowler et al (1979), Fairclough (1989), Fowler (1991), Simpson (1993), Halliday (1994) Representing time, space and society Deictics How the text constructs its deictic center and draws the recipients in causing them to abandon their deictic centers and take a viewing position from within the text and so they become more susceptible to textual ideology. Other space builders Inclusive pronouns ‘we’(to conceptualize group identity and achieve consensus) and verbs (e,g., come) cause the recipient to take up the space of the discourse producer. Theory informing tool Pragmatics
  • 14. Thank you

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