Grammar From the batting cage
Some COMMA Rules
<ul><li>Use a comma after an introductory prepositional phrase of four or more words. </li></ul>
Down the road  an old man walks his dog. Down the dusty road ,  an old man walks his dog.
<ul><li>Use a comma after introductory adverbs and verbal clauses regardless of length. </li></ul>
Slowly,  the old man picked up a stick.
While resting,  he tossed the stick.
Grumbling,  the dog fetched the stick.
While whistling,  the old man lost a tooth.
Before he left,  he picked it up.
<ul><li>Use a comma after introductory interjections. </li></ul>
Yes,  the old man loves his dog.
No,  he’s not interested in selling it.
Well,  he might loan you the dog for a day.
Oh,  I see.
Hey,  I get it already.
<ul><li>Use a comma between two adjectives modifying a noun. </li></ul>
The  tired, old  man walked his dog every day.
The  grizzled, ancient  dog walked with his old man every day.
The  long, winding  road leads to his door.
The  hot, dusty, dry, uphill trail  tired the old man.
The extremely old man hugged his dog. Why no comma? extremely is an adverb. It is modifying the adjective, not the noun
More adverbs without commas <ul><li>The barely conscious dog grunted. </li></ul><ul><li>The extremely tired runner collaps...
<ul><li>Use commas to separate three or more words ,  phrases ,  or clauses in a series.  </li></ul><ul><li>Use a comma af...
The colors of the flag are red, white, and blue.
My favorite flavors are chocolate, vanilla, and strawberry.
He opened the letter, read it carefully, and stuck it in his pocket.
My favorite foods are tacos, tangerines, and peanut butter and jelly sandwiches.
My favorite foods are tacos, tangerines, peanut butter and jelly sandwiches, and ham and eggs.
<ul><li>Use commas to separate nonessential phrases </li></ul>
The old man , alone with his thoughts,  continued to walk his dog.
The old man , alone with his thoughts,  continued to walk his dog.
The dog , hungry and tired,  followed along behind.
The dog , hungry and tired,  followed along behind.
The old man jumped when he saw the stick , thinking it was a snake.
The old man jumped when he saw the stick , thinking it was a snake.
The students, who found the material difficult, met after school. The students who found the material difficult met after ...
My sister, Mary, is visiting. My sister Mary is visiting. I have one sister I have two sisters
<ul><li>U se a comma before  which,  but no comma before  that. </li></ul>THAT  is a defining pronoun. WHICH  is a non-def...
The  computer that is broken  is in the shop. The computer,  which is broken,  is in the shop. I have several computers I ...
This is the house that Jack built.
This is the house, which Jack built.
<ul><li>Use commas to separate states. </li></ul>
I drove to Lansing ,  Michigan ,  with my cousin.
<ul><li>Use a comma to when giving dates to separate the  year  from the month and day.  </li></ul>
We arrived on January 27 , 1998,  and booked a hotel. Sam visited Boston in May 1997 to see his uncle.
<ul><li>Use commas to set off words of direct address. </li></ul>
Johnny, do your homework.
Mother, may I go to Gilman Street?
Honey, take out the trash.
I am trying, dear, to fix your radio.
I want you to do it, Ed. I want Ed to do it.
<ul><li>Use commas before coordinating conjunctions that join independent clauses of a compound sentence. </li></ul>
INDEPENDENT CLAUSE:  a group of  words that   contain both a subject and a predicate  and can  stand alone as a sentence  ...
a.k.a.
Two sentences stuck together with and, but, or between them.
The old man reached his house , and   he opened the front gate.
The old man reached his house   and   opened the front gate.
The old man reached his house .  He  opened the front gate.
The leash seemed heavy in his hand , but  he didn’t turn to check on his dog.
The leash seemed heavy in his hand . He  didn’t turn to check on his dog.
He saw old Luke was out cold and  bent down to check on him.
Final note:   Linguistically, a  comma  translates as a  pause  in speech.
When in doubt,  read your writing aloud,  and punctuate according to sound.
The end
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Commas

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Writing tips for students and beginning writers. It's no frills because it relies on a teacher to add context verbally. Take it, bend it, shape it any way you want.

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Commas

  1. 1. Grammar From the batting cage
  2. 2. Some COMMA Rules
  3. 3. <ul><li>Use a comma after an introductory prepositional phrase of four or more words. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Down the road an old man walks his dog. Down the dusty road , an old man walks his dog.
  5. 5. <ul><li>Use a comma after introductory adverbs and verbal clauses regardless of length. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Slowly, the old man picked up a stick.
  7. 7. While resting, he tossed the stick.
  8. 8. Grumbling, the dog fetched the stick.
  9. 9. While whistling, the old man lost a tooth.
  10. 10. Before he left, he picked it up.
  11. 11. <ul><li>Use a comma after introductory interjections. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Yes, the old man loves his dog.
  13. 13. No, he’s not interested in selling it.
  14. 14. Well, he might loan you the dog for a day.
  15. 15. Oh, I see.
  16. 16. Hey, I get it already.
  17. 17. <ul><li>Use a comma between two adjectives modifying a noun. </li></ul>
  18. 18. The tired, old man walked his dog every day.
  19. 19. The grizzled, ancient dog walked with his old man every day.
  20. 20. The long, winding road leads to his door.
  21. 21. The hot, dusty, dry, uphill trail tired the old man.
  22. 22. The extremely old man hugged his dog. Why no comma? extremely is an adverb. It is modifying the adjective, not the noun
  23. 23. More adverbs without commas <ul><li>The barely conscious dog grunted. </li></ul><ul><li>The extremely tired runner collapsed. </li></ul><ul><li>He walked into the mostly empty room. </li></ul><ul><li>It is an openly aggressive act. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a commonly heard expression. </li></ul><ul><li>A terribly humid day shortened the hike. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Use commas to separate three or more words , phrases , or clauses in a series. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a comma after each item except the last. </li></ul>
  25. 25. The colors of the flag are red, white, and blue.
  26. 26. My favorite flavors are chocolate, vanilla, and strawberry.
  27. 27. He opened the letter, read it carefully, and stuck it in his pocket.
  28. 28. My favorite foods are tacos, tangerines, and peanut butter and jelly sandwiches.
  29. 29. My favorite foods are tacos, tangerines, peanut butter and jelly sandwiches, and ham and eggs.
  30. 30. <ul><li>Use commas to separate nonessential phrases </li></ul>
  31. 31. The old man , alone with his thoughts, continued to walk his dog.
  32. 32. The old man , alone with his thoughts, continued to walk his dog.
  33. 33. The dog , hungry and tired, followed along behind.
  34. 34. The dog , hungry and tired, followed along behind.
  35. 35. The old man jumped when he saw the stick , thinking it was a snake.
  36. 36. The old man jumped when he saw the stick , thinking it was a snake.
  37. 37. The students, who found the material difficult, met after school. The students who found the material difficult met after school. All the students Only certain students
  38. 38. My sister, Mary, is visiting. My sister Mary is visiting. I have one sister I have two sisters
  39. 39. <ul><li>U se a comma before which, but no comma before that. </li></ul>THAT is a defining pronoun. WHICH is a non-defining pronoun.
  40. 40. The computer that is broken is in the shop. The computer, which is broken, is in the shop. I have several computers I have one computer
  41. 41. This is the house that Jack built.
  42. 42. This is the house, which Jack built.
  43. 43. <ul><li>Use commas to separate states. </li></ul>
  44. 44. I drove to Lansing , Michigan , with my cousin.
  45. 45. <ul><li>Use a comma to when giving dates to separate the year from the month and day. </li></ul>
  46. 46. We arrived on January 27 , 1998, and booked a hotel. Sam visited Boston in May 1997 to see his uncle.
  47. 47. <ul><li>Use commas to set off words of direct address. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Johnny, do your homework.
  49. 49. Mother, may I go to Gilman Street?
  50. 50. Honey, take out the trash.
  51. 51. I am trying, dear, to fix your radio.
  52. 52. I want you to do it, Ed. I want Ed to do it.
  53. 53. <ul><li>Use commas before coordinating conjunctions that join independent clauses of a compound sentence. </li></ul>
  54. 54. INDEPENDENT CLAUSE: a group of words that contain both a subject and a predicate and can stand alone as a sentence when separated from a compound sentence
  55. 55. a.k.a.
  56. 56. Two sentences stuck together with and, but, or between them.
  57. 57. The old man reached his house , and he opened the front gate.
  58. 58. The old man reached his house and opened the front gate.
  59. 59. The old man reached his house . He opened the front gate.
  60. 60. The leash seemed heavy in his hand , but he didn’t turn to check on his dog.
  61. 61. The leash seemed heavy in his hand . He didn’t turn to check on his dog.
  62. 62. He saw old Luke was out cold and bent down to check on him.
  63. 63. Final note: Linguistically, a comma translates as a pause in speech.
  64. 64. When in doubt, read your writing aloud, and punctuate according to sound.
  65. 65. The end

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