Learning is measured by what learners know, not necessarily what they do
The learner processes symbols and grasps the meaning of symbols
There may or may not be an external behavioral change due to learning
Which factors influence learning?
What is the role of memory?
As long as the learner has the ability to organize, categorize and retrieve information, learning is accomplished
How does transfer occur?
Information is memorized in an organized manner
What types of learning are best explained by this theory?
Strengths of Cognitivism
The context of a learner - their history, culture, thoughts, beliefs and values - are influential in the learning process
Criticisms of Cognitivism
The learner knows a certain way to do things, but that way may not be the best, most efficient or safest way to do something in a different culture or environment
Zone of Proximal Development
Vygotsky (1978) maintained the child follows the adult's example and gradually develops the ability to do certain tasks without assistance. He called the difference between what a child can do with help and what he or she can do without guidance the "zone of proximal development" (ZPD).
ZPD What a child can do without help. Zone of Proximal Development What a teacher can teach.