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A presentation about ITER

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An introduction about the production of electrical Energy from controlled thermonuclear fusion. I focus on the word wide project ITER which is going to be inplemented in France.

An introduction about the production of electrical Energy from controlled thermonuclear fusion. I focus on the word wide project ITER which is going to be inplemented in France.

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  • - 10 times more than pour countries
  • -Dominant countries USA EU -Petrol 80% of our needs -Reserves/-------------  by 2030 consumption -Coal no monopoly less harmful -fossil fuels harmful for the environment /greenhouse effect/acid rain
  • More ecological->but 1)Not continuous/Water? ---------  France 80% electric energy…………Deduce harmful emit ions.
  • Jet JT-6OU
  • Larger project By Russia 1985 Many countries join….
  • By making a device that measures the atom’s mass Aston concluded that Many years later Einstein came to say that this mass defect is energy defect
  • Light nuclei too much energy per nucleon
  • Why should we use this reaction
  • Natural frequency
  • Transcript

    • 1. Project for Project for Advanced English Physics Department University of Crete Foundation 1. Maria Pitsaki 2. Vasilis Charmandaris Instructors [email_address] E-mail Panagopoulos George Name
    • 2. Contents
      • Energy needs
      • What is ITER
      • What is fusion
      • Conditions to make fusion
      • Fusion’s Safety
    • 3. Lights on the earth at night
    • 4. 2 billion people Do not have access to the electricity
    • 5. Vast needs in the industrialized world.
    • 6. Fossil fuels
    • 7. Alternative ways of energy production
    • 8. Japan UK The current reactors
    • 9. ITER a larger project
    • 10.  
    • 11. Structure of the atom
      • The nucleus of an atom is comprised by neutrons and protons.
      • Isotopes are the components that have the same number of protons
    • 12.
      • Einstein’s Equation : ΔΕ = Δ m c 2
      Light nucleus Heavy nucleus Mass defect
    • 13. Mass and energy
    • 14. Fusion
    • 15.
      • Deuterium is a common isotope of hydrogen made by sea water.
      • Tritium is an other rare isotope of hydrogen. We can produce it from the following reaction.
      Fusion in ITER 6 Li + n -> 4 He + T
    • 16. Cross section is the probability of the reaction to happen The most efficient reaction Cross section
    • 17. In order the particles to acquire Energy and collide we heat them in grate temperatures (150.000.000 o C). Thus they exist in a state called plasma where they have lost all their ele- Ctrons. Conditions for fusion For the reason why there is not a material than may hold these temperatures we use magnetic field to control the individual charges inside plasma in a process called magnetic confinement .
    • 18. Magnetic confinement
      • The main method to make magnetic confinement, is to pass current through plasma and create an incoming magnetic force.
      • Because of the plasma’s instabilities we also use an additional toroidal magnetic field.
    • 19.
      • The plasma may be heated by its self . The helium nuclei that remain from the reaction offer energy to the other particles inside the reactor by collisions.
      • Moreover we have three additional mechanisms for this procedure :
        • Ohmic heating where the current that passes trough plasma heats it like the a lamp during its operation.
        • Neutral beam injection where neutral particles are injected inside the reactor and give energy to the particles via collisions.
        • Radiofrequency heating where we the plasma in the same way that we heat our food in a microwave oven.
      Plasma heating
    • 20.
      • Except from tritium we do not have any radioactive materials inside the reactor.
      ITER ’s Safety
      • Any second inside the reactor there is less than a gram of fuel . The reaction can not continue unless we have fuel.
      • After keeping in safety the components of the installation for 100 they are as radioactive as a plant that produces energy from coal.
    • 21.
      • Books
      • Garry McCracken-Peter Strott,
      • Fusion, the Energy of Universe
      • ELSEVIER Academic press,
      • Complementary Science Series, Copyright © 2005 ISBN: 0-12-481851-X.
      • WebPages
      • www.iter.org
      • www.efda.org
      • www.jet.efda.org
      • www-fusion-magnetique.cea.fr
      Bibliography
    • 22. Thank you !
    • 23. Neutral beam heating device
    • 24. Radiofrequency heating Electron Hybrid Frequency 8 GHz Electron Cyclotron Frequency 200 GHz Ion Cyclotron Frequency 70 MHz In order to heat the plasma we have to use a Specific type of Radiofrequency For each kind of particle
    • 25.