“Qualitative and Quantitative Water Scarcity
Issues in Bihar, India”
ASHOK GHOSH
DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENT & WATERDEPARTME...
Water Quality and Quantity
"Water quality and
quantity is going to be
the biggest challenge
in coming years to
human being...
if lOur Life Style ???
If everyone on Earth
continue our current life
style, it would take
more than 7 Earths to
support h...
THE
ONLYONLY
ONE
WEWE
KNOW
OFOF…
…TO
DATE !DATE !
Changes in the present century: GlaciersGangotri Glacier
(NASA)
g
– Receding since
1870 when data
gathering began
– 1,147 ...
Bihar- A Water Resource Hub
• Playground of perennial Himalayan
and seasonal Peninsular Streams
• Abundance of aquifers at...
NEPAL
Satellite
view of
E t BihEast Bihar
Plains
RR.
Ganges Indian Craton
Aquifers of Bihar
GANGA‐
MEGHNA‐
BRAMHAPUTRA
GMB Plains -Area 569 thousand sq km
Population >500 million
RIVER BASINS
Annual Per Capita Availability of WaterAnnual Per Capita Availability of WaterAnnual Per Capita Availability of WaterAnnua...
WATER RESOURCE THE - CURRENT SITUTATIONWATER RESOURCE THE CURRENT SITUTATION
i h d d d• High dependence on ground
water (8...
WATER QUANTITYWATER QUANTITY
Shrinking Wetlands of Bihar- Current
Climatic and Tectonic Changes? (Ghosh etg (
al,2004)
Projection of Climate Change on Water
Availability
• The gross per capita water availability in Bihar
will decline from ab...
Remote Sensing Image - 1984
Remote Sensing Image - 2004
Current Status ofCurrent Status of
“Surplus River Water” State – Bihar
• Surface water coverage in Ghagra-Gandak
& G d k K...
• Impact on ground water rechargep g g
• Impact on fish culture and “makhana”
cultivationcultivation
• Shrinkage and disap...
CHANGES IN MAJOR LAND USE CATEGORIES IN BIHAR
[Based on 1984 & 2004 remote sensing images]
1984 2004
Land use types
1984
[...
S l il bilitSeasonal availability
of surface waterof surface water
declined by 43% fordeclined by 43% for
the state of Bih...
Therefore lesser availability of surfaceTherefore lesser availability of surface
water accounted for decline in the
season...
WATER QUALITYWATER QUALITY
Water Disease Triangle Source of Health Hazardate sease a g e Sou ce o ea t a a d
Lack of
Clean Water
Lack of
Safe Sanitat...
Surface Water DeteriorationSurface Water Deterioration
Due to Climatic changes andg
Anthropogenic activities
f l hStatus of Water Quality in Bihar
• Surface water pollution –
B t i l i l d Ch i lBacteriological and Chemical
• Groun...
The Ganges is theg
longest river in South
Asia. With a total
length of 2,640 km
Ganga at Gomukh
Ganga at Gangotri
Ganga in UPGanga in UP
Ganga at PatnaGanga at Patna
Bihar
Ganga at Patna
…and also, a morgue…
G t P tGanga at Patna
Herniation in Zooplanktons
The Ganga water has become highly polluted with
very high bacterial contaminationvery high bact...
Herniation: Cladocera Bosmina
Bosmina Herniation%
0.6
0.7
ntage(%)
Bosmina Herniation%
0.3
0.4
0.5
ionPercen
0
0.1
0.2
Her...
Herniation: Nauplius
Nauplius Herniation %
0.7
0.8
0.9
ntage(%)
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
tionPercen0.1
0.2
0.3
Herniat
0
0 5 10 15
...
GROUNDGROUND
WATER DETERIORATIONWATER DETERIORATION
ARSENIC IN GROUND WATER
OF BIHAROF BIHAR
Tibet PlateauTibet Plateau
Himalayay
Ganga GMB Plain
Area 569749 sq km
Population >500 million
Bay of Bengal
West Champaran
Arsenic Map of Bihar ‐2010
Ch Sheohar
p
East Champaran
Sitamarhi
Madhubani
Supaul
Araria
Kishanganj
Muzaffa...
NEPAL
BIHAR -BIHAR
Play Ground
of
Rivers
Arsenic in 
Bihar ‐
hlHighly 
Arsenic 
f d Ganga
Indian Craton
Infested
BIHAR FINDINGS (Ghosh et al 2008)BIHAR FINDINGS (Ghosh et.al.‐2008)
• More  than 30 thousand  hand pumps p p
tested – 32 %...
Th H tt t A i H d P f BihThe Hottest Arsenic Hand Pump of Bihar
Krishna Kumar Panday,Pandaytola,Bhojpur – Owner of hand pu...
Maize:Total As -0.24 ug As g-1
Arsenic in foodArsenic in food 
chain of Bihar
Food ChainRice - 0.36 ug As g-1
Irrigation T...
Gift of home coming………………..g
Ram Ashan Panday – Ex Army Man – Developed Symptoms after his
Return to native village - Pand...
Gift of home coming………………..g
Kisan Panday –
Ex Army Man – DevelopedEx Army Man Developed
Symptoms after his
Return to nati...
Arsenic Patients – Bhaglpur- PirpaintiArsenic Patients Bhaglpur Pirpainti
Arsenic Patients – Bhaglpur- Kahalgaon
hArsenic Patients – Khagaria
FLUORIDE IN
GROUND WATER OF
BIHAR
FLUORIDE CONTAMINATED
WATER SOURCES
Fluoride contaminated aquifers in dry areas of
following southern districts of Bihar i...
West Champaran
Bihar - Fluoride in
Ground Water
Ch Sheohar
East Champaran
Sitamarhi
Madhubani
Supaul
Araria
Kishanganj
Muz...
Our Fluuride Reserch …
• We have initiated study on Fluoride contamination
in Nawada District
• Fluoride level up to 6.8 p...
Clinical Outcomes of Endemic Fluorosis
• Dental Fluorosis in Children
• Skeletal Fluorosis in Adults
• Non Skeletal Fluoro...
Children of Kachariya Dih, Nawada
Trauma of Kachariya Dih, Nawada
Kachariya Dih Nawada: DeterioratingKachariya Dih, Nawada: Deteriorating
water quality striking humanity
Dental Fluorosis
Kachariya Dih, Nawada: WE arey
allowing this happen to our children
Nature vs. Man
Will water crisis becomeWill water crisis become
endemic in thisendemic in this
“WATER SURPLUSWATER SURPLUS...
Faced with Such a Complex and ExpansiveFaced with Such a Complex and Expansive
Challenge, Where Do We Begin?
Priorities
1....
Path Forward
1 6
Development and
1.4
1.6
Projections
Development and 
application of 
more sustainable 
technologies
1.2
N...
YES Water resource 
ttmatters 
b i lbecause survival 
of thisof this 
civilization 
matters !
THANKS
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Qualitative and Quantitative Water Scarcity Issues in Bihar,India

  1. 1. “Qualitative and Quantitative Water Scarcity Issues in Bihar, India” ASHOK GHOSH DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENT & WATERDEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENT & WATER MANAGEMENT A.N.COLLEGE, PATNA
  2. 2. Water Quality and Quantity "Water quality and quantity is going to be the biggest challenge in coming years to human beings on planet Earth.......Many persons have survived without love, but none without water"
  3. 3. if lOur Life Style ??? If everyone on Earth continue our current life style, it would take more than 7 Earths to support human population by the end of this century.
  4. 4. THE ONLYONLY ONE WEWE KNOW OFOF… …TO DATE !DATE !
  5. 5. Changes in the present century: GlaciersGangotri Glacier (NASA) g – Receding since 1870 when data gathering began – 1,147 meters melted away during the 61 years between 1936 andbetween 1936 and 1996 (19 meters per year)per year) – Receded 850 meters during theg 25 years between 1975 and 1999 (34 )meters per year)
  6. 6. Bihar- A Water Resource Hub • Playground of perennial Himalayan and seasonal Peninsular Streams • Abundance of aquifers at all levelsq
  7. 7. NEPAL Satellite view of E t BihEast Bihar Plains RR. Ganges Indian Craton
  8. 8. Aquifers of Bihar
  9. 9. GANGA‐ MEGHNA‐ BRAMHAPUTRA GMB Plains -Area 569 thousand sq km Population >500 million RIVER BASINS
  10. 10. Annual Per Capita Availability of WaterAnnual Per Capita Availability of WaterAnnual Per Capita Availability of WaterAnnual Per Capita Availability of Water in the Eastern Plains of Indiain the Eastern Plains of India 2,300 Precipitation : 4,000 km3 Wh l di 2,100 2,200 Adequate Water Where are we leading to ? 1,800 1,900 2,000 Water Scarcity 1,600 1,700 , 1,500 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
  11. 11. WATER RESOURCE THE - CURRENT SITUTATIONWATER RESOURCE THE CURRENT SITUTATION i h d d d• High dependence on ground water (85%) O t ti f d t• Over extraction of ground water for irrigation • Uncontrolled deforestation• Uncontrolled deforestation • Neglect of traditional practices and systems including rain waterand systems, including rain water harvesting • Inadequate integrated waterdequ e eg ed w e management and watershed development • Emerging water quality problems
  12. 12. WATER QUANTITYWATER QUANTITY Shrinking Wetlands of Bihar- Current Climatic and Tectonic Changes? (Ghosh etg ( al,2004)
  13. 13. Projection of Climate Change on Water Availability • The gross per capita water availability in Bihar will decline from about 1,950 m3/yr in 2001 towill decline from about 1,950 m /yr in 2001 to as low as about 1,170 m3/yr in 2050 • Bihar will reach a state of water stress before 2020 when the availability of clean water falls below 1000 m3 per capitabelow 1000 m per capita
  14. 14. Remote Sensing Image - 1984
  15. 15. Remote Sensing Image - 2004
  16. 16. Current Status ofCurrent Status of “Surplus River Water” State – Bihar • Surface water coverage in Ghagra-Gandak & G d k K i Z d d b 43 4%& Gandak-Kosi Zones decreased by 43.4% and 37.8% respectively M i di t ti l di t• Massive sedimentation leading to near obliteration of water bodies, including channel flowschannel flows • Increase in surface water area in Kosi Fan by 7 65%by 7.65% • Eastward shift in mid-section of the Kosi.
  17. 17. • Impact on ground water rechargep g g • Impact on fish culture and “makhana” cultivationcultivation • Shrinkage and disappearance of wetland lecology • Shrinking Kabar Tal is a proposedg p p Ramsar Site. It covered 6786.05 hectares in 1984, but in 2004 revealed shrinkage, g to 5043.825 hectares. • Seismotectonic changes were indicatedSeismotectonic changes were indicated by our studies in North Bihar
  18. 18. CHANGES IN MAJOR LAND USE CATEGORIES IN BIHAR [Based on 1984 & 2004 remote sensing images] 1984 2004 Land use types 1984 [Fig. in Hectares] 2004 [Fig. in Hectares] Change [in %] W tl d 4023 91 2409 86 40 11Wetlands 4023.91 2409.86 -40.11 Forests, 4812.63 5773.54 19.96, including plantations Cropped Area 27148 52 24764 96 -8 78Cropped Area 27148.52 24764.96 -8.78 Fallow 18653.12 20956.63 12.35 Sand and Cloud 978.53 1373.12 40.32 cover/Haze Unclassified land 521.52 860.12 64.93 land TOTAL 56138.23 56138.23 -
  19. 19. S l il bilitSeasonal availability of surface waterof surface water declined by 43% fordeclined by 43% for the state of Bihar as athe state of Bihar as a whole.
  20. 20. Therefore lesser availability of surfaceTherefore lesser availability of surface water accounted for decline in the seasonal cropped area in west Biharseasonal cropped area in west Bihar. Conversely in the middle plains, h i ki l dshrinking wetlands gave way to new arable land in their outer confines. The eastern segment is subject to rising water tables and swamping of the arablewater tables and swamping of the arable lands
  21. 21. WATER QUALITYWATER QUALITY
  22. 22. Water Disease Triangle Source of Health Hazardate sease a g e Sou ce o ea t a a d Lack of Clean Water Lack of Safe Sanitation Lack of Hygiene Safe SanitationHygiene Source: WHO/UNICEF, 2009
  23. 23. Surface Water DeteriorationSurface Water Deterioration Due to Climatic changes andg Anthropogenic activities
  24. 24. f l hStatus of Water Quality in Bihar • Surface water pollution – B t i l i l d Ch i lBacteriological and Chemical • Ground water contamination – IronGround water contamination Iron, Arsenic, Fluoride and Nitrate…….
  25. 25. The Ganges is theg longest river in South Asia. With a total length of 2,640 km
  26. 26. Ganga at Gomukh
  27. 27. Ganga at Gangotri
  28. 28. Ganga in UPGanga in UP
  29. 29. Ganga at PatnaGanga at Patna Bihar
  30. 30. Ganga at Patna …and also, a morgue…
  31. 31. G t P tGanga at Patna
  32. 32. Herniation in Zooplanktons The Ganga water has become highly polluted with very high bacterial contaminationvery high bacterial contamination the growing urbanization and industrialization h i d h ll i l d di h d ihave increased the pollution load discharged into the River Ganga resulting in loss of the river’s i il i iassimilative capacity. Very high rate of herniation has been detected in Ganga Water in Bihar
  33. 33. Herniation: Cladocera Bosmina Bosmina Herniation% 0.6 0.7 ntage(%) Bosmina Herniation% 0.3 0.4 0.5 ionPercen 0 0.1 0.2 Herniat 0 5 10 15 Serial Numbers bosmina herniati…
  34. 34. Herniation: Nauplius Nauplius Herniation % 0.7 0.8 0.9 ntage(%) 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 tionPercen0.1 0.2 0.3 Herniat 0 0 5 10 15 Serial NumbersSerial Numbers Nauplius…
  35. 35. GROUNDGROUND WATER DETERIORATIONWATER DETERIORATION
  36. 36. ARSENIC IN GROUND WATER OF BIHAROF BIHAR
  37. 37. Tibet PlateauTibet Plateau Himalayay Ganga GMB Plain Area 569749 sq km Population >500 million Bay of Bengal
  38. 38. West Champaran Arsenic Map of Bihar ‐2010 Ch Sheohar p East Champaran Sitamarhi Madhubani Supaul Araria Kishanganj Muzaffarpur Sheohar Siwan Gopalganj Purnia Darbhanga Muzaffarpur Saran Siwan Vaishali Samastipur Saharsa Madhepura KatiharBhojpur Rohtas Buxar Patna Jehanabad Nalanda MungerSheikhpura Begusarai Bhagalpur Khagaria Rohtas Kaimur Jehanabad GayaAurangabad Nawada Jamui Banka Lakhisarai 16 Arsenic Affected Districts Source Data: Dept. of EWM, A.N.C ollege, Patna
  39. 39. NEPAL BIHAR -BIHAR Play Ground of Rivers Arsenic in  Bihar ‐ hlHighly  Arsenic  f d Ganga Indian Craton Infested
  40. 40. BIHAR FINDINGS (Ghosh et al 2008)BIHAR FINDINGS (Ghosh et.al.‐2008) • More  than 30 thousand  hand pumps p p tested – 32 % of tested sources had  arsenic contaminated water of>10  ppb. • Highest As. Value Recorded – 1861 ppb • A total of 16 Bihar districts ( 57 blocks)   are affected by high level of arsenic in  the groundwaterthe groundwater • Trivalent arsenic 87 % in ground water  of Biharof Bihar • Worst‐affected districts are Bhojpur,  Bhagalpur, Samastipur, and Khagaria,Bhagalpur, Samastipur, and Khagaria, 
  41. 41. Th H tt t A i H d P f BihThe Hottest Arsenic Hand Pump of Bihar Krishna Kumar Panday,Pandaytola,Bhojpur – Owner of hand pump with highest recorded Arsenic Concentration of 1861 ppb in Bihar
  42. 42. Maize:Total As -0.24 ug As g-1 Arsenic in foodArsenic in food  chain of Bihar Food ChainRice - 0.36 ug As g-1 Irrigation Tube well =As 980 ppb
  43. 43. Gift of home coming………………..g Ram Ashan Panday – Ex Army Man – Developed Symptoms after his Return to native village - Panday Tola,Bhojpur
  44. 44. Gift of home coming………………..g Kisan Panday – Ex Army Man – DevelopedEx Army Man Developed Symptoms after his Return to native villageReturn to native village – Panday Tola,Bhojpur
  45. 45. Arsenic Patients – Bhaglpur- PirpaintiArsenic Patients Bhaglpur Pirpainti
  46. 46. Arsenic Patients – Bhaglpur- Kahalgaon
  47. 47. hArsenic Patients – Khagaria
  48. 48. FLUORIDE IN GROUND WATER OF BIHAR
  49. 49. FLUORIDE CONTAMINATED WATER SOURCES Fluoride contaminated aquifers in dry areas of following southern districts of Bihar isfollowing southern districts of Bihar is confirmed:– • Gaya • Nawada • Rohtas • Katihar• Katihar • Munger • Bhagalpur
  50. 50. West Champaran Bihar - Fluoride in Ground Water Ch Sheohar East Champaran Sitamarhi Madhubani Supaul Araria Kishanganj Muzaffarpur Sheohar Siwan Gopalganj Purnia Darbhanga Muzaffarpur Saran Siwan Vaishali Samastipur Saharsa Madhepura KatiharBhojpur Rohtas Buxar Patna Jehanabad Nalanda MungerSheikhpura Begusarai Bhagalpur Khagaria Rohtas Kaimur Jehanabad GayaAurangabad Nawada Jamui Banka Lakhisarai Fluoride affected Districts
  51. 51. Our Fluuride Reserch … • We have initiated study on Fluoride contamination in Nawada District • Fluoride level up to 6.8 ppm has been detectedp pp against the permissible limit of 1.5 ppm • Majority of water sources of many villages haveMajority of water sources of many villages have very high concentration of Fluoride • Hundreds of persons with symptoms of Fluorosis• Hundreds of persons with symptoms of Fluorosis have been identified
  52. 52. Clinical Outcomes of Endemic Fluorosis • Dental Fluorosis in Children • Skeletal Fluorosis in Adults • Non Skeletal Fluorosis• Non Skeletal Fluorosis
  53. 53. Children of Kachariya Dih, Nawada
  54. 54. Trauma of Kachariya Dih, Nawada
  55. 55. Kachariya Dih Nawada: DeterioratingKachariya Dih, Nawada: Deteriorating water quality striking humanity
  56. 56. Dental Fluorosis
  57. 57. Kachariya Dih, Nawada: WE arey allowing this happen to our children
  58. 58. Nature vs. Man Will water crisis becomeWill water crisis become endemic in thisendemic in this “WATER SURPLUSWATER SURPLUS STATE”?STATE ?
  59. 59. Faced with Such a Complex and ExpansiveFaced with Such a Complex and Expansive Challenge, Where Do We Begin? Priorities 1. Control of indiscriminate ground water usage. 2. Match specific water demand to quality needed 3. Maximize use of reclaimed water at sitewater at site 4. Sustained resources for technology, training, infrastructureg 5. Enforce healthy land use policy 6. Attention on agriculture and industry 7. Emphasis on water education, water as ultimate human resource
  60. 60. Path Forward 1 6 Development and 1.4 1.6 Projections Development and  application of  more sustainable  technologies 1.2 Number of Earths Used by Humanity Target of Earths 0.8 1.0 Number of Earths Available Target  pathway Opportunities for Number  0.6 Opportunities for  innovation 0.4 Today 0.2 1980 2000 20201970 1990 2010 2030
  61. 61. YES Water resource  ttmatters  b i lbecause survival  of thisof this  civilization  matters ! THANKS

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