Addressing Diversity in <br />Archival Collections <br />with Outreach<br />Rabia Gibbs<br />December 2, 2009<br />
Changing U.S. Demographics<br />LIS Diversity Demographics<br /><ul><li>11% credentialed librarians**
16% uncredentialed librarians **
13% academic librarians**
  7% professional archivists*
25% of population non-white*
37% of kindergartners ethnically diverse*</li></ul>*   Victoria Irons Walch, “A*CENSUS: A Closer Look,“ American Archivist...
Impact on Archival <br />Collections<br /><ul><li>   Redundant points of view and  </li></ul>    approach to the practice<...
Historical Origins of theModern Archival Method<br />Theodore R. Schellenberg<br />Modern Archives: Principles and Techniq...
Power of the Archives<br /><ul><li>Reject “passive archivist” identity
Recognize power of the archivist and extended        influence
   Reassess validity and completeness of collections
   Consider long-term cultural impact
   Make collections more representative (of, not about)</li></li></ul><li>Outreach in Archives<br /><ul><li>Provides conte...
Precludesiconicrepresentation
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Addressing Diversity in Archival Collections with Outreach

  1. 1. Addressing Diversity in <br />Archival Collections <br />with Outreach<br />Rabia Gibbs<br />December 2, 2009<br />
  2. 2. Changing U.S. Demographics<br />LIS Diversity Demographics<br /><ul><li>11% credentialed librarians**
  3. 3. 16% uncredentialed librarians **
  4. 4. 13% academic librarians**
  5. 5. 7% professional archivists*
  6. 6. 25% of population non-white*
  7. 7. 37% of kindergartners ethnically diverse*</li></ul>* Victoria Irons Walch, “A*CENSUS: A Closer Look,“ American Archivist 69, no. 2 (2006): 314, 396.<br />** Denise Davis, “Diversity Counts” (presentation, ALA Annual Conference, Boston, Massachusetts, June 24, 2007).<br />
  8. 8. Impact on Archival <br />Collections<br /><ul><li> Redundant points of view and </li></ul> approach to the practice<br /><ul><li> Lack of representation in </li></ul> archival and special collections<br /><ul><li> Marginalization of </li></ul> underrepresented groups<br /><ul><li> Cyclical pattern of lack of </li></ul> professional diversity<br />
  9. 9. Historical Origins of theModern Archival Method<br />Theodore R. Schellenberg<br />Modern Archives: Principles and Techniques<br />More aggressive appraisal style<br />Selection in response to volume, not diversity<br />Subjective determination of secondary value for research and publication<br />Sir Hilary Jenkinson<br />Manual of Archive Administration<br /><ul><li>Reliance on the record as </li></ul> evidence<br /><ul><li> Archival records inherently </li></ul> “impartial and authentic”*<br /><ul><li> Archivist’s primary role to </li></ul> document, not interpret; maintain <br /> impartiality of the record<br />* Reto Tschan, “A Comparison of Jenkinson and Schellenberg on Appraisal,” American Archivist 65, no. 2 (2002): 176-195.<br />
  10. 10. Power of the Archives<br /><ul><li>Reject “passive archivist” identity
  11. 11. Recognize power of the archivist and extended influence
  12. 12. Reassess validity and completeness of collections
  13. 13. Consider long-term cultural impact
  14. 14. Make collections more representative (of, not about)</li></li></ul><li>Outreach in Archives<br /><ul><li>Provides contextual insight into relevant values and issues
  15. 15. Precludesiconicrepresentation
  16. 16. Moves toward stewardship vs. ownership
  17. 17. Facilitates exposure to a new demographic</li></li></ul><li>Research Project Outline<br />Goal: To identify target collections <br />and outreach populations for <br />collaborative archival processing or <br />cultural documentation project<br />Project Elements:<br /><ul><li>Research
  18. 18. Program Development
  19. 19. Assessment
  20. 20. Publishing</li></li></ul><li>Research<br /><ul><li>Identify target populations through user survey
  21. 21. Research relevant community organizations
  22. 22. Narrow area of interest
  23. 23. Regional Latino culture
  24. 24. Regional African American culture</li></li></ul><li>Project Development<br /><ul><li>Select design and format
  25. 25. Determine appropriate size, scope, and timetable
  26. 26. Create steward committee
  27. 27. Decide on archival approach
  28. 28. Documentationstrategy
  29. 29. Participatory arrangement and appraisal</li></li></ul><li>Archival Methods<br />Participatory<br />Arrangement and Appraisal<br />Community collaboration approach<br /><ul><li>Collaboration
  30. 30. Contextualization
  31. 31. Inclusion </li></ul>(processing of records)<br />Documentation Strategy<br />Aggressive, total archives approach<br /><ul><li> Collaboration
  32. 32. Analysis
  33. 33. Project planning </li></ul> (creation of records)<br />
  34. 34. Assessment<br />Program evaluation<br /><ul><li> Objectives and </li></ul> benchmarks<br /><ul><li>Areas of improvement and success</li></ul>Long-term sustainability<br /><ul><li> Grants
  35. 35. University support</li></li></ul><li>Publishing<br /><ul><li>Reflection
  36. 36. Documentation
  37. 37. Contribution</li></li></ul><li>Looking to the Future<br /><ul><li>Outreach and participatory strategies
  38. 38. LIS graduate programs
  39. 39. Diversity initiatives and residencies</li></li></ul><li>Resources<br />Adkins, Denice, and Isabel Espinal. “The Diversity Mandate.” Library Journal, April 15, 2004.<br /> <br />Adkins, Elizabeth. “Our Journey Toward Diversity – and a Call to (More) Action.” American Archivist 71, no. 1 (2008): 21-49.<br /> <br />African and African American Studies. “Lost and Found Stories Project: Blacks in Virginia Archival Project.” George Mason University. http://aaas.gmu.edu/lostandfound.<br /> <br />Agnew, Shantel, LaVerne Gray, and Mark A. Puente. “The Expanding Library Wall: Outreach to the University of Tennessee’s Multicultural/International Student <br /> Population.” Reference Services Review 37, no. 1 (2009): 30-43.<br /> <br />Bright, Kawanna, Jayati Chaudhuri, and Maud Mundava. “Diversity Librarians’ Network.” University of Tennessee at Knoxville. http://www.lib.utk.edu/residents/dln/.<br /> <br />Ceja, Janet. “Documenting Diversity: Archival Documentation Strategy and Memory Projects, Two Means to the Same End?” In Society of American Archivists Diversity <br />Reader, ed. Mary Caldera and Kathryn Neal. Chicago: Society of American Archivists, forthcoming.<br /> <br />Davis, Denise. “Diversity Counts.” Report presented at the ALA Annual Conference, Boston, Massachusetts, June 24, 2007.<br /> <br />Defend the Honor. “Why Are We Doing This?: The Story Must Be Told and the History Preserved.” Defend the Honor. http://www.defendthehonor.org/.<br /> <br />Featherstone, Mike. “Archiving Cultures.” British Journal of Sociology 51, no. 1 (2000): 161-184.<br /> <br />Frank, Anne, and Dorothy B. Fujita-Rony. “Archiving Histories: The Southeast Asian Archive at University of California, Irvine.” Amerasia Journal 29, no. 1 (2003): 153-164.<br /> <br />Gilliland-Swetland, Anne, Eric Ketelaar, and Sue McKemmish. “‘Communities of Memory’: Pluralising Archival Research and Education Agendas.” Archives and Manuscripts<br /> 33 (2005): 146-174. <br /> <br />Hambrick, Greg. “Smithsonian Dusting Off Cultural Souvenirs: Black Archivists Help Locals Hold on to History.” Charleston City Paper, May 27, 2009, News, Opinions, <br /> Features.<br /> <br />Humanities Tennessee. “Latino Community Initiative.” Humanities Tennessee. http://www.humanitiestennessee.org/community/latino.php.<br /> <br />Jimerson, Randall C. “Archives for All: Professional Responsibility and Social Justice.” American Archivist 70, no. 2 (2007): 252-281.<br /> <br />Jimerson, Randall C. “Embracing the Power of Archives.” American Archivist 69, no. 1 (2006): 19-32.<br /> <br />Johnston, Ian. “Whose History Is It Anyway?” Journal of the Society of Archivists 22, no. 2 (2001) 213-229.<br /> <br />Kaplan, Elizabeth. “We Are What We Collect, We Collect What We Are: Archives and the Construction of Identity.” American Archivist 63, no. 1 (2000): 126-151.<br /> <br />Keogh, Brian. “Documenting Diversity: Developing Special Collections of Underdocumented Groups.” Library Collections, Acquisitions, & Technical Services 26, no. 3 (2002): <br /> 241-251.<br /> <br />Krizack, Joan D. “Preserving the History of Diversity: One University’s Efforts to Make Boston’s History More Inclusive.” RBM: A Journal of Rare Books, Manuscripts, and <br /> Cultural Heritage 8, no. 2 (2007): 125-132.<br /> <br />Oak Ridge National Laboratory. “Black History Month 2006: Robert J. Booker.” Oak Ridge National Laboratory. http://www.ornl.gov/adm/hr_ornl/bhm2006/Booker.htm.<br />O’Toole, James. “Archives and Historical Accountability: Toward a Moral Theology of Archives.” Archivaria 58 (2004): 3-19. <br />Shilton, Katie, and Ramesh Srinivasan. “Participatory Appraisal and Arrangement for Multicultural Archival Collections.” Archivaria 63 (2007): 87-102.<br /> <br />Tschan, Reto. “A Comparison of Jenkinson and Schellenberg on Appraisal.” American Archivist 65, no. 2 (2002): 176-195. <br /> <br />UCLA Chicano Studies Research Center. “CSRC Archival Projects.” UCLA. http://www.chicano.ucla.edu/library/arch/archiveprojects.html. <br /> <br />U.S. Census Bureau. “State and County QuickFacts: Tennessee.” U.S. Census Bureau. http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/47000.html.<br /> <br />Walch, Victoria I. “A*CENSUS: A Closer Look.” American Archivist 69, no 2 (2006): 331. <br /> <br />Waters, T. Wayne. “Digital Stories Share Knoxville History: Collaborative Work Offers Tour of Culture, Heritage.” Knoxnews.com, August 20, 2008. <br /> http://www.knoxnews.com/news/2008/aug/20/digital-stories-share-knoxville-history/?print=1.<br />
  40. 40. Archives for the People,by the People<br />

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