Reproductive system

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  • 1. Reproductive Systems Male & Female
  • 2. Function  To ensure survival of the species  To produce egg and sperm cells  To transport and sustain these cells  To nurture the developing offspring  To produce hormones  Other systems strive to maintain a state of homeostasis
  • 3. Male & Female  Include:  Reproductive organs called gonads that produce gametes (reproductive cells) and hormones  Ducts that transport gametes  Accessory glands and organs that secrete fluids
  • 4. Male & Female  Production of hormones that permit the secondary sex characteristics, such as breast development in women and beard growth in men
  • 5. Male  Functions  To produce, maintain and transport sperm (the male reproductive cells) and protective fluid (semen)  To produce and secrete male sex hormones responsible for maintaining the male reproductive system
  • 6. Male  Consists of:  A pair of testes  Scrotum  A network of excretory ducts  epididymis  vas deferens/ductus deferens  ejaculatory ducts  Glands  Seminal vesicles  Prostate Gland  Bulbourethral gland/ Cowper’s Glands  Urethra  Penis
  • 7. http://www.uh.edu/~tgill2/image010.jpg
  • 8. Male  Testes / testicles (Gonads)  Produce sperm (Spermatogenesis)  Sperm production begins at puberty and continues throughout the life of a male
  • 9. Male  Testes / testicles (Gonads)  Produce testosterone  Hair patterns and voice changes  Development of the male accessory organs (prostate, seminal vesicles etc.)  Stimulates the effect of protein building in the body that is responsible for the greater muscle development and strength of the male
  • 10. Male  Duct System  Epididymis  Sperm mature in epididymis  Vas Deferens/Ductus Deferens  Transports mature sperm to the urethra  Ejaculatory ducts  empty into the urethra
  • 11. Male  Seminal vesicles  Attached to vas deferens  Produce a sugar- rich fluid (fructose) that provides energy to sperm
  • 12. Male  Prostate Gland  Makes fluid
  • 13. Male  Bulbourethral Gland  Secretes an alkaline mucous to remove any traces of acidic urine in the urethra and helps the semen move quickly through the urethra and out of the penis
  • 14. Male  Urethra  Tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside of the body  Also carries semen out of the body
  • 15. Male  Penis  Organ used to deliver sperm into the female reproductive tract
  • 16. Male  Spermatogenesis  Begins at puberty  400 million sperm/day  Three stages:  Formation of spermatocytes  Meiosis  Spermiogenesis  1st stage: formation of spermatocytes  Spermatogonia divide continuously by mitosis and become primary spermatocytes  2nd stage: meiosis I  Each primary spermatocytes (2n) undergoes meiosis I to become 2 secondary spermatocytes Each secondary spermatocyte undergoes meiosis II to become 2 spermatids  3rd stage: spermiogenesis  Spermatids differentiate into sperm
  • 17. Male  Anatomy of the Spermatozoa  Head contains  Nucleus with chromatid (genetic material)  Acrosome with enzymes for penetrating egg  Midpiece: mitochondria spiraled around the core of the tail  Tail is an elaborate flagellum (allows sperm to swim)
  • 18. Female  Functions  Produces the female egg cells  Transports the eggs to the site of fertilization  The fertilization of an egg by a sperm, occurs in the fallopian tubes
  • 19. Female  Functions  After fertilization, provides a place for a baby to develop  If fertilization does not take place, the system is designed to menstruate  Produces female sex hormones that maintain the reproductive cycle.
  • 20. Female  Consists of:  Vagina  Uterus  Ovaries  Fallopian tubes
  • 21. http://biology.clc.uc.edu/graphics/bio 105/repro%20female.jpg
  • 22. Female  Vagina  Canal that joins the cervix (the lower part of uterus) to the outside of the body  Also is known as the birth canal
  • 23. Female  Uterus  Hollow, pear-shaped organ that is the home to a developing fetus  Divided into two parts:  the cervix, the lower part that opens into the vagina  Main body of the uterus, called the corpus.  The corpus can easily expand to hold a developing baby.  A channel through the cervix allows sperm to enter and menstrual blood to exit
  • 24. Female  Ovaries  Oval-shaped glands that are located on either side of the uterus  Produce eggs and hormones.  Hormones are:  Estrogen-develop the secondary sex characteristics of a female  Progesterone http://www.ricancercouncil.org/img/cervical.gif
  • 25. Female  Fallopian Tubes  Narrow tubes that are attached to the upper part of the uterus and serve as tunnels for the egg cell to travel from the ovaries to the uterus  Fertilization of an egg by a sperm, normally occurs in the fallopian tubes  The fertilized egg then moves to the uterus, where it implants into the lining of the uterine wall http://www.ricancercouncil.org/img/cervical.gif
  • 26. Female  External Genitilia  All structures are collectively called as vulva or pudendum  The structures included are:  Mons pubis-mound of adipose tissue covered by the pubic hair  Labia majora-two folds of skin containing many adipose tissue and sweat glands  Labia Minora-no hair, few sweat glands but many sebaceous glands  Clitoris-small, cylindrical mass of erectile tissue anterior to the labia minora  Vestibule-opening between the 2 labia minora  Hymen-within the vestibule; a thin fold of tissue  Skene’s glands-secrete mucous  Bartholin’s glands- secrete mucous
  • 27. Female  Oogenesis  Starts in fetal period  No more oocytes made after about 7th month  Developed only to early stage of meiosis I by birth and stops (called primary oocyte)  6-12 primordial oocytes each cycle selected to develop for ovulation (most die)  Only then is meiosis I completed  Secondary oocyte is then arrested in meiosis II  Meiosis II not completed (now an ovum) unless sperm penetrates its plasma membrane  Of the 4 daughter cells, only one becomes ovum (needs a lot of cytoplasm)  The other 3 become “polar bodies”
  • 28. Female  The Menstrual Cycle  The shedding of the lining of the uterus in response to changes in hormonal levels.  Cycle varies but within a range of 24-35 days
  • 29. Female  Mammary Glands  Modified sweat glands  Both sexes but function (normally) only in lactating female  Produce milk to nourish baby  Respond to hormonal stimulation  Nipple surrounded by pigmented ring of skin, the areola  Mammary glands consist of 15-25 lobes  Each a distinct compound alveolar gland opening at the nipple  Separated by adipose  Smaller lobules composed of tiny alveoli  Like bunches of grapes  Don’t develop until half-way through pregnancy (ducts grow during puberty)  Milk passes from alveoli through progressively larger ducts  Largest: lactiferous ducts, collect milk into sinuses
  • 30. Female  Pregnancy and Embryonic Development  After ejaculation into the vagina, sperm swim to meet an egg  Sperm live 5-7 days (need cervical mucus)  Eggs live about 12-24 hours, so conception only occurs during this short window  Fertilization occurs in the fallopian tube  It takes 24 hours to move down one-third of the uterine tube. Fertilization occurs in the upper two-thirds of the tube  A fertilized egg is called a zygote  Fertilization occurs at the moment the chromosomes from the male and female gametes unite  The zygote moves down the uterine tube, it divides by mitosis to form a hollow sphere of cells called blastocyst.  It embeds itself on the uterus by the seventh day and the 3 primary germ layers are now being developed
  • 31.  Ectoderm will develop into the skin and the nervous system; Endoderm will form the linings of internal organs and the Mesoderm will form muscles, bones and other tissues.  These tissues come from the blastocyst’s inner cell mass  The placenta is then formed. Once it is formed, the three-layered embryo becomes surrounded by the amnion  The embryo becomes attached to the umbilical cord  The pregnancy continues and the embryo grows. At the ninth week, it is called a fetus.  The placenta exchanges nutrients, oxygen and wastes between the embryo/fetus and the mother
  • 32.  Childbirth- called parturition and begins with contractions of the smooth muscles of the uterus called labor  Labor-divided into 3 stages  Dilation stage-cervix is fully dilated by the head of the fetus and the amnion ruptures releasing the amniotic fluid  Expulsion stage-child moves through the cervix and vagina, usually head first  Placental stage- placenta detaches from the uterus within 15 minutes after birth.