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Relative Resource Manager
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Relative Resource Manager

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  • 1. 12/10/09
 Social
Psychology
 Agenda
 •  Social
Thinking
 •  Social
Influence
 •  Social
Rela<ons
 Social
Psychology
 ADribu<on
Theory
 •  The
scien<fic
study
of
how
we
think
about,
 •  Heider
(1958)
 influence,
and
relate
to
one
another
 •  We
explain
people’s
behavior
by
credi<ng
 either
the
situa<on
or
the
person’s
disposi<on
 Fundamental
ADribu<on
Error
 •  We
tend
to
underes<mate
the
impact
of
the
 situa<on
and
to
overes<mate
the
impact
of
 personal
disposi<on
 •  Self‐Serving
Bias
–
when
we
do
posi<ve
 things,
we
make
an
internal
aDribu<on;
when
 we
do
nega<ve
things,
we
make
external
 aDribu<ons
 –  Test
scores
 1

  • 2. 12/10/09
 ADribu<on
 AXtudes
 •  Juries
 •  A0tudes
–
feelings,
oYen
based
on
our
 •  Evalua<ng
employees
 beliefs,
that
predispose
us
to
respond
in
a
 –  “It’s
the
economy”
 par<cular
way
towards
objects,
people,
and
 events
 •  Teachers/Students
 •  Parents/Children
 •  AXtudes

Behaviors
 –  Other
factors
(situa<onal)
contribute
 •  Behaviors

AXtudes
 Behavior
Affec<ng
AXtudes
 Roles
Affec<ng
AXtudes
 •  Foot‐in‐the‐door
phenomenon
–
the
 •  Role
–
a
set
of
explana<ons
(norms)
about
a
 tendency
for
people
who
have
first
agreed
to
a
 social
posi<on,
defining
how
those
in
the
 small
request
to
comply
later
with
a
larger
 posi<on
ought
to
behave
 request
 –  P.O.W.s
in
Korean
War
 •  People
behave
differently
in
different
roles
 –  Telemarke<ng/Sales
 –  Teacher
 –  Online
surveys
 –  Football
fan
 –  Student
 •  Influence
tac<c:
make
a
small
request
first
 –  Hanging
out
with
friends
 The
Power
of
the
Situa<on
 The
Power
of
the
Situa<on
 •  Nazi
Germany
 •  Philip
Zimbardo
 •  Were
all
Germans
just
evil
 •  For
the
first
few
days
people
“played
their
 people?
 roles”
 –  ADribu<on!
 •  AYerwards,
the
situa<on
became
“real”
 •  Could
this
happen
with
 •  Guards
became
very
cruel,
prisoners
broke
 us?
 down
or
rebelled
 •  Study
called
off
aYer
only
6
days
 2

  • 3. 12/10/09
 Cogni<ve
Dissonance
 Conformity
 •  When
we
have
two
thoughts
that
are
 •  Adjus<ng
one’s
behavior
or
thinking
to
 inconsistent,
we
feel
discomfort
 coincide
with
a
group
standard
 •  We
act
to
reduce
this
discomfort
 •  Social
influence
is
extremely
powerful
 •  When
our
aXtudes
and
our
ac<ons
clash,
we
 –  Suicides,
bomb
threats,
airplane
hijackings,
UFO
 reduce
dissonance
by
changing
our
aXtudes
 sigh<ngs
all
occur
in
clusters
 –  Dress
code
at
RU
vs.
Wall
St.
 •  We
are
not
ra<onal,
we
ra<onalize
 –  Coughing/yawning
are
contagious
 –  “Seeding”
<p
jars
 Conformity
 Conformity
 •  The
Chameleon
Effect
 •  Asch
(1955)
‐
Sugges<bility
 –  We
unconsciously
mimic
others’
expressions,
 postures,
and
voice
tones
 –  Helps
us
to
understand
what
others
are
feeling
 Conformity
 Why
do
we
conform?
 Conformity
increases
when:
 •  Norma;ve
social
influence
–
influence
 •  One
is
made
to
feel
incompetent
or
insecure
 resul<ng
from
a
person’s
desire
to
gain
 •  The
group
has
at
least
3
people
 approval
or
avoid
disapproval
 •  The
group
is
unanimous

 –  Try
to
avoid
rejec<on
 •  One
admires
group’s
status
and
aDrac<veness
 –  Our
ancestors
needed
the
group
to
survive
 •  One
has
made
no
prior
commitment
to
any
 •  Informa;onal
social
influence
–
influence
 response
 resul<ng
from
one’s
willingness
to
accept
 •  Others
in
the
group
observe
one’s
behavior
 others’
opinions
about
reality
 3

  • 4. 12/10/09
 Obedience
 Authority
 •  Milgram
(1963)
and
the
Electric
Shocks
 •  Obedience
highest
when:
 •  Also
in
response
to
Nazi
Germany
 –  Person
giving
orders
close
by,
perceived
to
be
 legi<mate
authority
figure
 •  63%
of
par<cipants
went
all
the
way
to
the
 –  Authority
figure
supported
by
pres<gious
 last
switch
 ins<tu<on
 •  Obedience
to
authority
 –  Vic<m
depersonalized
or
at
a
distance
 –  No
role
models
for
defiance
 Group
Influence
 Group
Influence
 •  The
presence
of
others
changes
our
behavior
 •  Social
Loafing
–
the
tendency
for
people
in
a
 •  Social
Facilita;on
–
people
who
perform
well
 group
to
exert
less
effort
when
pooling
their
 perform
beDer
in
the
presence
of
others
 efforts
toward
aDaining
a
common
goal
than
 –  Athletes 

 when
individually
accountable
 –  Comedians
 •  People
who
perform
poorly
may
perform
 worse
in
front
of
others
 –  Pool
players
 Group
Influence
 Group
Influence
 •  Diffusion
of
Responsibility
 •  Deindividua;on
–
the
loss
of
self‐awareness
 •  KiDy
Genovese
–
Bystander
Effect
 and
self‐restraint
occurring
in
group
situa<ons
 –  The
greater
number
of
bystanders,
the
less
likely
it
 that
foster
arousal
and
anonymity
 is
any
of
them
will
help
 –  Killing
took
over
1
hour,
killer
leY
for
10
minutes
 and
returned
 –  Over
38
witnesses,
no
one
contacted
police
 4

  • 5. 12/10/09
 Group
Interac<on
 Group
Interac<on
 •  Group
Polariza;on
–
when
a
group
discusses
 •  Groupthink
–
when
the
desire
for
harmony
in
 the
prevailing
tendencies,
they
become
 a
decision‐making
group
overrides
a
realis<c
 enhanced
 appraisal
of
alterna<ves
 –  High‐prejudice
people
become
more
prejudiced
 –  Bay
of
Pigs
 –  Poli<cs
–
people
live
near
and
learn
from
others
 –  Challenger
 who
think
as
they
do
 –  Chernobyl
 –  “Us”
vs.
“Them”
 –  Internet
 Other
factors
of
influence
 Other
factors
of
influence
 •  Reciprocity
–
when
one
person
gives
another
 •  Scarcity
 person
a
giY,
that
person
feels
obligated
to
 –  Call
now!
Supplies
are
limited!
 return
the
favor
 –  Jade
Jewelry
 –  Coke/Raffle
<ckets
 –  Seal
meat 

 –  Easter
seals
 –  Limited
<me
offer
 –  Hare
Krishnas
in
airports
 •  Door‐in‐the‐Face
 –  Free
samples
 –  AYer
denying
large
request,
more
likely
to
agree
 to
smaller
request
 5


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