Project for Project for Advanced English Physics Department University of Crete Foundation 1.  Maria Pitsaki 2.  Vasilis C...
Contents <ul><li>Energy needs </li></ul><ul><li>What is ITER </li></ul><ul><li>What is fusion </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions...
Lights on the earth at night
2 billion people Do not have access to the electricity
Vast needs in the industrialized world.
Fossil fuels
Alternative ways of energy production
Japan UK The current reactors
ITER a larger project
 
Structure of the atom <ul><li>The nucleus of an atom is comprised by neutrons and protons.  </li></ul><ul><li>Isotopes  ar...
<ul><li>Einstein’s Equation  :   ΔΕ = Δ m c 2   </li></ul>Light nucleus Heavy nucleus Mass defect
Mass and energy
Fusion
<ul><li>Deuterium  is a common isotope of hydrogen made by sea water. </li></ul><ul><li>Tritium  is an other rare isotope ...
Cross section is the probability of the reaction to happen The most efficient reaction Cross section
In  order  the  particles to  acquire  Energy and collide we  heat  them in grate temperatures (150.000.000  o C).  Thus  ...
Magnetic confinement <ul><li>The main method to make magnetic confinement, is to pass current through plasma and create an...
<ul><li>The plasma may be  heated by its self . The helium nuclei that remain from the reaction offer energy to the other ...
<ul><li>Except from tritium we do not have any radioactive materials inside the reactor. </li></ul>ITER ’s Safety <ul><li>...
<ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><li>Garry McCracken-Peter Strott,  </li></ul><ul><li>Fusion, the Energy of  Universe  </li></u...
Thank you !
Neutral beam heating device
Radiofrequency heating Electron  Hybrid Frequency 8 GHz Electron  Cyclotron Frequency 200 GHz Ion  Cyclotron Frequency 70 ...
 
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A presentation about ITER

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An introduction about the production of electrical Energy from controlled thermonuclear fusion. I focus on the word wide project ITER which is going to be inplemented in France.

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  • - 10 times more than pour countries
  • -Dominant countries USA EU -Petrol 80% of our needs -Reserves/-------------  by 2030 consumption -Coal no monopoly less harmful -fossil fuels harmful for the environment /greenhouse effect/acid rain
  • More ecological-&gt;but 1)Not continuous/Water? ---------  France 80% electric energy…………Deduce harmful emit ions.
  • Jet JT-6OU
  • Larger project By Russia 1985 Many countries join….
  • By making a device that measures the atom’s mass Aston concluded that Many years later Einstein came to say that this mass defect is energy defect
  • Light nuclei too much energy per nucleon
  • Why should we use this reaction
  • Natural frequency
  • A presentation about ITER

    1. 1. Project for Project for Advanced English Physics Department University of Crete Foundation 1. Maria Pitsaki 2. Vasilis Charmandaris Instructors [email_address] E-mail Panagopoulos George Name
    2. 2. Contents <ul><li>Energy needs </li></ul><ul><li>What is ITER </li></ul><ul><li>What is fusion </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions to make fusion </li></ul><ul><li>Fusion’s Safety </li></ul>
    3. 3. Lights on the earth at night
    4. 4. 2 billion people Do not have access to the electricity
    5. 5. Vast needs in the industrialized world.
    6. 6. Fossil fuels
    7. 7. Alternative ways of energy production
    8. 8. Japan UK The current reactors
    9. 9. ITER a larger project
    10. 11. Structure of the atom <ul><li>The nucleus of an atom is comprised by neutrons and protons. </li></ul><ul><li>Isotopes are the components that have the same number of protons </li></ul>
    11. 12. <ul><li>Einstein’s Equation : ΔΕ = Δ m c 2 </li></ul>Light nucleus Heavy nucleus Mass defect
    12. 13. Mass and energy
    13. 14. Fusion
    14. 15. <ul><li>Deuterium is a common isotope of hydrogen made by sea water. </li></ul><ul><li>Tritium is an other rare isotope of hydrogen. We can produce it from the following reaction. </li></ul>Fusion in ITER 6 Li + n -> 4 He + T
    15. 16. Cross section is the probability of the reaction to happen The most efficient reaction Cross section
    16. 17. In order the particles to acquire Energy and collide we heat them in grate temperatures (150.000.000 o C). Thus they exist in a state called plasma where they have lost all their ele- Ctrons. Conditions for fusion For the reason why there is not a material than may hold these temperatures we use magnetic field to control the individual charges inside plasma in a process called magnetic confinement .
    17. 18. Magnetic confinement <ul><li>The main method to make magnetic confinement, is to pass current through plasma and create an incoming magnetic force. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of the plasma’s instabilities we also use an additional toroidal magnetic field. </li></ul>
    18. 19. <ul><li>The plasma may be heated by its self . The helium nuclei that remain from the reaction offer energy to the other particles inside the reactor by collisions. </li></ul><ul><li>Moreover we have three additional mechanisms for this procedure : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ohmic heating where the current that passes trough plasma heats it like the a lamp during its operation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutral beam injection where neutral particles are injected inside the reactor and give energy to the particles via collisions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiofrequency heating where we the plasma in the same way that we heat our food in a microwave oven. </li></ul></ul>Plasma heating
    19. 20. <ul><li>Except from tritium we do not have any radioactive materials inside the reactor. </li></ul>ITER ’s Safety <ul><li>Any second inside the reactor there is less than a gram of fuel . The reaction can not continue unless we have fuel. </li></ul><ul><li>After keeping in safety the components of the installation for 100 they are as radioactive as a plant that produces energy from coal. </li></ul>
    20. 21. <ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><li>Garry McCracken-Peter Strott, </li></ul><ul><li>Fusion, the Energy of Universe </li></ul><ul><li>ELSEVIER Academic press, </li></ul><ul><li>Complementary Science Series, Copyright © 2005 ISBN: 0-12-481851-X. </li></ul><ul><li>WebPages </li></ul><ul><li>www.iter.org </li></ul><ul><li>www.efda.org </li></ul><ul><li>www.jet.efda.org </li></ul><ul><li>www-fusion-magnetique.cea.fr </li></ul>Bibliography
    21. 22. Thank you !
    22. 23. Neutral beam heating device
    23. 24. Radiofrequency heating Electron Hybrid Frequency 8 GHz Electron Cyclotron Frequency 200 GHz Ion Cyclotron Frequency 70 MHz In order to heat the plasma we have to use a Specific type of Radiofrequency For each kind of particle

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