Staff manual, Library survey, Library statistics and Library standards
SUBMITTED TO: Dr. R.K. BHATT
Md. Ghulam Samdani
A staff is used to give knowledge about the objective of the library to the staff members and to inform them about their duties and responsibilities. Hence, the hand-book that contains the information on the activities, functions and policies of the departments and section of the library, rules and regulations of the library, objectives of the library, expected duties and responsibilities of its staff members etc. is called the staff manual. The staff manual also helps in coordinating different activities and in preventing any mistakes on the part of the staff members due to their inadequate knowledge or ignorance of the procedures of the library.
Types of Staff manual
Staffing is the function by which managers build an Organization through the recruitment, selection, and development of individuals as capable employee.
The process of staffing comprises of the following major elements:-
Effective recruitment and selection.
Sound classification and pay plans
Appropriate training and development.
Adequate provision for retirement.
Importance of staffing
Staffing function is an extremely importance function. It aims to obtain competent personnel and provides favorable environment most conducive for superior performance. In ultimate analysis, the future of any organization depends more on quality of quality of personal than any other single element.
Categories of Staff
The staff in a library may be divided into the following three categories:
(c )Supporting (technical)/Para –professional.
The following is the list of the jobs, which are usually performed by professional staff.
Reference service/Information service
2.Supporting staff (technical)
The following jobs may be carried out by supporting staff.
Accessioning of books
Registration of periodicals
Typing of catalogue cards
Charging and discharging of books
Maintenance of issue-records
Shelving of books and periodicals
Inter-library loan work
3.Supporting staff (administrative)
The following jobs may be carried out by supporting staff(administrative).
Secretarial assistance to the librarian
Maintenance of personnel records
Maintenance of accounts and stores
University Library Deputy Librarian Acquisitions Cataloguing Reader’s Service Books Periodicals Cataloguers(4) Advisers(2) 3 Posts 1 Post 2 Posts 4 Posts Clerks 2posts Secretary Librarian Sub-Librarians Assistant- Librarians Library Assistants
Qualification and Salary of Library staff Designation Qualification Scale of pay Librarian / Professor Ph.d in library science and Master in other subject and having sufficient experience in large library 37400-67000+grade pay 8700. Deputy Librarian/Reader Same as above 15600-39100+grade pay 7600. Assistant Librarian /Lecturer M.Phil or net qualified in Library science 15600-39100+grade pay 5400. Library Assistant Master in Library Science or First Bachelor degree in Library Science 9300-34800+grade pay 4200. Library clerk 10+2 or Bachelor degree in any subject 5200-20200+grade pay 2000. Library attendent 10 th or 10+2 from any board 5200-20200+grade pay 1800.
What is Survey
According to ALA Glossary: A scientifically conducted study through which data is gathered according to a definite schedule. Which is presented in statistical summarized form.
The library survey may be defined as “a systematic collection of data concerning libraries, their activities, operations, staff, use and users, at a given time or a given period”.
Kinds of Library surveys
Internal Surveys:- Internal surveys of libraries are self-studies carried out by a single or group of staff members.
External Surveys:-External surveys are conducted by a person or persons to outside agency or library association etc.
To compare present To study existing library condition like library services, library facilities, users etc.
conditions and desired standards.
To make suggestions for their improvement.
To develop library standards.
Existing data or document source
Today’s library is a very important organization in this World. In education field library have played a very important role .Education system depend on library without a library education just like as a body without a soul. Library have provided various type of services such as :
Current awareness service
Selective dissemination of information etc.
Library have provided fundamental rules of the library .These rule are :
Books are for use .(not for preservation).
Every reader his /her books.
Every book its readers.
Save the time of the readers.
Library is a growing organism.
STATISTICS are tabulated figure which are employed by most of the modern sciences in order to gauge the progress or regress in various field of study. Economics, which is one of the most important Social Sciences, has used statistics for comparing the various data in order to derive certain conclusions.This new method is known as Econometrics. Statistics are ‘Fact in figures’.
(e.g. number of books added to a library each year ,number of a books received on inter library loan ).
Management would like to know ‘how well the library is doing?
Campaign of statistics over a few years can indicate the position of the library.
LIBRARIAN CAN USE THE STATISTICS FOR THE FOLLOWING PURPOSE:
To compile an annual report.
To measure efficiency of different section on the basis of the statistics.
For planning of a library and its services ,On the basis of statistics a new service can be improved .Statistics will indicate, whether there is likely to be enough demand for the new service .
To prepare a case for increase in founded staff.To present users and manager achievements the library.
KINDS OF STATISTICS TO BE MAINTAINEDTHE LIBRARY
Kind of statistics be maintained will vary from library to library .This will depend upon the use to be made of the statistics .Statistics may be collected about the following:
Issue of books
The basic statistics ,which should be collected are described below:
ACQUSITION - Number of documents obtained by purchase, gift exchange and membership. This may be analyzed by type of documents and by sub-subject.
CLASSIOFICATION – Number of different type of documents classified. This may be analyzed by type of documents by individual classifier and by subject.
CATALOGUING – Number of documents catalogued and number of cards prepared .This may be analyzed by individual cataloger and type of documents.
Number of members by card entry.
Number of members who visited the library.
ISSUE- Number of books and other documents issued . Issued statistics may be gathered language-wise, user-wise, categories of document-wise, subject-wise.
REFERANCE SERVICES- Number of queries in terms of ready and long range reference service.
PERIODICALS- Statistics regarding periodicals may be maintained separately .This may include statistics based on frequency of publication.
OTHERS- Other statistics may include figures about expenditure on staff. Collection equipment etc. Figure about staff of different categories.
COLLECTION IN LIBRARY STATISTICS
Diaries maintained by different section can be highly useful. Daily /monthly/weekly/quarterly, statistics represent by the different section to the chief –librarian are considered useful sources of statistics.
PRESENTATION BY LIBRARY STATISTICS
Statistics can be presented in a variety of forms such as, tables , graphs, diagrams etc. Forms to be used must be simple, clear and attractive.
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF LIBRARY STATISTICS- Raw data collected on regular basis is edited and tabulated , from table ,conference can be drawn . Conference when related to the library showing achievements and drawbacks. This will also indicate now different section of the library are doing.
Library Standards Introduction:- Standards are essential for library organization and services. Standards are helpful in developing library collection, employing skilled manpower and systematic arrangement of library collection. Standards are also useful for rendering an uniform and orderly services to library users. Standards are also used for evaluating the collection and services in a library. Definition:- Standardization may be defined as a pattern of an ideal, a model procedure, a measure for appraisal. According to ALA - “An ALA standard is intended as a criterion by which current judgments of value, quality, fitness and correctness are confirmed. In order that a particular library and information service, activity, resource or control thereof … can be determined to meet.
According to Webster’s New world Dictionary , it is something established for use as rule or basis of comparison in measuring of judging capacity, quantity context, extent, value, quality.
The need for standards is felt not only by administrative and R&D Departments for ensuring efficient working of various Departments and Institutions but by the general public also to gauge the working of public utility Departments for which they pay by way of taxes and levis. In case of libraries which form part of public utility services, the need of standards is also felt:-
To encourage international corporation among libraries.
To properly understand and appreciate the philosophy and objectives of the profession of librarianship.
To ensure increased confidence of the public into the libraries as institution and the utility of library service.
To gauge the working of various library units.
To ensure the provision of efficient library service to one and all.
To ensure the satisfaction of the clientele.
To lay down the minimum requirements for a good library service.
To serve as guidelines for librarians, library authorities and administrators and the general public at large.
To rationalize the working of libraries so as to run them on scientific lines.
Areas Of Library Standards
The library standards may be laid down for the following areas or activities:-
Books – like Total number of vol. in area, per capita Book stock etc.
Book issues – like Total number of vol. issued in an area in a year, per capita book issued etc.
Borrowers – Total number of registered borrowers etc.
Expenditure – Total number of expenditure on library, Total no. of expenditure on staff, books, periodicals etc.
Special services – like reference/reader’s advisory services, documentation service, indexing, abstracting etc.
Staff – Total number of staff members required.
Cost of library service – Cost of per issue/borrower of a book etc.
Standardization of library Procedure and practices like – book production, book binding, classification, cataloging, books issues etc.
Standards Are Set For Almost All Aspects Of A Library Are:
Physical needs like building, furniture, equipments other infrastructures, service version, sections stacks etc.
Different library needs different set of standards according to their requirements.
Others needs like now a days standards for metadata and electronic data interchange are coming up.
Advantage of library standards
Bringing uniformity and order.
Improving or facilitating sharing and communication of information.
Developing an adequate book stock.
Employing trained staff.
Guiding new libraries.
Being a guide to financial and human resource.
There are several National and International library standards given by different organizations:-
ACA – Standards for College Libraries 1975.
ARL/ACRL – Standards for University Libraries 1978-79.
METS – Metadata Encoding And Transmission Standards.
ISSN – International Standard Serial Number.
ISBN – International Standards BOOK Number.
ISDS – International Serials Data System.
UK MARC Manual.
UK Mark Exchange…etc
The International Organization for standardization (ISO). ISO 9000 series is a series of standards concerned with quality assurance their predecessor is better known in the UK as British Standard BS 5750. ISO 9001,9002 and 9003 set out the essential requirements of quality management systems for varying types of organizations according to the types of product or service that they produce.
Application of ISO 9000
There are very many organizations, from virtually every field, which have successfully introduced ISO 9000 and the ‘accredited firm’ symbol has become a familiar sight in the UK and else where. Although a large proportion of these applications are from the industrial sector, there is a growing body of evidence that the standard can be successfully and beneficially, applied to a wide range of services. Barnard (1994) discussed the experience of implementing ISO 9000 at Macmillan Distribution Ltd., part of the Macmillan publishing group and remarked, it is a paradox that one
of the greatest anxieties about quality systems is the expected cost
of implementing them, while in practice one of the major benefits is cost reduction. He suggested, based on this practical experience, that the introduction of the quality system produced benefits in at least ten areas:-
Bringing managers and staff closer together in pursuit of a common goal.
Less frustration caused by misunderstanding of how systems operate.
Identification of deficiencies in systems and their resolution.
Development of new contacts with customers as staff work to ensure compliance with systems defined in the quality system at every stage.
Public relations benefits from ‘showing we want to do better’.
Improvements in liaison between departments in the company.
Staff have increased pride in the company’s performance.
Pursuit of quality has strengthened awareness of the company’s own style.
A strategy has been developed to which everyone in the company can subscribe and which forms the basis for further development.
Cost savings and productivity gains.
It stands for Machine-Readable Cataloging. It was brought out by the Library Of Congress (USA) in 1967. MARC provides a standard format for the transmission of bibliographic data. It had a powerful influence on the handling of bibliographic records in machine-readable form.
The IFLA standards for University Libraries, published in 1986, was an internationally agreed document prepared by a committee of librarians, which stated as its purpose to provide a means by which the quality of the library serving a university can be assessed, to offer guidance for improvements in the library and to suggest a framework within which various countries or regions could develop their own statements (Lynch, 1986). The IFLA standards were grouped under ten heading, as follows:-
Purpose – The need for every university library to have a clear definition of purpose, within the context of the purpose of the parent institution.
Organization and administration – A requirement that the organization and structure of the library be ‘well defined and understood’ and that the place of the library within the parent institution be defined. These should be a library committee.
Services – The need to relate the services on offer to the purpose of the library, the provision of reference and information services, maintenance of records of items ‘in conformity with recognized standards of cataloguing and classification’ and availability of ‘most’ items for consultation. ‘Circulation procedures should be effective and efficient.
Collections – To be of adequate size and scope, including all reading required of students. Collection development policies should be defined and the collections should be reviewed regularly. Interlibrary lending should be developed.
Staff – The need for ‘a sufficient no. and variety of personnel’ including appropriately qualified staff. Terms and conditions of employment of librarians should be the same as or ‘consonant with’ those of university teachers.
Facilities – The size, quality and attractiveness of buildings and their layout.
Budget and Finance – The library should be provided with sufficient funding to enable it to develop appropriate collections, recruit and retain suitable staff, provide appropriate services, accomplish necessary operations and satisfy user needs.
Technology – The library ‘should make use of electronic data processing and telecommunication systems’.
Preservation and conservation – The need for both a policy for preservation and conservation and a program for carrying out the policy.
Co-operation – Reference to resource sharing, union catalogues, collection development and co-operative activity in preservation and conservation of materials.
The library and inf. Service profession in the UK, as in the USA, has developed quite sophisticated data collection schemes which provide detailed statistics on both inputs and outputs. Alongside these quantitative data there have been many examples of guidelines developed to assist librarians and those responsible for providing resources with a basic set of standards from which to work. Although the trend in recent years has been to recognize the importance of locally determined standards, these have to be set in a wider framework, not least because other interest are involved.
Krishan Kumar,Library Administration and Management. New Delhi : Ess Ess Publication, 2003.
Kumar Krishan. Research Method in Library and Information Science. New Delhi: Ess Ess Publication, 2004.
Mittal R.L, Library Administration and Management, Delhi: Metropolitan book co., 2003.
Stoner James A.F, Management. New Delhi: Prentice-Hall of India, 2007.