IRR -> Internal return rate You can think of IRR as the rate of growth a project is expected to generate. NVP -> Net present value>0 NPV compares the value of a dollar today to the value of that same dollar in the future, taking inflation and returns into account. EBIT AAR Depreciation rate Project future cash flows Profit Margin Return on Assets Growth rate M&As rations + Financial statement
Offer Luxury or exclusive good
Psigeia Apokleismos mikron
You will stay more to be creative / You will have some time to be creative in week /This month we will be creative
OT1. There is atmosphere for honest cooperation among employees. OT2. Clear expectation connected with results and aims from all employees. OT3. Employees are willing to share knowledge. OT4. Employees openly admit and take responsibility for their mistakes. OT5. Employees avoid participating in gossip and unfair criticism of others. OT6. Employees are willing to take part in trainings. OT7. Periodic meetings take place between employees and the management. OT8. In general the work responsibilities are established and clear. OT9. The criteria of promotion are clear in every position. OT10. Evaluation of employees is fair. OT11. The relationship between employees is good. OT12. All employees are treated fairly OT13. The interests of workers are taken care of. OT14. Team work is encouraged and preferred. OT15. Employees are encouraged to take part in decision-making.
To lead or to follow?
First Mover Late Mover
Experience curve benefits Free riding
Pre-emption of scare resources
First Mover Late Mover
The products do not have
obvious advantage to consumer
Lower quality – Bigger
Small market share – Big price Danger for replication
What is ambidexterity?
– To exploit current capabilities and explore future
Where technology is put?
– At the beginning or at the end of the production?
Why different sectors might be more intensive?
– i.e. ICT Industry Vs Petrol Industry
How can an organization become
Knowledge Produced (papers, patents)
– Unit based ambidexterity
– Partner based ambidexterity (Clustering)
Investment 1 High Risk
Investment 2 Very High Risk
Investment 3 Medium Risk
Investment 4 Small risk
The aim is to minimize the risk of the portfolio
Selling Strategy- 3 types of customersCostSensitive
• He likes
words such as
• He must
well how he
• He needs to
(VIP – unique
• He does not
lot but he
want to be
• He needs
Tips for selling
1) Use sales people
- Frequently in high-tech startups senior researchers
become sellers and juniors take their position
2) Use analogues to make your products
- They used to say computers are advanced typewritters
3) Be aligned to customers’ procedures
- E.g. A BI system not connected with ERP
4) Think like the investors – Quantify with excel !
Business strategy – When do I have
1. When I can set barriers for entrance in the market
(Patents/industry standards/government policy)
2. When I can buy in good price (Degree of dependency
upon existing channels of distribution / Number of
3. When the buyer does not have many alternatives
(loyalty programs-benefits/Switching costs/brand)
4. When my product can not be substituted (e.g.
5. When I make the competition irrelevant
Business Model Tool
( https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QoAOzMTLP5s )
Creativity needs time
– How you find time to be creative?
– Psychological Safety
– Knowledge integration
How can we get an indication about
psychological factors ?
* The above items are samples and can not be used to produce scientific results
Factor Question 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Creativity My coworkers are almost always
supportive when I come up with a new
idea about my job
When someone in our company makes
a mistake, it is often held against them
Trust Employees avoid participating in
gossip and unfair criticism of others
The members of this team synthesize
and integrate their individual expertise
at the project level.
Rate the following statements from 1 = Strongly Agree to 7=Strongly Disagree
What is needed to produce new knowledge
You need fast and
You need both senior
and new employees
You need to have
Knowledge Management Strategy
Actors Explicit Knowledge Tacit Knowledge
Technician Technical directions
Culture in the
Seller Customer History
How to understand
RnD Employee Experimental data
HR Employee Staff skills
Knowledge Management Tools
Best practices database – These are databases of information that
are retrieved from people who have already tackled a problem
and found a solution.
Expertise Location – This is a database which provides a way to
locate an expert or expert information.
Communities of Practice – These are groups of individuals who
discuss problems, opportunities, lessons learned and other
information gained from users.
Change Management Strategy
Why changes might occur?
– Innovation adoption might mean changing the way of work
How will people react?
Tips about the change process
– You need open culture
– You need management commitment and vision
– You need to set targets and measure the performance
– How should the training be done?
• You first train the middle managers & the influencers
Change Management Tools
Posters Story boards
apply for new
Review of past
Blue Ocean Strategy: How to Create
Uncontested Market Space and Make
Why People Fail: The 16 Obstacles to Success
and How You Can Overcome Them
The Innovator's Dilemma: When New
Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail
Business Model Generation: A Handbook for
Visionaries, Game Changers, and Challengers