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  • 1. Space Human Factors for Designers - space and environments
  • 2. Human Factors for Designers - space and environments
  • 3. Human Factors for Designers - space and environments
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  • 9. Innovative back and seat "flexors" trackwith your natural movements and respondintuitivelyClean, streamlined designEnvironmentally friendly designPneumatic seat heightFully adjustable arms (height, width,depth, pivot)Optional back lumbar and headrestavailable for added ergonomic support Human Factors for Designers - space and environments
  • 10. Flexibility redefined. Simple to install, expand, shrink and reconfigure,Answer easily adapts as your organization changes.Its this flexibility that has helped Answer become one of the best-selling systems in the market. Human Factors for Designers - space and environments
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  • 20. Human-CenteredThe Resolve design is based on the size, reach, andmovements of people.And Resolve creates friendly work spaces; its shapesand openness encourage peopleto connect, interact, and collaborate.Air and light pass through; people can see in andout and dont feel confined.Acoustical inserts absorb and block sound,and Qt Quiet technology reduces noise distractions.Screens and canopies define personal territory;rolling screens let people control privacy. Human Factors for Designers - space and environments
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  • 23. Average prison cell: 8 feet wide, 8 feet high,and 12 feet long. Environments Human Factors for Designers - space and environments
  • 24. Average prison cell: 8 feet wide, 8 feet high,and 12 feet long. Human Factors for Designers - space and environments
  • 25. A prison should be designed to; * For the effective management of prisoner’s liberties * For economical and easy maintenance * To provide strong limitations for hiding contraband & manufacturing weapons * To make vandalism difficult and minimise fire risk * With simplicity and security in mind * Bearing in mind all the wide ranging systems and services it needs to facilitate * To design-out as many core problems prisoners and prison staff face as possible Human Factors for Designers - space and environments
  • 26. A prison should be designed; * For the effective management of prisoner’s liberties * For economical and easy maintenance * To provide strong limitations for hiding contraband & manufacturing weapons * To make vandalism difficult and minimise fire risk * With simplicity and security in mind * Bearing in mind all the wide ranging systems and services it needs to facilitate * To design-out as many core problems prisoners and prison staff face as possible Human Factors for Designers - space and environments
  • 27. Human Factors for Designers - space and environments
  • 28. Assignment Human Factors for Designers - space and environments
  • 29. MULTIdeskThe MULTIdesk is a single unit desk system that has its own rechargable power source so it can be moved around withinan of ce space without having to remain close to an outlet. The MULTIdesk can be arranaged several different waysdepending on the available space of an of ce as well as to accomodate individual work, group work, presentations andone on one meetings. The large screens allow for the projection of presentations and interactive whiteboards, which areessential technologies in collaborative work. The MULTIdesk’s power source provides a fun way to keep active at work,you can recharge the battery and store electricity by using the bike pedals located under the desk. Kate Mitchell Human Factors February, 2010 Human Factors for Designers - space and environments
  • 30. MULTIdesk Features Light or projector mountPossible Materials Shelf that can be lowered into desk using - recycled plastic board or the button on the power box timber - recycled newsprint board Box containing rechargable battery and wiring to allow(makes a good sound barrier) the desk to be wireless duing the day. Plugged in at - renewable bio-based core night to recharge - bamboo veneer Bicycle pedals save energy by manually recharging the - recycled glass power source and provide a way of keeping active at - recycled metal work Pull out privacy screenMulti-purpose, movabledetached screen canfunction as divider,projection surface, and Glass surface that canbulletin board. Several be set at an incline andcan be used as a large functions as a lightpresentation area or room desk (LEDs set intodivider. Magnetizes to desk surface)edge of desk Light switch and crank to incline the light desk (below desk surface) Magnetized edge Storage for large folders, papers, cutting Power outlet cover mats, rulers, etc. Supply and le drawers Pull out keyboard shelf Wheels allow the whole unit or extra work surface to be moved around the of ce space Human Factors for Designers - space and environments
  • 31. Desk and Space Layout 5 feetFlat Desktop View 5 feet Plan View 1.5 feetPossible Layouts Human Factors for Designers - space and environments
  • 32. The invariant right", ” The butt brush" "The decompression zone" ”Contact"Human Factors for Designers - space and environments
  • 33. Paco Underhills shopping surveillance findings include: * 65 per cent of men who try on jeans buy them - 25 per cent of women do * 86 per cent of women check price tags while shopping - 72 per cent of men do * two-thirds of supermarket purchases are unplanned * men are more likely to cave in to kids pleas for impulse itemsWhat shoppers love * Touch: most unplanned purchases follow touching, tasting, smelling or hearing something in the store * Mirrors: women and men * Discovery: too many signs take the adventure out of shoppingWhat shoppers hate * Lineups * Out of stock merchandise * Too many mirrors * Hard to find price tags Human Factors for Designers - space and environments * Intimidating service
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  • 36. Three Psychological Factors to Consider in Merchandising Stores•  Value/fashion image –  Trendy, exclusive, pricey vs value-oriented•  Angles and Sightlines –  Customers view store at 45 degree angles from the path they travel as they move through the store –  Most stores set up at right angles because it’s easier and consumes less space•  Vertical color blocking –  Merchandise should be displayed in vertical bands of color wherever possible – will be viewed as rainbow of colors if each item displayed vertically by color –  Creates strong visual effect that shoppers are exposed to more merchandise (which increases sales) Human Factors for Designers - space and environments
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  • 43. When our customers feel this sense of belonging, our stores become a haven, a break from the worries outside, a place where you can meet with friends.It’s about enjoyment at the speed of life—sometimes slow and savored, sometimes faster. Always full of humanity. Human Factors for Designers - space and environments
  • 44. New Global Store Design StrategyAmplifies the Company’s Focus on Coffee Heritage, Local Relevance and Environmental ResponsibilityCore characteristics: * Celebration of local materials and craftsmanship; * Focus on reused and recycled elements; * Exposure of structural integrity and authentic roots; * Elevation of coffee and removal of unnecessary distractions; * Storytelling and customer engagement through all five senses; and * Flexibility to meet the needs of many customer types – individual readers and computer users,as well as work, study and social groups. Human Factors for Designers - space and environments
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  • 51. Alphabet of retail space design Human Factors for Designers - space and environments
  • 52. AAisle Order – Some customers, particularly men, tend to simply shop for what they want,walking down an aisle grabbing what they want, turning back and walking the way theycame, this is called the Boomerang Effect.In order to maximise shopper and produce contact time, shops therefore place majoritems and brands in the middle of aisles ensuring that from any direction the customerhas to walk the furthest to reach them. Human Factors for Designers - space and environments
  • 53. BBaby Powder – Some UK baby shops now add Baby Powder to the air conditioning toremind people of new-born’s and relax them.Baskets – Shops will actively hand out baskets and trolleys to customers, as people thenfeel embarrassed taking a basket with one item to the counter, and it increases thechances of multiple purchases.You will often find baskets to the right just after the Transition Zone. Human Factors for Designers - space and environments
  • 54. CCanned Smell – Most Supermarkets bake their bread early in the morning, however toentice more custom some have resorted to pumping out the smell of fresh baking breadto add to the illusion that it is constantly baked through the day. Go into Niketown onOxford Street and smell the deodorantlike pong they pump into the air!Curved Aisle Ends – A lot of supermarkets now curve the ends of their aisles, this is toensure your eye never strays from the goods on display. Human Factors for Designers - space and environments
  • 55. DDisplays – Displays are now regularly put at the end of aisles so that your eyes neednever be taken from the merchandise. These are places where retailers will promotecertain items as the customer walking down an aisle will approach an end display headon as opposed to at right angles as with the restof the aisle Human Factors for Designers - space and environments
  • 56. EEscalators – Multi-level Department stores often use their escalators to encourage youto see more of the store. Travelling either up or down the store you will find you have towalk half way around the level in order to find your next connecting escalator, as opposedto it being the one next to you. This has not happened by accident Human Factors for Designers - space and environments
  • 57. FFlooring – Types of flooring are often used to direct customers as a retailer wants aroundthe store. Department stores make great use of the difference between carpet andlinoleum to subtly steer customers around and hold them in certain places. Occasionallyyou will find random rugs and mats laid out in aisles of supermarkets to slow traffic. Human Factors for Designers - space and environments
  • 58. GGo To The Back –Supermarkets hit upon the idea of placing the essentials, such asbread and milk, at the back of the shop. This is in order to make people have to walk pastthe rest of the produce, and heighten the possibility of impulse buys, in order to get theirnecessities.Changing rooms in clothes shops are almost always situated at the rear of the shop. Human Factors for Designers - space and environments
  • 59. HIHopscotch – One American supermarket chain hit upon the idea of drawing a hopscotchin the aisle next to the children’s cereal in order to make the children play and thus pinMum & Dad to a point where the children could hassle them for treats.IIrrational Pricing - Irrational pricing is putting the price of items at say 4.99 instead of 5.Obvious as it may seem, apparently "The reason offered for not instead rounding $4.99to $5.00 is based on memory processing time. Rounding upward involves an additionaldecision compared with storing the first digits. Furthermore, due to the vast quantity ofinformation available for consumers to process, the information on price must be storedin a very short interval.The cheapest way to do so, in memory and attention terms, is by storing the first digits." Therefore customers perceive to be getting a better deal than they infact are.. Human Factors for Designers - space and environments
  • 60. JKLJJumble Sale –Retailers use the effect of a Jumble Sale on some displays, messing themup slightly to make them look as if other customers have been rooting through them.Shoppers are instinctively hesitant to mess up pristine displays.KKitchen Fans – Several Fast Food restaurants have been known to re-direct theextractor fans from their kitchens (at the back) to the street at the front of the building.Thereby filling the surrounding area with the smell of fast food and enticing morecustomer.LLine Of Sight – Advertisers make great use of line of sight, by working out, orsubliminally pushing, a customer to a particular position. The customer will then findpromotional material or displays directly between them and where they wish to go, thestairs, exit, cashier etc.. Human Factors for Designers - space and environments
  • 61. M Mirrors. NNot Closing Down O Order Of Price Human Factors for Designers - space and environments
  • 62. MMirrors – Mirrors slow people down. Due to humans vain nature mirrors are regularly used on the frontof shops in shopping centres and high streets to slow down the traffic and make people spend time infront of the shop. This is particularly true if they are next to Banks which speed people up.NNot Closing Down – There is a shop on Oxford Street in London which has been having a closing downsale for the last 6 years! Advertising last minute discounts to be made, the retailers rely upon peoples instincts to catch those bargins before the shop closes. Using our fear of missing out on a deal, they add a sense of urgency to what is in effect a selling off of cheap stock.OOrder Of Price - Shops will often be laid out in order of price with the most expensive items beingencountered at the beginning of your visit and the cheapest at the end. This is done to play on oursense of comparison, we are much more likely to spend money on accessories etc if we have justagreed to buy an expensive item, as in comparison they will seem cheaper than had we encounteredthem first.where they wish to go, the stairs, exit, cashier etc. Human Factors for Designers - space and environments
  • 63. PPoint Of Sale - Whilst you are waiting to pay retailers often install Point Of Sale displays, this isespecially prevalent in Supermarkets who install racks of chocolate to tempt bored children waitingwith their parents.Power Display – Right inside the door at Gap & Old Navy, you will find a ‘power display’, a hugehorizontal bank of clothes, designed to act as a barrier to slow shoppers down. Functioning as a speedbump this is to shorten the length of the Transition Zone and make people start shopping earlier.Purple - Apparently the colour Light Purple is most likely to make customers feel like spending money! Human Factors for Designers - space and environments
  • 64. PPoint Of Sale - Whilst you are waiting to pay retailers often install Point Of Sale displays, this isespecially prevalent in Supermarkets who install racks of chocolate to tempt bored children waitingwith their parents.Power Display – Right inside the door at Gap & Old Navy, you will find a ‘power display’, a hugehorizontal bank of clothes, designed to act as a barrier to slow shoppers down. Functioning as a speedbump this is to shorten the length of the Transition Zone and make people start shopping earlier.Purple - Apparently the colour Light Purple is most likely to make customers feel like spending money! Human Factors for Designers - space and environments
  • 65. QQueues – Queues are a great place for retailers to add impulse buys to your basket. Point Of Sale displays,magazine racks, chocolate and other low cost items are often put here within easy reach of bored customersto pick up. This is also a great place for advertisers to ply you with information on their products as you are acaptive bored market. This is used to effect anywhere a queue may form for example by the tills, changing rooms or toilets.RRight – Upon walking through the Transition Zone most customers will veer to the right (US research).Some think it is because the majority of people are right handed. You will therefore find a prominent displayjust to the right after the Transition Zone. - As most people are right handed, you will also find that merchandisea store is trying to promote will be positioned just to the right of major items to that it is within easy and naturalreach. Human Factors for Designers - space and environments
  • 66. SSeats – Whilst installed to aid the shopper, benches also enable people to spend more time shopping ina store, 100% of benches will be facing the merchandise. Even within shopping centres you will findbenches face shops and not the outside world, customers must remain focussed on the shopping experience.Shuffle – Many shops have a policy of regularly rotating the stock, this happens especially in supermarketswhere people regularly shop for the same items. The idea obviously is to confront customers with a varietyof items aside from their regulars and encourage them to explore areas of the shop they may not usually visit.TTiles – Supermarkets used to have a trick placing slightly smaller tiles on the floor in the more expensiveaisles of the shop. When a customer entered on of these aisles their trolley would click faster making themthink they were travelling faster and thereby subconsciously slow down and spend more time in that aisle.Time – The longer customers spend in a shop the more they are likely to spend. Therefore shops work to make sure customers have to spend the maximum amount of time in their stores, placing obstaclesconstantly in the way of efficient shopping.UUpstairs – Shops will encourage you to enter the stores, and offer escalators up to the floors at the front,however in order to leave you will often find that the only route down is via stairs at the back of the store.This is to maximise shopping time. In clothing shops, men are generally sent upstairs, and then have tofind their way back through the women’s floor to get to the front door, usually being placed downstairs in the lingerie dept, the one place men will impulse buy for their partners. Human Factors for Designers - space and environments
  • 67. SSeats – Whilst installed to aid the shopper, benches also enable people to spend more time shopping ina store, 100% of benches will be facing the merchandise. Even within shopping centres you will findbenches face shops and not the outside world, customers must remain focussed on the shopping experience.Shuffle – Many shops have a policy of regularly rotating the stock, this happens especially in supermarketswhere people regularly shop for the same items. The idea obviously is to confront customers with a varietyof items aside from their regulars and encourage them to explore areas of the shop they may not usually visit.TTiles – Supermarkets used to have a trick placing slightly smaller tiles on the floor in the more expensiveaisles of the shop. When a customer entered on of these aisles their trolley would click faster making themthink they were travelling faster and thereby subconsciously slow down and spend more time in that aisle.Time – The longer customers spend in a shop the more they are likely to spend. Therefore shops work to make sure customers have to spend the maximum amount of time in their stores, placing obstaclesconstantly in the way of efficient shopping. Human Factors for Designers - space and environments