<ul><li>Deuterium is a common isotope of hydrogen made by sea water. </li></ul><ul><li>Tritium is an other rare isotope of hydrogen. We can produce it from the following reaction. </li></ul>Fusion in ITER 6 Li + n -> 4 He + T
Cross section is the probability of the reaction to happen The most efficient reaction Cross section
In order the particles to acquire Energy and collide we heat them in grate temperatures (150.000.000 o C). Thus they exist in a state called plasma where they have lost all their ele- Ctrons. Conditions for fusion For the reason why there is not a material than may hold these temperatures we use magnetic field to control the individual charges inside plasma in a process called magnetic confinement .
Magnetic confinement <ul><li>The main method to make magnetic confinement, is to pass current through plasma and create an incoming magnetic force. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of the plasma’s instabilities we also use an additional toroidal magnetic field. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The plasma may be heated by its self . The helium nuclei that remain from the reaction offer energy to the other particles inside the reactor by collisions. </li></ul><ul><li>Moreover we have three additional mechanisms for this procedure : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ohmic heating where the current that passes trough plasma heats it like the a lamp during its operation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutral beam injection where neutral particles are injected inside the reactor and give energy to the particles via collisions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiofrequency heating where we the plasma in the same way that we heat our food in a microwave oven. </li></ul></ul>Plasma heating
<ul><li>Except from tritium we do not have any radioactive materials inside the reactor. </li></ul>ITER ’s Safety <ul><li>Any second inside the reactor there is less than a gram of fuel . The reaction can not continue unless we have fuel. </li></ul><ul><li>After keeping in safety the components of the installation for 100 they are as radioactive as a plant that produces energy from coal. </li></ul>
Radiofrequency heating Electron Hybrid Frequency 8 GHz Electron Cyclotron Frequency 200 GHz Ion Cyclotron Frequency 70 MHz In order to heat the plasma we have to use a Specific type of Radiofrequency For each kind of particle