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  1. 1. Personality Theories<br />
  2. 2. What Is A Personality?<br />
  3. 3. “the sum of a person’s feelings, beliefs, perceptions, attitudes, communication style, and behaviors”. Courtesy of “Teaching Children About Health”<br />
  4. 4. The core of our personality is our self-concept<br />
  5. 5. Our personality development depends greatly on cognitive functioning, which enables our ability to have: short term memory, long term memory. Attention, focus, problem solving skills and the ability to make judgments.<br />
  6. 6. Types Of Theories<br />
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  9. 9. According to Maslow individuals form their social aspects of their personality and their experimental aspect through the fulfillment of their needs. As babies we are fulfilled of the basic needs such as air and food, we form bonds with the adults that meet those needs for us and we then move onto the need for safety and also to belong and to be loved. From there we strive to earn respect from others and from ourselves. In the end we reach self-actualization and the fulfillment of one’s potential. <br /> As we start out in this world as infants and toddler our parents meet our needs but as we grow up we are able to meet these needs on our own and therefore proceed to higher levels.<br />
  10. 10. Erikson Stages of Psychosocial Development<br />“Much like Sigmund Freud, Erikson believed that personality develops in a series of stages. Unlike Freud’s theory of psychosexual stages, Erikson’s theory describes the impact of social experience across the whole lifespan. One of the main elements of Erikson’s psychosocial stage theory is the development of ego identity.1 Ego identity is the conscious sense of self that we develop through social interaction. According to Erikson, our ego identity is constantly changing due to new experience and information we acquire in our daily interactions with others. In addition to ego identity, Erikson also believed that a sense of competence also motivates behaviors and actions. Each stage in Erikson’s theory is concerned with becoming competent in an area of life. If the stage is handled well, the person will feel a sense of mastery, which he sometimes referred to as ego strength or ego quality.2 If the stage is managed poorly, the person will emerge with a sense of inadequacy.In each stage, Erikson believed people experience a conflict that serves as a turning point in development. In Erikson’s view, these conflicts are centered on either developing a psychological quality or failing to develop that quality. During these times, the potential for personal growth is high, but so is the potential for failure.” <br /><br />
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  12. 12. Freud’ s Psychoanalysis<br />
  13. 13. “Psychoanalysis (or Freudian psychology) is a body of ideas developed by Austrian physician Sigmund Freud and continued by others. It is primarily devoted to the study of human psychological functioning and behavior, although it can also be applied to societies. <br /><br />
  14. 14. Psychoanalysis has three applications:<br />a method of investigation of the mind and the way one thinks;<br />a systematized set of theories about human behavior;<br />a method of treatment of psychological or emotional illness.[1]<br /><br />
  15. 15. Under the broad umbrella of what is psychoanalysis, there are at least 22 theoretical orientations regarding the underlying theory of understanding of human mentation and human development. The various approaches in treatment called "psychoanalytic" vary as much as the theories do. The term also refers to a method of studying child development.<br /><br />
  16. 16. Freudian psychoanalysis refers to a specific type of treatment in which the "analysand" (analytic patient) verbalizes thoughts, including free associations, fantasies, and dreams, from which the analyst formulates the unconscious conflicts causing the patient's symptoms and character problems, and interprets them for the patient to create insight for resolution of the problems.”<br /><br />
  17. 17. Piaget’s Development of Thought<br />
  18. 18. “Piaget proposed that children go through a series of developmental stages through which they eventually become less and less egocentric. Basically, at each stage, a child achieves a greater sensitivity to the perspectives of others. Responsible actions (those meeting a person’s needs without impeding the needs of others) will consequently increase along with cognitive development. Implied in this theory is that the higher degree of cognitive development there is, the less the likelihood of criminality”<br /><br />
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  20. 20. Kohlberg’s Development of Moral Reasoning<br />“Kohlberg theorized that not everyone goes through all the stages of moral development or progresses at the same rate. Based on this idea, he reasoned that incomplete moral development was a major reason for criminal and deviant behavior.”<br />
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  22. 22. Skinner’s Behaviorism<br />
  23. 23. “The theory of B.F. Skinner is based upon the idea that learning is a function of change in overt behavior. Changes in behavior are the result of an individual's response to events (stimuli) that occur in the environment. A response produces a consequence such as defining a word, hitting a ball, or solving a math problem. When a particular Stimulus-Response (S-R) pattern is reinforced (rewarded), the individual is conditioned to respond. The distinctive characteristic of operant conditioning relative to previous forms of behaviorism (e.g., Thorndike, Hull) is that the organism can emit responses instead of only eliciting response due to an external stimulus”<br /><br />
  24. 24. Principles: <br />1. Behavior that is positively reinforced will reoccur; intermittent reinforcement is particularly effective <br />2. Information should be presented in small amounts so that responses can be reinforced ("shaping") <br />3. Reinforcements will generalize across similar stimuli ("stimulus generalization") producing secondary conditioning<br />
  25. 25. “For Skinner, all behavior is situational, deterministic, and void of independent thinking. Thus, behavior and therefore crime is not based on free will, but is instead viewed as the result of identifiable chains of stimuli and responses. Criminals have learned to be as they are through these chains of stimuli and response. Skinner thought that through behavior modification, we could therefore teach criminals how to behave well. <br />
  26. 26. The key to initiating any change in behavior is dependent on the discriminative stimuli which, when present, can bring about the desired change. The discriminative stimuli can be either positive reinforcement (resulting in increases/rewards behavior) or negative reinforcement (either reduces, eliminates, or causes the avoidance of undesirable behavior). <br />
  27. 27. For example, one common form of positive reinforcement used in many correctional facilities is the use of a ‘token economy.’ Tokens, such as poker chips or stamps are symbolic rewards that are given whenever the desired response occurs. The tokens can then be exchanged for something of value to the inmate (i.e. buying food or watching a favorite television show). Negative or aversive reinforcement could be something such as a fine, lock-down, or loss of certain privileges”<br /><br />
  28. 28. Activity Time<br /> <br />Goal:<br />to create a collage<br />Objective:<br />to express or represent your personality in a collage <br />Activities:<br />Each students cuts outs or draws different items that they feel express their personality. They then glue or draw these items to a poster board. At the end each student tell the class what the different items on their collage say about their personality.<br />Materials:<br /> Paper and Poster Board, <br />A variety of materials: magazine pictures, scissors, paste, pencils , pencils, pastels, paints and crayons.   <br />
  29. 29. Work Cited<br /><br />“Teaching Children About Health” by Estelle Weinstein and Efrem Rosen<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><ul><li>
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  33. 33.</li></li></ul><li>Reflection<br />What does someone's personality say about them?<br />Which theory did you find the most interesting?<br />What Factors if any do you think influence your personality?<br /><br />