Camera Basics

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  • A 35-mm camera having a 50-mm focal length lens subtends a 45-degree viewing angle. Lenses with focal lengths greater than 50-mm are referred to as telephoto and zoom lenses (a variable telephoto). Lenses with focal lengths less than 50-mm are referred to as wide-angle lenses.
  • A 35-mm camera having a 50-mm focal length lens subtends a 45-degree viewing angle. Lenses with focal lengths greater than 50-mm are referred to as telephoto and zoom lenses (a variable telephoto). Lenses with focal lengths less than 50-mm are referred to as wide-angle lenses.
  • The "amount" of light allows to strike the film plus the duration (time) for the light to strike the film forms an exposure. The camera has two mechanisms to control exposure, the lens diaphragm (lens section - aperture ) and the timing of the OPEN/CLOSE of the shutter curtain (camera section - shutter speed ). If this confuses you, the lens diaphragm (inside a typical SLR camera lens) consists of multiple blades which can be open and closed to certain size openings, the variations in the lens opening is called aperture . The size of the aperture determines the amount of light which will fall on the film. Various sizes of the lens opening are indicated by a set /series of numbers called f /stops or f/numbers . Each f/stop represents a specific quantity of light that pass through the lens. The smaller numbers are called large f/stops while the larger numbers are called small f/stops. This is because the larger numbers represent smaller apertures and allow less light to pass through the picture taking lens. Each time you move from one f/stop to the next smaller f/stop (larger number the amount of light allowed through is exactly halved. In effect, the amount of exposure itself is also halved. Using f/2 as an example, the amount of light reaching the film will change according to f/stop as indicated below:
  • Aperture is referred to the lens diaphragm opening inside a photographic lens. The size of the diaphragm opening in a camera lens REGULATES amount of light passes through onto the film inside the camera the moment when the shutter curtain in camera opens during an exposure process. The size of an aperture in a lens can either be a fixed or the most popular form in an adjustable type (like an SLR camera). Aperture size is usually calibrated in f-numbers . i.e. those little numbers engraved on the lens barrel like f22 (f/22),16 (f/16), f/11, f/8.0, f/5.6, f/4.0, f/2.8, f/2.0, f/1.8 etc. The MOST confusing part for any new photographer: JUST remember in photographic term: a BIG aperture is actually referring to a smaller number engraved on the aperture ring of the lens i.e. f/1.4, f/2, f/2.8, f/4.0 etc. while small apertures means bigger numbers i.e. f/22, f/16, f/11, f/8 etc. Once you have "overcome" such "mental block" in calculation, it should help you greatly understand and enjoy more in other sections to follow. So, you OUGHT to digest this paragraph.
  • Depth of field is the amount of distance between the nearest and farthest objects that appear in acceptably sharp focus in a photograph. A preferred selection Depth of field ("DOF") in a focused subject in an image can be quite subjective. Remember this, adequate selection of DOF for one situation, application may be unacceptable for another photographer. It is all a matter of personal preference when trying to determine the appropriate use of DOF to enhance an effect in a photograph.
  • Depth of field is the amount of distance between the nearest and farthest objects that appear in acceptably sharp focus in a photograph. A preferred selection Depth of field ("DOF") in a focused subject in an image can be quite subjective. Remember this, adequate selection of DOF for one situation, application may be unacceptable for another photographer. It is all a matter of personal preference when trying to determine the appropriate use of DOF to enhance an effect in a photograph.
  • Camera Basics

    1. 1. Camera Basics Art Production
    2. 2. Table of Contents <ul><li>Types of Cameras </li></ul><ul><li>Research before buying </li></ul><ul><li>Components </li></ul><ul><li>Features </li></ul>
    3. 3. Types of Cameras <ul><li>Average user – compact, ultra-light, auto everything, permanent lens, range-finder </li></ul><ul><li>Semi-professional or Enthusiast – compact to full size, auto and manual settings, sometimes removable lens, video and audio capability, Range-Finder or Single-Lens Reflex, special effects </li></ul><ul><li>Professional – SLR, high-burst, hi-res, best of everything </li></ul>
    4. 4. Range-Finder vs Single Lens Reflex <ul><li>Range-finder eye view is not the same as the lens view </li></ul><ul><li>SLR eye view is directly through the lens </li></ul>
    5. 5. Things to consider when buying <ul><li>Ratings – Do Your Research First!!!!!! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www.pcmag.com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>www.epinions.com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>www.shopper.com </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. PC Magazine
    7. 10. Epinions <ul><li>Epinions gives consumer ratings for just about everything </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.epinions.com/Digital_Cameras/search_string_~camera%20lenses/previous_search_string_~digital%20camera%20lenses/adv_search_~1 </li></ul>
    8. 13. Things to consider: LENS <ul><li>Lens – Permanent or changeable? </li></ul><ul><li>Zoom range – optical & digital zoom? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: 10X Zoom (might be 6x optical & 4x digital) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The quality of the lens is perhaps the most important consideration in buying a camera </li></ul><ul><li>Pay the extra for the best lens </li></ul><ul><li>High-resolution implies a better lens </li></ul><ul><li>( Carl Zeiss ) </li></ul>
    9. 14. Things to consider: LENS <ul><li>Cheap lenses can cause the edges of the picture to be blurry, cause purple fringing (Chromatic Aberration), poor auto-focus, poor detail, often are plastic not glass, easy to scratch, tiny in size, flimsy design, fragile in zoom mode </li></ul>
    10. 15. Things to consider: LENS <ul><li>Range considerations </li></ul><ul><li>50mm is the average camera lens range (45 degrees) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller than 50mm = wide-angle (common in digital) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>larger than 50mm = telephoto or zoom </li></ul></ul>
    11. 16. 50mm lens
    12. 17. 108mm Telephoto
    13. 18. 28mm Wide-Angle Lens
    14. 19. 10 to 17mm Fisheye Lens
    15. 20. 16-35 mm Wide-angle & standard zoom combo lens
    16. 22. File Formats <ul><li>JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatically does lossy compression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The camera embeds all special settings into the image -- focus, contrast, saturation, white balance, etc. Ready to publish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exports to computer at 8-bit mode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>256 brightness levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cheap cameras compress 8:1 to 25:1 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quality cameras compress 2.7:1 to 8:1 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>RAW </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The camera captures the image as is, uncompressed. All camera settings are embedded in a header tag, but not applied to the RAW photo. This allows more editing freedom with Photoshop, etc. RAW requires necessary editing software and conversion before publishing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exports to computer TIFF or PSD format in 16-bit mode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>65,536 brightness levels </li></ul></ul>
    17. 23. Batteries <ul><li>lithium ion rechargeable – smaller, recharge faster, short life span, pricey, camera specific </li></ul><ul><li>nickel hydride – rechargeable AA; cheaper; available everywhere </li></ul><ul><li>nickel cadmium – Disposable; cheap, not recommended. Wears out fast </li></ul><ul><li>alkaline – Disposable batteries; easy to swap out in the field </li></ul><ul><li>lithium – Disposable, last 7x longer </li></ul>
    18. 24. Memory Card Types
    19. 25. USB Connector
    20. 26. ImageMate™ & SecureMate™ www.sandisk.com Easy connections to computer
    21. 27. Variety of Flash Card IDE ports
    22. 28. Special Features <ul><li>Silent movies </li></ul><ul><li>Sound movies </li></ul><ul><li>Voice-over </li></ul><ul><li>Attach to phone or PDA </li></ul><ul><li>Digital zoom </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless </li></ul><ul><li>Color options </li></ul><ul><li>Time lapse </li></ul><ul><li>Panorama </li></ul><ul><li>Autobracketing </li></ul><ul><li>Playback options </li></ul><ul><ul><li>thumbnail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>slideshow </li></ul></ul>
    23. 29. Special Features <ul><li>Auto </li></ul><ul><li>P – Auto with manual over-ride </li></ul><ul><li>Tv (or S) – Shutter- speed control </li></ul><ul><li>Av (or A) – Aperture control </li></ul><ul><li>M – fully manual </li></ul>
    24. 31. Included Software <ul><li>Adobe Photoshop CS over $600 </li></ul><ul><li>Corel’s Photo-Paint $549 </li></ul><ul><li>Adobe Photoshop Elements $99 </li></ul><ul><li>Paintshop Pro $99 </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft PictureIt! $54 </li></ul><ul><li>Ulead Photo Express $49 </li></ul><ul><li>ACDSee $49 </li></ul>
    25. 32. Camera Use Basics Section 2
    26. 33. Table of Contents <ul><li>Resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Aperture – F-Stop – controls depth of focus </li></ul><ul><li>Shutter speed – controls light </li></ul><ul><li>ASA/ISO – Film speed or sensitivity </li></ul>
    27. 34. Things to consider: Resolution It’s not just about mega-pixels! <ul><li>3 mega-pixels will print out 8x10 in fairly good quality ( current popular range is 5 – 8 mp ) </li></ul><ul><li>Superior lens </li></ul><ul><li>Large Image Sensors in CCD (charge-coupled device) or CMOS (complimentary metal oxide semiconductor) = high resolution </li></ul><ul><li>ADC (Analog-to-digital converter) 8-bit is common, 12-bit or higher = superior </li></ul>
    28. 35. Resolutions Compressions <ul><li>2,592X1,944 LARGE </li></ul><ul><li>2,048X1,536 M1 </li></ul><ul><li>1,600 1,200 M2 </li></ul><ul><li>640x480 SMALL </li></ul><ul><li>SUPERFINE = Minimal compression, as low as 2:1 </li></ul><ul><li>FINE = Medium compression, 6, 8, or more:1 </li></ul><ul><li>NORMAL = Maximum compression, as high as and higher than 30:1 </li></ul>
    29. 37. Superfine LARGE 3,885 KB 2,592 x 1,944
    30. 38. Superfine M1 2,515 KB 2,048 x 1,536
    31. 39. Superfine M2 1,739 KB 1,600 x 1,200
    32. 40. Superfine SMALL 337 KB 640 x 480 
    33. 41. Superfine LARGE 3,885 KB 2,592 x 1,944
    34. 42. Superfine M1 2,515 KB 2,048 x 1,536
    35. 43. Superfine M2 1,739 KB 1,600 x 1,200
    36. 44. Superfine SMALL 337 KB 640 x 480 
    37. 45. Fine LARGE 2,554 KB 2,592 x 1,944
    38. 46. Fine LARGE 2,554 KB 2,592 x 1,944
    39. 47. Fine M1 1,649 KB 2,048 x 1,536
    40. 48. Fine M1 1,649 KB 2,048 x 1,536
    41. 49. Fine M2 1,182 KB 1,600 x 1,200
    42. 50. Fine M2 1,182 KB 1,600 x 1,200
    43. 51. Fine SMALL 234 KB 640 x 480 
    44. 52. Fine SMALL 234 KB 640 x 480 
    45. 53. Normal LARGE 1,377 KB 2,592 x 1,944
    46. 54. Normal LARGE 1,377 KB 2,592 x 1,944
    47. 55. Normal M1 888 KB 2,048 x 1,536
    48. 56. Normal M1 888 KB 2,048 x 1,536
    49. 57. Normal M2 659 KB 1,600 x 1,200
    50. 58. Normal M2 659 KB 1,600 x 1,200
    51. 59. Normal SMALL 135 KB 640 x 480 
    52. 60. Normal SMALL 135 KB 640 x 480 
    53. 62. Advise on setting resolution and compression <ul><li>Use the highest settings your memory card can handle without filling up during a shoot </li></ul><ul><li>Resize down later on the computer using graphics-editing software like Windows PowerToy – Image Resizer </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.microsoft.com/windowsxp/downloads/powertoys/xppowertoys.mspx </li></ul>
    54. 64. What is an Exposure ? <ul><li>The quantity of light allowed to act on a photographic material; a product of the </li></ul><ul><li>intensity (controlled by the lens opening aperture ) and the </li></ul><ul><li>duration (controlled by the shutter speed or enlarging time) of light striking the film </li></ul>
    55. 65. Aperture aka F-Stop <ul><li>F-stop – or focus-stop: Determines how much light gets in </li></ul>
    56. 66. LOW F-Stop <ul><li>Wide-open aperture allows photos in dim lighting, creates a narrow depth of focus </li></ul>Low F-Stop allows you to raise your shutter speed to 1/125 of second or faster, eliminating the need for a tripod. Photos taken with slower shutter speeds, such as 1/60, need a tripod or steady hand
    57. 67. F-Stop <ul><li>High F-Stop requires bright lights for fast shutter speed. It allows an infinite depth of focus </li></ul>Good for action photos
    58. 68. F-Stop Focus Range – Depth of Field
    59. 69. F-Stop & Shutter Speed
    60. 70. F-Stop Focus Range – Shallow Depth of Field
    61. 71. F-Stop Focus Range – Medium Depth of Field
    62. 72. Infinite Depth of field
    63. 73. Shutter Speed
    64. 75. Shutter Speed <ul><li>The more light, the faster the shutter speed 1/125 is lower limit without tripod </li></ul><ul><li>The less light, the slower the shutter speed </li></ul><ul><li>The lower the F-stop, the faster the shutter speed </li></ul><ul><li>The higher the F-stop, the slower the shutter speed </li></ul>
    65. 76. Shutter Speed <ul><li>A slow shutter speed (125 range) allows all available light in and is preferred whenever possible. This can greatly improve the quality of a photograph by allowing the receptors plenty of time to absorb the image </li></ul>A slower shutter speed often spells “blurry pictures” unless a tripod is used. Do not shoot below 1/125 without a tripod – (Notice the 60 is in RED) A high shutter speed may be grainy, but less blurry in low light, and captures action
    66. 77. ASA is now ISO <ul><li>Abbreviation for American Standards Association, replaced by ISO (International Organization for Standardization). Used with a number to define film speed and sensitivity </li></ul><ul><li>ISO 100 high resolution medium speed for everyday outdoor use </li></ul><ul><li>ISO 200 and 400 grainer, but faster; used for indoor, limited light, or capturing action; allows faster shutter speed and eliminates tripod </li></ul><ul><li>Specialty film can go very low ISO 6 and lower – super-sensitive, used for capturing maximum resolution, blowing pictures up to poster or billboard size </li></ul><ul><li>Specialty film can go very high ISO 6400 for capturing bullets, arrows, and other super-high speed actions </li></ul><ul><li>Digital cameras have ISO equivalents </li></ul>
    67. 78. End

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