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# Gia sư môn toán

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Gia sư ngoại thương http://giasungoaithuong.net/ SĐT : 04 66 55 88 90 Hotline : 0165 628 6659 gia sư môn toán sinh viên ngoại thương giỏi

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### Gia sư môn toán

4. 4. file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Administrator/Deskto...0BILL%20-%20BUSINESS%20AT%20THE%20SPEED%20OF%20THOUGHT.TXTIMPROVE STRATEGIC THOUGHT 2121 WHEN REFLEX IS A MATTER OF LIFE AND DEATH 37210 BAD NEWS MUST TRAVEL FAST 159CONVERT BAD NEWS To GOOD 184VI12 KNOW YOUR NUMBERS 201EXPECT THE UNEXPECTED13 SHIFT PEOPLE INTO THINKING WORK 22223 PREPARE FOR THE DIGITAL FUTURE 40714 RAISE YOUR CORPORATE IQ 23615 BIG WINS REQUIRE BIG RISKS 262APPENDIX: BUILD DIGITAL PROCESSES ON STANDARDS 417AA= GLOSSARY 441CUSTOMER ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 453IV INDEX 457BRING INSIGHT TOBUSINESS OPERATIONS16 DEVELOP PROCESSES THAT EMPOWER PEOPLE 28117 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ENABLESREENGINEERING 29518 TREAT IT AS A STRATEGIC RESOURCE 317 file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Admini...SINESS%20AT%20THE%20SPEED%20OF%20THOUGHT.TXT (4 of 392)12/28/2005 5:28:51 PM
6. 6. file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Administrator/Deskto...0BILL%20-%20BUSINESS%20AT%20THE%20SPEED%20OF%20THOUGHT.TXTThough at heart most business problems are information problems, almostno one is using information well.Too many senior managers seem to take the absence of timely informationas a given. People have lived for so long without information at theirfingertips that they dont realize what theyre missing. One of thegoals in my speech to the CEOs was to raise their expectations. Iwanted them to be appalled by how little they got in the way ofactionable information from their current IT investments. I wantedCEOs to demand a flow of information that would give them quick,tangible knowledge about what was really happening with theircustomers.Even companies that have made significant investments in informationtechnology are not getting the results they could be. Wha tsinteresting is that the gap is not the result of a lack of technologyspending. In fact, most companies have invested in the basic buildingblocks: PCs for productivity applications; networks and electronic mail(e-mail) for communications; basic business applications. The typi IrINTRODUCTION XVcal company has made 80 percent of the investment in the technologythat can give it a healthy flow of information yet is typically gettingonly 20 percent of the benefits that are now possible. The gap betweenwhat companies are spending and what theyre getting ste ms from thecombination of not understanding what is possible and not seeing thepotential when you use technology to move the right information quicklyto everyone in the company.CHANGING TECHNOLOGY AND EXPECTATIONSThe job that most companies are doing with information today would havebeen fine several years ago. Getting rich information wasprohibitively expensive, and the tools for analyzing and disseminatingit werent available in the 1980s and even the early 1990s. But hereon the edge of the twenty-first century, the tools and connectivity ofthe digital age now give us a way to easily obtain, share, and act oninformation in new and remarkable ways.For the first time, all kinds of infbrmation-numbers@ text, sound,video-can be put into a digital form that any computer c n store, file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Admini...SINESS%20AT%20THE%20SPEED%20OF%20THOUGHT.TXT (6 of 392)12/28/2005 5:28:51 PM
21. 21. file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Administrator/Deskto...0BILL%20-%20BUSINESS%20AT%20THE%20SPEED%20OF%20THOUGHT.TXTcustomers-but the interface would be the sam. e. If they do the newsystem on a mainstream platform, they can replace all the differentways of viewing data.Over time, as it makes business sense, they can upgrade the back-enddatabase to new technology, but meanwhile the Internet interface willsimplify their lives, not make them more complex. The new interface"becomes" the bank , both inside and out.PUTTING INFORMATION TO WORKAfter the introduction of ENIAC, the first general-purpose computer,during World War II, computers quickly proved they were faster and moreaccurate than humans in many applications-managing the customer recordsof the largest 9 institutions and automating almost any mechanicalprocess that could be broken into discrete, repetitive steps.Computers were not functioning at a high level, though. They assistedpeople but not in an intelligent way. It takes brains to understandthe physics and develop the underlying calculations for the arcs ofartillery projectiles or ballistic missiles; it takes an idiot savant-acomputer-to do the calculations in an instant.Businesses need to do another kind of work, what Michael Dertouzos,director of M.I.Ts laboratory for computer 4 science and author of WhatWill Be5 calls "information 4. What Will Be: How the New World ofInformation Will Change Our Lives (San F-ncisco: HarperCollins,HarperEdge, 1997).work." We usually think of informations memo, a picture or a financialreport, say-as static. But Dertouzos convincingly argues that anotherform of information is active-a "verb" instead of a static noun.Information work is "the transformation of information by human brainsor computer programs Information work designing a building, negotiatinga contract, preparing tax returns-constitutes most of the realinformation we dea with and most of the work done in developedeconomies."Information-as-verb activities dominate the terrain of information,Dertouzos says." He estimates that information work contributes 50 to60 percent of an industrialized countrys GNP. file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Admini...SINESS%20AT%20THE%20SPEED%20OF%20THOUGHT.TXT (21 of 392)12/28/2005 5:28:51 PM
24. 24. file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Administrator/Deskto...0BILL%20-%20BUSINESS%20AT%20THE%20SPEED%20OF%20THOUGHT.TXTExecutive Information Systems Evolvethe early effort to improve information flow, at least for executives,was 0 the executive information system (EIS). Emerging in the late1980s, EIS gave executives the ability to get sales information orother data without having to wait months for a special report. EIS wasthe right idea, but it was limited to senior ranks and wasnt connectedup with the other company information systems. EIS tended to be justanother proprietary system within a proprietary system. One largeUS.steel company discovered that the information provided by the new toolled senior executives to ask more questions of their subordinates, whodidnt have the information to answer them!With the benefit of PC-based platforms, tools for rapid applicationdevelopment, and improved graphical user interfaces, the executiveinformation system has evolved into the "enterprise informationsystem," also called a "performance measurement system." The new EISsystems are intended to provide information to a wider range of peoplein an organization.As the vendors of EIS systems moved to a standard platform and tools,their roles evolved. The real value they offer is not in building theapplication, but in helping companies figure out what to do with it.Customers often arrive with their expectations so shaped by the ideathat information is hard to get that they dont know what is reasonableto expect from their information Systems. A leading EIS vendor,Comshare, of Ann Arbor, Michigan, starts out by asking a customer suchbasic questions as "What do you want from the (@omshares sytem?" and"What are the outcomes you want to measure?" sales analysisapplication comes with ninety specific questions about the kinds ofdata a company might want-performance, underperformance, regionalperformance, and so on.Comshare, which offers a Mix of systems using standard desktopapplications or browsers as the front end, assists the customer withanalyzing and shaping the right approach to the problem and will bringin consultants to help with business process reengineering if thatseems to be needed. Only after analysis and any necessaryreengineering of processes does Comshare deliver the technology. file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Admini...SINESS%20AT%20THE%20SPEED%20OF%20THOUGHT.TXT (24 of 392)12/28/2005 5:28:51 PM
25. 25. file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Administrator/Deskto...0BILL%20-%20BUSINESS%20AT%20THE%20SPEED%20OF%20THOUGHT.TXTA companys middle managers and line employees, not just its high-levelexecutives, need to see business data. Its important for me as a CEOto understand how the company is doing across regions or product linesor customer segments, and I take pride in staying on top of thosethings.However, its the middle managers in every com any who I p need tounderstand where their profits and losses lie, what marketing programsare working or not, and what expenses are in line or out of whack.Theyre the people who need precise, actionable data because theyrethe ones who need to act. They need an immediate constant flow andrich views of the right information. These employees shouldnt have towait for upper management to bring information to them. Companiesshould spend less time protecting financial data from employees andmore time teaching them to analyze and act on it.Of course, every company is going to draw the line on informationaccess somewhere. Every company keeps salaries confidential. Ingeneral, though, I believe in a very open policy on informationavailability. Theres incredible value in letting everybody involvedwith a product, even the most junior team member, understand thehistory, the pricing, and how the sales break down around the worldand.by customer segment. The value of having everybody get thecomplete picture and trusting each person with it far outweighs therisk involved.In many companies the middle managers can be overwhelmed by day-todayproblems and not have information they need to fix them. They may havereams of data in front of them-literally reams of paper reports-thatare difficult to analyze or correlate with data in other reports. Asign of a good digital nervous system is that y 011 have middle,managers empowered by the flow of specific, actionable information.They should be seeing their sales numbers, expense breakdowns, vendorand contractor Costs, and the status of major projects online, in aform that invites analysis as well as coordination with other people.The systems should notify them of unusual developments according tocriteria they set-for example, if an expense item is out of line. Thisway they dont need to monitor normal expense activity. Thesecapabilities are available at a few companies, but Im continuallysurprised by how few companies use information technology to keep their file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Admini...SINESS%20AT%20THE%20SPEED%20OF%20THOUGHT.TXT (25 of 392)12/28/2005 5:28:51 PM
26. 26. file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Administrator/Deskto...0BILL%20-%20BUSINESS%20AT%20THE%20SPEED%20OF%20THOUGHT.TXTline managers well informed and to avoid routine review.Im amazed by the tortuous path that critical information often takesthrough many Fortune 500 companies. Im spoiled by being able toe-mail a view of the latest data to key managers and let them dig intoit. At McDonalds, until recently, sales data had to be manually"touched" several times before it made its way to the people who neededit.Today, McDonalds is well on the way to installing a new informationsystem that uses PCs and We b technologies to tally sales at all of itsrestaurants in real time. As soon as you order two Happy Meals, aMcDonalds marketing manager will know. Rather than superficial oranecdotal data, the marketer will have hard, factual data for trackingtrends.As well see in the description of Microsofts reaction to theInternet, still another sign of a good digital nervous System is thenumber of good ideas bubbling up from your line managers and knowledgeworkers. When they can analyze concrete data, people get specificideas about howto do things better-and they get charged up about it,too.People like knowing that something theyre doing is working, and theylike being able to demonstrate to manag ement that its working. Theyenjoy using technology that encourages them to evaluate differenttheories about whats going on in their markets. They get a kick outof running what-ifs. People really do appreciate information, and itsa big motivator.A final sign of a good digital the rvous system is how focused yourface-to-face meetings are and whether specific actions come out ofthem. Pilots like to say that good landings are the result of goodapproaches. Good meetings are the result of good preparation.Meetings shouldnt be used primarily to present information. Its moreefficient to use e-mail so that people can analyze data beforehand andcome into a meeting prepared to make recommendations and engage inmeaningful debate. Companies struggling with too many unproductivemeetings and too much paper dont lack energy and brains. The datathey need exists somewhere in the company in some form. They justcant readily put their hands on it. Digital tools would enable themto get the data immediately, from many sources, and to be able to file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/Admini...SINESS%20AT%20THE%20SPEED%20OF%20THOUGHT.TXT (26 of 392)12/28/2005 5:28:51 PM