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Water Management in Developing Country A Case Study of a Watershed Development Program in the State of Bihar, India

Water Management in Developing Country A Case Study of a Watershed Development Program in the State of Bihar, India

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    Water management in developing country Water management in developing country Presentation Transcript

    • Water Management in Developing CountryA Case Study of a Watershed Development Program in the State of Bihar, India A.N.College,Patna
    • WE ALREADY INHABIT A WATER SCARCE WORLD
    • Most hungry and poor people live where water challenges pose a constraint to food productionThe semi-arid and arid tropics: 840 million malnourished people
    • Traditional Water Management A Practical Solution to Water Scarcity Which Works in Bihar
    • Water Resources Development
    • Different Approaches
    • In – situ Conservation 30*40 model Staggered Trenching
    • Water Harvesting Structure Check Dam Pond
    • Lift Irrigation Well IrrigationRiver Based Stream Based
    • Traditional Water Harvesting Structures Ahar Pyne Phad System
    • Diversion Based Irrigation Pipe BasedOpen Channel Based
    • Diversion Based Irrigation Management (DBIM)
    • Araghatta, Ghati Yantra, Ghati Chakra, Rahat, Raghat, Rehat, Persian Wheel, …….
    • Bullocks at work-Water Lifting Devise
    • Rehat or Persian wheel, Udaipur District Rajasthan India
    • Chadas Box
    • Step Well at Modhera, Gujrat
    • Pulley Circa 1117 A.D. Belur Temple,Karnataka
    • The wheel of life...Chakra...
    • Young lad with a bright future, Persian wheel with aglorious past..the last of the Persian wheel, Karnataka
    • Watershed works and tank de-silting helps fill this open well. Rice grows with its water
    • Windlass, well, water...
    • Replicable Approaches …….• In - situ conservation• Water Harvesting Structures• Lift Irrigation Model• Traditional Water harvesting Structure• Diversion Based irrigation
    • OUR WATER MANAGEMENT INITIATIVE AT CHANAN (Banka District),BIHAR
    • Introduction• The background – lack of proper Water Management practices in areas of moderate rainfall of east- central India• Lack of proper utilization of monsoon rainwater – Low agricultural productivity – subsistence agriculture propagating poverty• Development approaches- top-down vs. bottom-up approaches• Growing importance of participatory approach in developing economies.
    • Study area: The Chandan River Basin CHANDAN RIVER BASIN INDIA BANGLADESH Heth Chanan Bara Tanr
    • SOCIO-CULTURAL ASPECTS• The total population is approx. 5250 persons, & total no. of households are 920.• The literacy rate is 28.7%. The female literacy rate is only 14%.• The number of women in the 16-60 years age group is 1478.• Cultural transition required
    • Economic aspects• Categorization of the area’s population as mainly “below poverty line” (BPL).• Low agricultural lead and low income generation for farmers attributed to uneven rainfall distribution, absence of water harvesting structures, and soil and water conservation methods.• Out-migration of working male population was a serious problem
    • Integrated Watershed management- a holistic development initiative• A micro-level development initiative was launched in Bihar in 2007 through public private partnership and participatory approach for a sustainable rural economy.• Positive outcomes within short span of time - Sustained Agricultural productivity. - Economic diversification following agricultural surplus, halting of out migration, gender equity.
    • Why Diversion Bases Irrigation ?Enables poor farmersliving in difficult terrainsto double their incomesby taking the second cropusing diverted waterflows.Technically such schemesare feasible in farflung, remote and tribalareas usually facingneglect by the State.Investments is lesscompared to othersource of irrigation.O & M cost is less.
    • Methodology• Obtaining data on physical and social parameters of the study areas• Inputs from maps , GPS and GIS database- detailed study of topographical maps that helped to decide upon soil and water conservation methods.• Interviews with stakeholders to obtain feedback on development strategies followed.• Community organization and participation with stress on gender representation.• EIA study to gauge the sustainability of this project.• To present a holistic model of rural development in India
    • Community Organization Self Help Groups Tola of Women &Representatives Landless Persons Village Village Farmers Planning Watershed Club Committee Committee Village Cooperative Societies Apex Cooperative
    • Obstacles in implementing the program • Problem of local acceptance • Problem from local politicians • Problem of women’s participation
    • Steps in motivating Community Participation• Living within the village community, and exchanging of views through discussions & meetings• Building of first check dams to conserve water- motivation for others to join• Formation of groups or TOLAs as first step of village organisation• Gender representation• Watershed Community CAPACITY BUILDING PHASE• Gaining trust by servant leadership
    • Watershed Management in Chandan River Basin Initial stages…………………………… 2007 2007
    • Implementing the Watershed Management techniques CONTOUR BUNDING 2007
    • TRENCHES & REVIVAL OF WATER PONDS
    • STONE OUTLETS & EARTHEN GULLY PLUGS 2008
    • LAND TREATMENT & CONSTRUCTED PONDS 2009
    • Check DamsCheck Dam at Chanan River Bed Stream at Chanan
    • OUTCOME – INCREASED AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY • Merging of scientific & engineering calculations with traditional knowledge for improved water retention and sustained agricultural growth. • Improved economic status 2010
    • Outcome…….2010
    • REFORESTATION
    • Soil Erosion
    • Better Watershed Management – Avoiding Erosion 2010
    • Good for bath too……Happy ? 2010
    • DETAILS OF HETH CHANAN & BARA TANR WATERSHED AREAS HETH CHANAN BARA TANRTotal area 1338.93 ha 1160.46 haGovernment Forest 306.54 ha. 155.07Public Land 7.62 ha 7.55 haLand occupied by households 6.13 ha. 2.55 haSeasonally irrigated 22.42 ha 19.50 haPerennially irrigated 17.19 ha 13.15 haRainfed area 535.92 ha 559.78 haFallow land 340.60 ha 277.14 haUnculturable waste 203.40 ha 118.78 haNot available for treatment 3.68 ha 0.00 haTreated area (Till Date) 1019.44 ha 988.35 ha.
    • Extension activities to augment and sustain the watershed management schemes Solar Energy Application Literacy Extension Employment campaign activities Generation Women Empowerment
    • THE ENERGY SOURCE--- Solar Panels in Daily Charging ofthe Community Solar lamps in A Solar Lamp in Centre the Community use Centre
    • Scientific and technical aspects to augment agricultural & other development activities• Vermicomposting• Textile (Handloom) industry• Other cottage industries
    • Gender equity & emancipation• Women representation in Village Community Groups & Watershed Community.• Women Self help Groups (WSHGs) formed with financial institution linkages for providing credit to run the textile looms, other cottage industries and solar lamp battery charging centers.• All WSHGs combine to send representatives to the Village Planning Committee - “Owner of the project”.• Allocation of 7.5 % of total project cost towards women support schemes= revolving fund- interest receivables are ploughed back to this fund.
    • Utilization of Local Inputs• Traditional knowledge base• Local resources• Formation of VWC, VPC & Farmers’ Club for transfer of technologies, quality control of agro-industrial products, marketing of produce and coordination with banks.• Creation of local demand-supply networks, & then linking them with district, state and national network.
    • Inter-sectoral integration for sustainable productivity NABARD Other Financial IRAInstitutions Industrial & Village Marketing Community Institutions
    • Socio-cultural success factors• Servant leadership, reliable ,committed expertise , and open• Learning process – public role of women, ordinary people having a say, cooperation of many institutions (civil society),confidence in change in place of uncertainty avoidance
    • Sustainable impacts of the Heth Chanan & Bara Tanr Watershed Programs • Gender emancipation through income generation Community • Rise in Literacy levels • Reduction in male out-migration development • Community integration through democratic participation in socio-economic spheres. Economic • Agro-based industries diversification • Cottage industries complemented with • Rural marketing of agricultural & industrial produce solar energy use • Prevention of soil erosion; water conservation; higher soil moisture content; Watershed schemes expansion of arable land • Multi cropped intense agricultural productivity; Agricultural surplus
    • Water is precious – Conserve it
    • AcknowledgementsNational Bank for Agriculture and Development (NABARD), Patna Regional Office, India. Indian Rural Association (IRA), Banka , Bihar, India.
    • Thank You for your attention !!!