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Behaviorism
 

Behaviorism

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Basic overview of Behaviorism

Basic overview of Behaviorism

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    Behaviorism Behaviorism Presentation Transcript

    • Behaviorism
    • Behaviorism
      • The learning theory dominant in the first half of the 20th Century.
      • Throughout the 1950s and 60s behaviorism remained influential, although since that time new theories have begun to make substantial inroads in general acceptance
    • Behaviorism
      • Learning that emphasizes observable, objective, measurable behavior (test scores)
      • Discounts mental activities
      • Learning is a more or less permanent change in behavior
    • Behaviorism
      • The learner adapts to their environment
      • Two famous experiments
        • "Dog Salivation Experiment" by Ivan Petrovich Pavlov
        • "Skinner Box" experiment with pigeons by B.F. Skinner
    • Key Players Key Players
    • John B. Watson :
      • In 1913, Watson published "Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It."
      • Dubbed "Founder of Behaviorism" for view that psychology should be concerned only with the objective behavior
    • B.F. Skinner :
      • Skinner's approach was to create environments that resulted in new, learned behaviors
    • Key Features Key Features
    •  How does learning occur?
      • Learning is a change in observable performance
      • Behavior adapts to events and objectives
      • Shaping: a gradual strengthening of the relationship between cue and behavior
    •  What is the role of memory?
      • Acquisition of habits: Practicing habits maintains a learner's readiness to respond
      • Disuse results in "forgetting"
    •  How does transfer occur?
      • When experiences are similar with recognizable features, the learner can transfer learning to new situations
    • What types of learning are best explained by this theory?
      • Reinforcement by way of repetition
      • instructional cues
      • drill and practice
      • Goal and objective oriented
      • Learning that requires quick reaction with sure response
    • Relevant behaviorist elements
      • Drill and practice software
      • Flash cards
      • Goals, objectives, benchmarks, STANDARDS have behaviorist components
      • Rewards and punishments
      • Feedback
    • How should learning be evaluated?
      • Evaluation should be based on a predetermined, standardized set of criteria
      • Every learner should be evaluated based upon the same set of criteria
    • Strengths of Behaviorism
      • Clearly stated objectives allow the learner to focus
      • Cueing responses allows the learner to react in a predictable way
      • In a stressful situation like combat or flying a plane, cued responses can be a very valuable tool
    • Criticisms of Behaviorism
      • Behaviorism is one dimensional and does not account for all kinds of learning, since it disregards the activities of the mind
    • Criticisms of Behaviorism
      • The learner might find himself in a situation where he needs to respond, but the mental "cues" he has learned to respond to might not exist
    • Criticisms of Behaviorism
      • Behaviorism does not explain some learning--such as the recognition of new language patterns by young children--for which there is no reinforcement mechanism
    • Criticisms of Behaviorism
      • Animals adapt their habits to new information
      • For instance, a rat can shift its behavior to respond to changes in the layout of a maze it had previously mastered through reinforcements
    • end