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Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized
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Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized

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This is training for writing journalistically. I extracted it from a textbook.

This is training for writing journalistically. I extracted it from a textbook.

Published in: News & Politics, Education
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Transcript

  • 1. On becoming a journalist
  • 2. aka
  • 3. Active Index • Understanding news • Gathering news • Leads • News story structure • Writing news • Layout • Interviews • Features • Sports • Editorials • Reviews • Surveys and opinion polls • STYLE
  • 4. Understanding news
  • 5. Understanding News • Hard News = significant events • Soft News = less significant but larger audience
  • 6. Three factors to all news: •facts •interest •audience
  • 7. Six qualities to all news. It must be: •Accurate •Balanced •Objective •Concise •Clear •Timely
  • 8. News Values • Timeliness • Proximity • Consequence • Prominence • Drama • Oddity • Conflict • Progress • Emotions • Sex
  • 9. Gathering news
  • 10. GATHERING NEWS •Research = 70% •Writing = 20% •Proofreading = 10%
  • 11. Sources of news: • Beats • Handbook • Press Releases • City newspaper • Magazines • Tips • Snack, lunch • Club activities • Extra-curricular activities • Twitter • RSS Feeds • Class Site Portal • Personal Site Portal • City hall • Chamber of Commerce • City Bulletin Boards
  • 12. To succeed... •You must have a Nose for News
  • 13. Characteristics of a good reporter • curiosity • sincere concern and sense of justice • Objectivity
  • 14. Characteristics of a good reporter • Ability to interview strangers • Ability to inspire confidence and make people feel at ease • Wide educational background
  • 15. Characteristics of a good reporter • Resourcefulness and persistence • Ability to write and speak standard English • Keen observation • Extensive vocabulary
  • 16. 5 Ws and H are basic requirements but not enough to make someone remark, "Wow! Great story." • Dig deep • Make facts interesting
  • 17. Leads
  • 18. All About Leads • Feature the feature • Clothesline WWWWHW • Colored Clothesline -- quote, eye-catcher, comment; • Include as many wwwwwh as possible as soon as possible • Hold one back as a tease
  • 19. Begin by determining which of the 5Ws&H is the feature to feature
  • 20. Leads •"Fire raged through a Chicago elementary school on Sunday, injuring two firemen and destroying a brand new auditorium." Start by featuring the feature with strong words
  • 21. "Two firemen were injured in a Chicago elementary school fire that destroyed a brand new auditorium last Sunday."
  • 22. "The brand new auditorium of a Chicago elementary school was gutted Sunday by a fire that left two firemen injured."
  • 23. Avoid starting with articles like The and A or dates (“When” is seldom the lead)
  • 24. Finding the lead • Yuck! The Benicia High School band won first place in state competitions. • Yuck! On Tuesday, October 9, the Benicia High School blah blah blah” • Better! First place went to the Benicia High School band in state competitions. • Better! Benicia wins first place in the state band competition.
  • 25. News structure
  • 26. News article structure: •The Inverted Pyramid
  • 27. News article structure: •The Inverted Pyramid Most important Followed by Least im- port- ant
  • 28. First things first: Push the facts to the front and cut the crap
  • 29. Be precise
  • 30. Make every word count
  • 31. Brevity doesn't excuse reporters from being accurate and thorough
  • 32. To complete the pyramid • End the story in the last two paragraphs • This way the last paragraph can be cut without affecting the conclusion
  • 33. Writing news
  • 34. WRITING NEWS • Why is this story important? • Is it an advance or a follow-up story? • Do not editorialize • Remain objective • Balance the interviews -- pro con, or authority and reaction quote
  • 35. WRITING NEWS • Why is this story important? • Is it an advance or a follow-up story? • Do not editorialize • Remain objective • Balance the interviews -- pro con, or authority and reaction quote
  • 36. WRITING NEWS No Mr., No Mrs., No Ms. • Introduce every person with a title or description. Then use only the last name • Never use Ms. Miss. Mrs. Or Mr.
  • 37. Layout
  • 38. Layout: dummy up • Dummy the entire newspaper & each dept • Place ads first Headlines Text Pictures Ads
  • 39. Layout: ad placement • Place ads across the bottom to rise toward the inside
  • 40. Layout: Master Pages •Design Master Page with repeating elements: folios, flags, logos, ads
  • 41. Layout: headlines •The headline is the purest condensation of the story’s key focus •It must capture the eye, lure, entice, intrigue reader
  • 42. Layout: headlines • Headlines must have a strong verb • They must be sentences, not labels • Verb “to be” is omitted: is, was, were, are • We do not say: • President is coming to Benicia
  • 43. Layout: headlines vs labels •HL: Earthquake in Turkey kills 20,000 Label: Turkish earthquake • HL: Terrorists bomb Children’s Hospital •Label: Terrorist bombing
  • 44. Layout: headlines •Point size should decrease as you go down the page • Headlines must fit over the entire story • Use down style
  • 45. Layout: standards • Folio contains “Page” #, month & year, dept name IN CAPS • Save fancy fonts for ads • Don’t jump more than once • Jumps should NOT continue at the top of the page (if possible)
  • 46. Layout: photos •Pictures must have borders and captions •Pictures must be light and well defined
  • 47. Layout: consider breaking up large blocks of text with something… Subtitles Sidebars Pull quotes Bold facing
  • 48. Interviews
  • 49. INTERVIEWS •Types: •News •Personality •Symposium
  • 50. Steps in conducting INTERVIEWS: • Schedule early! • Learn all you can beforehand • Write any and every question you can think of before you go
  • 51. Steps in conducting INTERVIEWS: • If important, take note of person's dress, surroundings, mannerisms • Bring a recorder if you can • Always ask permission to use recording device and put it in plain view • Do not stick it in your person's face • Write down counter-numbers when good lines are spoken
  • 52. Steps in conducting INTERVIEWS: • When notetaking, maintain a balance: don't bury your nose in your notebook and don't expect to memorize everything. • Jot down the essentials for paraphrasing, and capture precise sentences for quotes • Open-ended Vs close-ended questions
  • 53. Steps in conducting INTERVIEWS: • End by asking if the person has anything to say that you haven't asked • Advise that you may condense quotes for clarity, but that you will not change meaning
  • 54. Steps in conducting INTERVIEWS: • Get permission to follow-up with a phone call or a drop by if you need any more info • Offer to give them a proof of the story if it's warranted
  • 55. Writing the Interview: •Avoid Q & A •Stay out of the picture
  • 56. Writing the Interview: •Use "said" synonyms sparingly •Use a quote early •Use plenty of quotes
  • 57. Writing the Interview: •Alternate between quotes and paraphrases •Use quotes from other people
  • 58. Features
  • 59. FEATURES • They may inform, instruct, advise, but their primary purpose is to entertain • They are factual, and can relate to current news/news story • They allow for creativity and individual curiosity • Written in a casual style
  • 60. Types of Features: • News feature • Human interest • Character sketch • Writing the Feature: • All the other rules of news writing apply except the feature writer is permitted more creativity in expression and layout
  • 61. Sports
  • 62. Writing Sports Stories: • Don't editorialize, but you have more freedom than regular news reporters. • Support opinions with facts and quotes • Coach quote • Opposing coach quote -- before/after the game. Ask who to watch.
  • 63. Sports Layout: • Sports can have hard, soft news, interviews, surveys, all the elements of the entire paper • Special Note: Triple check name spellings and grade level
  • 64. Editorials & Personal Opinion
  • 65. Editorials & Personal Opinion •Editorial = staff opinion •Personal = author’s opinion
  • 66. Editorials & Personal Opinion •Opinions based on fact and reason •Opinions with some mass appeal
  • 67. Editorials & Personal Opinion •Avoid over generalization •Use examples and specific, concrete details •Quote sources
  • 68. Reviews
  • 69. REVIEWS • Goal is to introduce people to good entertainment and protect them from crap • Reviews are critical analysis • They are sort of like book essays in English class, except the primary question is Did you Like the Book or Not? Why?
  • 70. Steps in reviewing: •Take notebook •Take notes •Get all names: actors, characters, performers, hosts
  • 71. Film review: Analysis • plot, • conflict, • setting, • tone, • character, • actor, • editing, • cinematography, • sound track, • popularity, • director, • background information, • similarities to other films, • cost, • genre
  • 72. Steps in reviewing: •Write review immediately after the performance •Support all critical analysis with example
  • 73. Steps in reviewing: •Don't write a PLOT SUMMARY! •Write a CRITICAL ANALYSIS
  • 74. Steps in reviewing: • Summarizing a story is O.K., but it shouldn't be more than 20% of the story… • …and don’t give away the ending or any other surprises
  • 75. Surveys
  • 76. SURVEYS •Two kinds: •Opinion Polls •Questionnaire Survey
  • 77. Opinion Polls: • Ask one open-ended, controversial or entertaining question to a balanced variety of individuals • Get equal males, females, 9, 10, 11, 12, from different walks of life • toss in an occasional teacher, administrator, janitor or parent
  • 78. Opinion Polls: • Gather twice as many responses as you intend to publish • Extract the best quotes and organize them • Check name spelling and grade level
  • 79. Questionnaire Surveys: • Devise a topic • Create a list of opinion and value questions on a related topic • Agree/disagree, for/against, most/least important • Format the questionnaire so two fit on one 8x11 paper • Distribute across campus in an organized fashion
  • 80. Questionnaire Surveys: •Statistical Significance begins at 10-percent •Distribute enough questionnaires to gather 15-percent
  • 81. Questionnaire Surveys: •Survey of just freshmen would require 20-percent of freshmen only •Survey of teachers would require 30-percent
  • 82. Questionnaire Surveys: • Finish early because you must • Tabulate the results and determine percentages • Submit your survey results to me
  • 83. Questionnaire Surveys: •Edit in the questions that elicited the best responses •Layout the page yourself
  • 84. Questionnaire Surveys: • Write an intro paragraph that explains the nature and purpose of the survey and how many votes you tabulated. Interpret the results. What was the overall outcome of your findings, and were there any surprises
  • 85. Style
  • 86. Every newspaper sets a style for consistency of design and word use • In many ways it simply follows traditional grammatical, mechanical rules
  • 87. Titles of apposition • Short titles go before a name in caps: Principal Bob Jones • Long titles go after a name, in low case: Mike Bowers, director of personnel relations
  • 88. Capitalize the following:
  • 89. All titles that precede names •Principal Jones •Coach Hayes •President Smith
  • 90. First and all words in titles except for articles, prepositions of one to three letters, and conjunctions •The Holiday Collection of Songs and Poems -- book •“The Man With Time to Spare” -- short story
  • 91. Holidays •Christmas •Labor Day •Valentine's Day
  • 92. Special Events •Homecoming •Homecoming Game •Prom
  • 93. Sections of the Country but not directions •She lived in the South •She moved south for the winter
  • 94. College Degrees when abbreviated •M.A. •Ph.D. •B.S.
  • 95. Clubs •Backpacking Club •Chess Club •Computer Club
  • 96. Grade levels ONLY WHEN followed by the word Class •The Freshman Class has closed campus •(but The freshmen have closed campus)
  • 97. Specific Buildings •World Trade Center •Pentagon •The Chrysler Building •The Bay Bridge
  • 98. Departments •English Department •Math Department •Science Department
  • 99. Schools (not simply middle school or high school) • Benicia High School competed in the games against Benicia Middle School • The high school competed in the games against the middle school. • Mary Farmar Robert Semple
  • 100. Colleges •Brigham Young •William and Mary •Brown University
  • 101. Streets •1st Street •West Way •Bingham Avenue
  • 102. Geographical names •Hudson River •Mt. Shasta •The Osarks
  • 103. Names of specific courses (usually followed by number or letter) •American History I (but American history) •History 101 (but history) •Math B ( but math)
  • 104. Languages •French •Spanish •English
  • 105. Words or abrev. Like • No. Fig. Chart Chapter when followed by a number • No. 7 • Chart 16 • Chapter 1 • Fig. 32
  • 106. DO NOT CAPITALIZE:
  • 107. Titles that follow names •Ron Wheat, vice principal •Ron Wheat, athletics director
  • 108. Parts of time •a.m. p.m. •o'clock
  • 109. Seasons •winter spring summer fall •(but Old Man Winter)
  • 110. Rooms, offices, buildings, unless they have a proper name • The journalism lab • The Gibbs Memorial Journalism Lab • The gymnasium • The Annette O'Connor Memorial Gymnasium
  • 111. Committees •entertainment committee • refreshment committee
  • 112. Descriptive or occupational words used as titles •comedian Jerry Sienfeld •pitcher Nolan Ryan •actress Reese Witherspoon
  • 113. Title modifiers •Such as former President Clinton, the late Princess Diana
  • 114. College degrees when spelled out •master of arts degree •bachelor of science
  • 115. ABBREVATIONS •Avoid all but standard abbreviations
  • 116. Abbreviate the Following:
  • 117. Names that are well known as abbreviations • YMCA, PTA, FBI, BHS, NASA •(remove the periods and write it as a word)
  • 118. Certain titles when they precede names •Dr. •Rev. (always preceded by "the" if spelled out) •The Reverend Jessie Jackson
  • 119. All military titles •Sgt. •Lt. •Pvt. •Gen.
  • 120. Names of states when they follow names of cities •(except short states like Ohio or Utah) •Madison, Wis.; Buffalo, N.Y.; but Des Moines, Iowa
  • 121. Names of months when followed by a date (except short months -- April, May, June, July) •Jan. 27, 1954
  • 122. College Degrees •B.A. •Ph.D. •D.D.
  • 123. Do Not Abbreviate the Following: • State names • Titles following a name • Days of the week • States when used without a city • Use the word percent (use % only in tabular material or in headlines following a number)
  • 124. Do Not Abbreviate the Following: • Department • Christmas • 1999 not '99 (But Heather Deal, '99) • United States as a noun, abbreviate it as an adjective • U.S. history
  • 125. DEALING WITH NUMBERS •Spell out numbers up to and including nine. Then use digits •Seven, eight, nine, 10, 11, 12, 13
  • 126. Exception: always use digits to write • Dates • Scores • Addresses • Ages • Time • Money • April 7, 2000 • Benicia 26, Concord 2 • 9 Pine Street • 7 years old • 4 o'clock • 5 cents
  • 127. Do not begin a sentence with digits • Don't say: 25 students missed the deadline • Say: Twenty-five students missed the deadline • Or: A total of 25 students missed the deadline
  • 128. Do not use d, rd, st, or th in dates • Dec. 11, 1941, not Dec. 11th, 1941 • June 3, 2000 not June 3rd, 2000 • Streets are OK. 3rd Street, 11th Avenue
  • 129. When two numbers are used together, avoid confusion by spelling out the first, whether the number is above or below nine • Don't say: 14 4-year-old kids • Say: fourteen 4-year-old kids
  • 130. In a list using numbers below and above nine, use digits for all: • Attending were 2 from the elementary school, 13 from the middle school, and 9 from the high school
  • 131. For sums of money below one dollar, use digits and the word "cents" •10 cents, not $.10
  • 132. Do not use zeros when giving the exact hour or an even number of dollars •4 o'clock, not 4:00 o'clock •$6 not $6.00
  • 133. For numbers of four or more digits, use a comma •1,000 64,500
  • 134. PUNCTUATION
  • 135. Comma •Do not use a comma before the word and in a series •Red, white and blue. Members included Lewis, Clark and Upton
  • 136. Do not use a comma before Jr. in a name •William Strunk Jr.
  • 137. Use the semicolon in lists where the individual items contain commas. • The committee included Mary Ladd, chairperson; Oliver Greenwood, treasurer; and Nellie Kim, secretary. • They brought with them from New Orleans a box of gumbo; a large, green suitcase; and a change of clothes.
  • 138. Quotation Marks • Periods and commas always go inside the quotation mark. • The quarterback said, “That last tackle hurt.” • “That last tackle hurt,” said the quarterback.
  • 139. Quotation Marks • Colons and semicolons always go outside the quotation mark. • Here are the “Articles of Confederation”: blah blah blah • He played “Yesterday”; it was off-key.
  • 140. Quotation Marks • Question marks and exclamation marks go inside or outside, depending… • John asked, “What are you doing?” • Who said, “What are you doing”? • Run when you hear the word “Fire”! • We ran when someone yelled, “Fire!”
  • 141. Use quotation marks around short things: one- act plays, song titles, short stories, speeches, sit coms, 1/2-hour T.V. shows. poems. • “The Misfit” one-act play • “Yesterday” song • “To Build a Fire” short story • “I Have a Dream” speech • “Just Shoot Me” sit-com • “America” poem
  • 142. Use italics on large things: three- and five-act plays, novels, motion pictures, newspapers, ships,CDs • Hamlet • Gone with the Wind • Saving Private Ryan • The White Album • USS Port Royal • The Paw
  • 143. Italics • Use them on foreign words that have not become an integral part of English • The de facto standard was followed. • Use them on photo captions
  • 144. Do not put quotation marks around popular slang expressions like "groovy."
  • 145. Apostrophes • Use ' after plural nouns to show possession oThe students' handbook • Use 's after singular nouns to show possession. oThe student's handbook
  • 146. To ALL sports writers: It's the girls' basketball team, not the girl’s basketball team.
  • 147. Use apostrophe when you omit a letter •I'm from the class of '71. •I like rock 'n' roll. •Don't forget the contractions.
  • 148. Use 's to form plurals of single letters and numbers •She got all a's and b's.
  • 149. Do not use the apostrophe for plurals of numbers or multiple- letter combinations •1960s •ABCs
  • 150. Omit the apostrophe in names of organizations when the possessive case is implied and in certain geographic designations •Citizens League •Actors Guild •Pikes Peak
  • 151. HYPHEN •Use hyphens in compound numbers and fractions •Forty-five, three-fourths
  • 152. Use hyphens in such words as •Vice-principal •vice-president
  • 153. Use a hyphen on compound adjectives used to modify a noun • The two-sided issue; the double-edged sword; the 8-year-old boy • (not for multiple adjectives. The old, tired argument. The late, exhausted student) • (not for adverb ending in ly • The smartly dressed man
  • 154. Use two hyphens with spaces at each end -- to represent a dash. • Use a dash to show long apposition. • The quarterback -- a man short on energy but long on determination -- finished the game with a touchdown pass.
  • 155. POLICY
  • 156. Big no no: Slander, Liable, Profanity, Incite to Riot
  • 157. extra school-news precautions: no flippant, positive or enticing references can be made to the use of drugs, alcohol, tobacco, or illicit sex
  • 158. Say all the positive you want about a person. Negative comments require you to show the story to the person and give them an opportunity to respond
  • 159. The End

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