Human factors - ergonomics                             Glen Hougan Winter 2010
classification                 Glen Hougan Winter 2010
psychological aspects                        Glen Hougan Winter 2010
visual detectionvisual perception of texture                         colour blindness  Visual processes    perception of f...
sensitivityauditory processes               perception                      Glen Hougan Winter 2010
Touch sensitivitycutaneous processes                 Pain sensitivityTemperature sensitivity                        Glen H...
Taste and olfactory processes           Glen Hougan Winter 2010
Time perception            Glen Hougan Winter 2010
imagery      reading memory                   learningCognitive processes                        search    problem solving...
complex movements         tracking movements    motor processes                          speechsimple movements   movement...
errors accuracy and reliability                manual control     human performance                            attentionpe...
Physiological and anatomical aspects                                Glen Hougan Winter 2010
Brain function             Nervous systemphysiology of the nervous system  Visual sensory systems                Glen Houg...
Body temperature regulation                              Respiratory processes                                 basic funct...
staticwork capacitydynamic         Glen Hougan Winter 2010
static body measurementsdynamic body measurements    posture       biomechanics    muscular strength                      ...
gender           age                    status             experience and practice         pregnancy     group factors    ...
intelligence             ability                attitude                          Physical fitness                achievem...
arousal                drugs          nutritionPsychophysical state variables          fatigue  sleep                fear ...
vigilance                 task complexity                      monotony and boredom                        task related fa...
Information presentation and communication                                  Glen Hougan Winter 2010
Visual communication                       Glen Hougan Winter 2010
display and control design                             Glen Hougan Winter 2010
environmentillumination > noise > vibration > climate > atmosphere > altitude                                             ...
Work design and organizationhours of work > training > supervsion > job attitude                                         G...
HEALTH AND SAFETY                    Glen Hougan Winter 2010
CREATING YOUR OWN TEMPLATE TO UNDERSTAND              HUMAN FACTORS                               Glen Hougan Winter 2010
Glen Hougan Winter 2010
Glen Hougan Winter 2010
1.  Anthropometry2.  Biomechanics                    Glen Hougan Winter 2010
Glen Hougan Winter 2010
Glen Hougan Winter 2010
Glen Hougan Winter 2010
Glen Hougan Winter 2010
Glen Hougan Winter 2010
Glen Hougan Winter 2010
the average U.S. woman is 5 3.7 (162 centimeters) tall and weighs152 pounds (69 kilograms).U.S. Department of Health and H...
5”4”       Glen Hougan Winter 2010
Glen Hougan Winter 2010
Meas.           Barbie   US Armyheight          5’10”    5’4”Chest circum.   35”      35.7”Waist circum    20”      31”Hip...
the average U.S. male stands 5 9.1 tall and weighs 180 poundsU.S. Department of Health and Human Services                 ...
Glen Hougan Winter 2010
Meas.           Ken     US Armyheight          6’0”    5’9”Chest circum.   38.4”   39”Waist circum    28.8”   35.1”Hip cir...
The NHANES III was a comprehensive surveyof the American population during years 1988-1994.                               ...
Glen Hougan Winter 2010
Glen Hougan Winter 2010
Glen Hougan Winter 2010
Human variationsIntra-individual                   Glen Hougan Winter 2010
Glen Hougan Winter 2010
Human variationsInter-individual                   Glen Hougan Winter 2010
Human variationsSecular variability                      Glen Hougan Winter 2010
Glen Hougan Winter 2010
Chopsticks24 male subjects in ages 18-21 that were right-handedTestinghandle diameter with three levelsTip angle with four...
ChopsticksFood pinching - pick up peanuts from dish and put in cup andnumber of peanuts were counted within a certain time...
ChopsticksFood shearing - grip sponge cake and shear it in two.Elapsed time was measured                                  ...
ChopsticksFood thrusting - thrust 10 pieces of sumulated food into dish and then                  pick it up.             ...
ChopsticksFood pulling - grip a simulated food (eraser) and pull it towards the                  mouth until it pulled off...
ChopsticksSemantic differential scale4 adjective pairs1.  Arm aching-arm unaching2.  Gripping easy - gripping difficulty3....
ChopsticksConclusionsChopstick handle diameter and tip angle have a significant influenceon eating efficiencyOptimum chops...
ChopsticksThe optimum length of a chopstick is 210mm (Wu, 1995) and this…ReferencesWu, Swei-Pi, (1995) Effects of the hand...
The field of study involvingclassical mechanicalprinciples and theirrelationships as used orapplied to living organisms or...
Glen Hougan Winter 2010
Biomechanics of Sport and Exercise                                Glen Hougan Winter 2010
Motor Control                Glen Hougan Winter 2010
Muscle         Glen Hougan Winter 2010
Gait and Locomotion                      Glen Hougan Winter 2010
Gait and Locomotion                      Glen Hougan Winter 2010
Biomedical Engineering                         Glen Hougan Winter 2010
Orthopaedics               Glen Hougan Winter 2010
Orthotics and Prosthetics                            Glen Hougan Winter 2010
Orthotics and Prosthetics                            Glen Hougan Winter 2010
Biomechanics of Sport and ExerciseMotor ControlMuscleGait and Locomotion Biomedical EngineeringOrthopaedicsOrthotics and P...
Snow shovelling                  Glen Hougan Winter 2010
Heart attacks   Similar to weight lifting   Lots of exertion not much movement   Raises blood pressure and heart attackMul...
Posture          Upright erect stance with feed wide apartWarm up - warm down          StretchingClothes          Don’t ov...
Freivalds, A (1986). The ergonomics of shovel design - a review of literature.Ergonomics 29 (1): 3-181.    Blade - plastic...
Freivalds, A (1986). The ergonomics of shovel design - a review of literature.Ergonomics 29 (1): 3-181.    Blade - plastic...
1.    Blade size - what are the issues?•     taller and heavier people blades should be 18” x 16”•     shorter and lighter...
1.    Shaft length - what are the issues?•     taller and heavier people the shaft should be 52” with a 1 1/4” handle•    ...
•    The shaft should be angled at 60 degrees towards the bottom of the shaft     and 35 degrees for the upper portion of ...
Handle - what are the issues?•    Handle should allow user to grip with mittens - cushioned D grip•    Handles should be m...
Glen Hougan Winter 2010
Glen Hougan Winter 2010
Glen Hougan Winter 2010
DSGN 3210                                                                                                   STATURE 50.3 i...
63.5" STATURE                                                                                                             ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Hougan: anthropometry

641 views

Published on

Published in: Design
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
641
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
47
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Hougan: anthropometry

  1. 1. Human factors - ergonomics Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  2. 2. classification Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  3. 3. psychological aspects Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  4. 4. visual detectionvisual perception of texture colour blindness Visual processes perception of form and shape visual illusions Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  5. 5. sensitivityauditory processes perception Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  6. 6. Touch sensitivitycutaneous processes Pain sensitivityTemperature sensitivity Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  7. 7. Taste and olfactory processes Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  8. 8. Time perception Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  9. 9. imagery reading memory learningCognitive processes search problem solvinglanguage communication Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  10. 10. complex movements tracking movements motor processes speechsimple movements movement organization Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  11. 11. errors accuracy and reliability manual control human performance attentionperformance strategies reaction time and speed Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  12. 12. Physiological and anatomical aspects Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  13. 13. Brain function Nervous systemphysiology of the nervous system Visual sensory systems Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  14. 14. Body temperature regulation Respiratory processes basic functions Reproductive processes Cardiac processes Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  15. 15. staticwork capacitydynamic Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  16. 16. static body measurementsdynamic body measurements posture biomechanics muscular strength Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  17. 17. gender age status experience and practice pregnancy group factors Trained versus untrained Culture and ethnic group Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  18. 18. intelligence ability attitude Physical fitness achievementindividual differences personality and temperament state of health Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  19. 19. arousal drugs nutritionPsychophysical state variables fatigue sleep fear Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  20. 20. vigilance task complexity monotony and boredom task related factors stresssensory depravation personal isolation Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  21. 21. Information presentation and communication Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  22. 22. Visual communication Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  23. 23. display and control design Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  24. 24. environmentillumination > noise > vibration > climate > atmosphere > altitude Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  25. 25. Work design and organizationhours of work > training > supervsion > job attitude Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  26. 26. HEALTH AND SAFETY Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  27. 27. CREATING YOUR OWN TEMPLATE TO UNDERSTAND HUMAN FACTORS Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  28. 28. Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  29. 29. Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  30. 30. 1.  Anthropometry2.  Biomechanics Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  31. 31. Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  32. 32. Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  33. 33. Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  34. 34. Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  35. 35. Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  36. 36. Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  37. 37. the average U.S. woman is 5 3.7 (162 centimeters) tall and weighs152 pounds (69 kilograms).U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  38. 38. 5”4” Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  39. 39. Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  40. 40. Meas. Barbie US Armyheight 5’10” 5’4”Chest circum. 35” 35.7”Waist circum 20” 31”Hip circum 32.50” 38.10”Hip breadth 11.6” 13.49”Thigh circum 19.35” 22.85” Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  41. 41. the average U.S. male stands 5 9.1 tall and weighs 180 poundsU.S. Department of Health and Human Services Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  42. 42. Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  43. 43. Meas. Ken US Armyheight 6’0” 5’9”Chest circum. 38.4” 39”Waist circum 28.8” 35.1”Hip circum 36” 38.7”Hip breadth 12.2” 13.46”Thigh circum 20.4” 23.48” Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  44. 44. The NHANES III was a comprehensive surveyof the American population during years 1988-1994. Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  45. 45. Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  46. 46. Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  47. 47. Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  48. 48. Human variationsIntra-individual Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  49. 49. Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  50. 50. Human variationsInter-individual Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  51. 51. Human variationsSecular variability Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  52. 52. Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  53. 53. Chopsticks24 male subjects in ages 18-21 that were right-handedTestinghandle diameter with three levelsTip angle with four levelsEach subject asked to do 4 tasks with 2 different combinations Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  54. 54. ChopsticksFood pinching - pick up peanuts from dish and put in cup andnumber of peanuts were counted within a certain time limit Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  55. 55. ChopsticksFood shearing - grip sponge cake and shear it in two.Elapsed time was measured Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  56. 56. ChopsticksFood thrusting - thrust 10 pieces of sumulated food into dish and then pick it up. Elapsed time was measured Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  57. 57. ChopsticksFood pulling - grip a simulated food (eraser) and pull it towards the mouth until it pulled off Push pull scale was tied to the food. Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  58. 58. ChopsticksSemantic differential scale4 adjective pairs1.  Arm aching-arm unaching2.  Gripping easy - gripping difficulty3.  Exerting easy - exerting difficulty4.  Comfortable - uncomfortableMark these on a scale of 1 to 9 Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  59. 59. ChopsticksConclusionsChopstick handle diameter and tip angle have a significant influenceon eating efficiencyOptimum chopstick1.  6 mm handle diameter2.  2 degree tip angle3.  4 mm dip diameter4.  180 - 240 mm long chopsticks (earlier study) Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  60. 60. ChopsticksThe optimum length of a chopstick is 210mm (Wu, 1995) and this…ReferencesWu, Swei-Pi, (1995) Effects of the handle diameter and tip angleof chopsticks on the food serving performance of male subjects.Applied Ergonomics 28 (4), pg. 237-244. Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  61. 61. The field of study involvingclassical mechanicalprinciples and theirrelationships as used orapplied to living organisms orbiological tissues in motion.i.e. body movement andbone strain.•  Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  62. 62. Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  63. 63. Biomechanics of Sport and Exercise Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  64. 64. Motor Control Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  65. 65. Muscle Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  66. 66. Gait and Locomotion Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  67. 67. Gait and Locomotion Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  68. 68. Biomedical Engineering Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  69. 69. Orthopaedics Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  70. 70. Orthotics and Prosthetics Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  71. 71. Orthotics and Prosthetics Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  72. 72. Biomechanics of Sport and ExerciseMotor ControlMuscleGait and Locomotion Biomedical EngineeringOrthopaedicsOrthotics and Prosthetics Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  73. 73. Snow shovelling Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  74. 74. Heart attacks Similar to weight lifting Lots of exertion not much movement Raises blood pressure and heart attackMulti-joint movement Small muscles in the lower back Large leg musclesShoveling snow can cause disc compression(Hansson & Oberg, 1996)Repetitive motion increases risk of injury Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  75. 75. Posture Upright erect stance with feed wide apartWarm up - warm down StretchingClothes Don’t over dress Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  76. 76. Freivalds, A (1986). The ergonomics of shovel design - a review of literature.Ergonomics 29 (1): 3-181.  Blade - plastic, aluminum, or steel? •  Steel - most durable but heaviest •  Aluminum - lighter but softer (although can have steel edge) •  Plastic - lightweight but abrade quickly Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  77. 77. Freivalds, A (1986). The ergonomics of shovel design - a review of literature.Ergonomics 29 (1): 3-181.  Blade - plastic, aluminum, or steel? •  Steel - most durable but heaviest •  Aluminum - lighter but softer (although can have steel edge) •  Plastic - lightweight but abrade quickly Plastic •  Lighter the shovel the easier it will be to lift. Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  78. 78. 1.  Blade size - what are the issues?•  taller and heavier people blades should be 18” x 16”•  shorter and lighter person the blades should be 16 1/2” x 14 1/2”18” blades take up 3/4 of sidewalk and are optimum for maximizing the load Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  79. 79. 1.  Shaft length - what are the issues?•  taller and heavier people the shaft should be 52” with a 1 1/4” handle•  shorter and lighter person the shaft should be 42” and 1 1/2 handleRelatively longer shaft will reduce operators trunk flexionHowever, maximum force at the right erector spinae muscle is increasedWhat can one do?Make shaft adjustible Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  80. 80. •  The shaft should be angled at 60 degrees towards the bottom of the shaft and 35 degrees for the upper portion of the shaft.•  The bend should occur at the 2/3 mark of the shaft (measuring from the top) Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  81. 81. Handle - what are the issues?•  Handle should allow user to grip with mittens - cushioned D grip•  Handles should be made out of fibre glass Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  82. 82. Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  83. 83. Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  84. 84. Glen Hougan Winter 2010
  85. 85. DSGN 3210 STATURE 50.3 in Sarah Orford January 20, 2010 SHOULDER HEIGHT 22.2 in HEAD LENGTH 7.5 in MAX SEAT HEIGHT 17.6 in HEAD WIDTH 7.2 in SHOULDER ELLBOW CONTORL HEIGHT 13 in KNEE HEIGHT19.25 in STATURE 62.5 in KNEE HEIGHT 15.8 in HEAD WIDTH 5 in FINGER TIP HEIGHT 23 in HEAD LENGTH 8 in CROTCH HEIGHT 30 inGlen Hougan Winter 2010 SHOULDER HEIGHT 52.5 in
  86. 86. 63.5" STATURE 8" HEAD LENGTH WIDTH 6.5" HEAD 25" FINGER TIP HGT 30" CROTCH HGT 52" SHOULDER HGT 16" MAX SEAT HGT 22" SHOULDER HGT SITTING KATE MITCHELL JANUARY 20, 2010 12" SHOULDER ELBOW DSGN 3010 - HUMAN FACTORS CONTROL HGTS 19" KNEE HGTGlen Hougan Winter 2010

×