Global Climatic Change Ashok Ghosh A.N. College,Patna
Climate Change - The Moving Train Climate change is a slow train thats been coming for more than a century, but even slow trains eventually reach their destinations. With ocean temperature hitting record highs this summer, Arctic sea ice dwindling and glaciers melting faster than ever, that train now seems to be pulling into the station. The urgency is suddenly hitting home for people all around the planet.
WE’VE DOUBLEDTHE CO2 IN THEATMOSPHERESINCE 1950 !
According to an estimate of the water resources ministry, India’s per capita availability of water is around 1,545 m3 a year in 2011 , which is below the international threshold of 1,700 m3 a year. India is home to 17 % of the world’s population but has only 4 % of fresh water. According to the UN-adopted Water Stress Indicator, national per capita availability indicates water stress conditions. The country currently uses 829 billion m3 of water every year, which is approximately the size of Lake Erie, the fourth largest of the five Great Lakes in North America. By 2050 the demand for water is expected to cross the 1.4-
Our Life Style ??? If everyone on Earth continue our current life style, it would take more than 7 Earths to support human population by the end of this century.
When did the problem begin?The problems began whenhuman activities created &released more gases in theatmosphere than are necessary.
1760 – Industrial Revolution Beginning around 1760,the industrial revolution started overhauling the way human society operates Innovation in energy, manufacturing and transportation supercharged the economic evolution of many countries But some of them like coal refining and mechanized labor were mixed blessings - also putting the planet on a collision course for a climate change
1825–Discovery of green house effect A physicist Joseph Fourier (1825) theorized that some gases in earths atmosphere act as one way streets, allowing the solar heat to enter but not letting it leave – later on dubbed as Green House Effect A fellow physicist John Tyndal (1859) identified specific gases that were carrying out Fouriers Theory in the sky, including water vapor, carbon dioxide and methane – widely known as green house gases
1870 – Technical revolution Also known as Second Industrial Revolution saw speedy development of major new technologies , including electricity, petroleum, and steel It accelerated humanity’s march towards Climate Calamity Internal Combustion Engine, Automobiles, Airplanes, Mechanical Refrigeration and mass production of consumer goods are hallmarks of this period
1901 – Texas oil boom begins When the first Texas crude erupted from an oil well at Spindle Top Salt Dome on Jan 10,1901,America was changed for ever Decades of frenzied drilling followed uprooting the Texas economy from the agricultural origins and rocketing it into industrial age US car culture became more affordable and the train of climate change started moving faster
Presently 82 MILLIONBARRELS OF OIL ISEXTRACTEDEVERY DAY ! = 10 ½SWIMMING POOLS EVERYSECOND !
1930 – Dust bowl Americans got a harsh lession in ecological backlash during the early 1930’s,just when the great depression was hitting the high gear The dust bowl was the worst drought in US history,but it was made even worse by misguided farmers who had tilled swaths of great plains top soil into dust The ensuing dust storm ravaged the mid west ,and sent giant black dirt clouds as far as Chicago ,Washington and New York.
1938 – First sign of climate change In 1938 ,steam engineer and inventor Guy Steward Callander noticed that rising level of atmospheric CO2 were already warming the globe ,but he perceived it as a good thing ,delaying a “return of deadly glaciers for a while For a while Global warming was known as Callander Effect ,but the threat was soon over shadowed by World War II
1956–Birth of US inter state highway In 1920s a group of companies including General Motors ,Standard Oil,Firestone Tyre,and Mack Truck began buying US Cities Trolleys System and dismantling them As suburbs grew and inner cities dwindled over the next 30 years, the stage was set when President Eisenhowers’ 1956 Federal Aid highway act gave rise to todays cross country interstate system It helped lock Americans into oil dependence and increasing emission of GHGs
1969- Birth of Environmentalism Modern Environmental movement came of the age in the 60s Rachel Carson’s 1962 Book “Silent Spring” was one catalyst But perhaps the biggest was 1969 Cuyahoga River Fire in Ohio,US when sparks from a passing train ignited oils and chemicals floating on water The EPA,NOAA and Earth Day were all created the next year
1973 – US energy crisis After decades of growth American oil production peaked in 1973 It was bad timing because the 1973 Arab Oil Embargo quickly put a sqeeze on supplies ,drove up prices and created first energy crisis Oil demand dripped only temporarily and continued rising on the 1980s
1992–UN Earth Summit,Rio De Janeiro World leaders from 71 countries converged on Rio De Janeiro in June 1992 for the UN Earth Summit It featured the first Global climate change negotiations, among talk of biodiversity, deforestation and other environmental issues The new UN framework convention on climate change paved the way for the Kyoto Protocol in 1997 ,as well as December 2009 Copenhagen Conference
1997 – Kyoto Protocol The world’s first Global Warming Treaty was born among tense negotiation in 1997,which happened to be earth’s warmest year on record at the time The Kyoto protocol has faced plenty of criticism since then – many countries have failed to meet the target
2003 – European heat wave The summer of 2003 was hottest ever recorded in Europe More than 30,000 people died as temperature soared 20 to 30 % above the seasonal averages The disaster drew global attention to the public attention the public health dangers posed by rising temperature
2005 – Atlantic hurricane Earth’s eight warmest year on record have all occurred since 2001, but ‘05 remains the title holder. Its balmy sea surface temperature fuelled most active Atlantic hurricane season in US history Katrina was the worst of the lot flooding entire New Orleans neighborhood in August 2005
2006 – Inconvenient Truth Heat, hurricane and a major UN climate summit in Montreal made 2005 a big year for global warming awareness Al Gore’s documentary – “An Inconvenient Truth” arguably made ‘06 even more eye opening Gore won Nobel Prize for this film and next year another big UN summit in Bali laid the ground work for negotiations to replace the Kyoto treaty after 2009 meeting at Copenhagen
EPA Findings 2009 The U.S. EPA is finally acknowledging that greenhouse gases in the atmosphere contribute to air pollution which in turn poses a health threat. This year, the EPA issued a finding that identified six greenhouse gases in the atmosphere “endanger the public health and welfare of current and future generations.” The six GHGs are carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons and sulfur hexafluoride.
The Climate Express Arrives Copenhagen 7th December ,2009
Copenhagen Accord [18th Dec 2009] on Climate Change--- Climate change is one of the greatest challenges of our time Immediate, drastic cuts in global emissions are required to hold the increase in global temperature below 20 C. There are many challenges of Adaptation and Mitigation to the adverse effects of climate change
2010 the Year of the Volcano Pyroclastic flows of hot ash and gas that swallow forests and cities in Indonesia and Iceland. Potentially engine- clogging clouds that grounded entire fleets of planes with a single burb - with volcanoes like these as neighbors who needs enemies?
2011- Wave of Destruction-Japan A tsunami wave crashes over a street in Miyako City, Iwate Prefecture, in north eastern Japan on March 11 , 2011. An estimated 350,000 people are reportedly homeless in the wake of magnitude 9 earthquake.
Durban Climate Change Conference–2011 Global carbon dioxide emissions from burning fossil fuels have increased by 49 per cent in the last two decades, according to researchers at the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, University of East Anglia China, USA, India ,Russia, Japan, Brazil, Germany, Canada, Mexico and Iran - top ten Nations account 2/3rd of the Carbon-di-oxide Emissions of the world.COP 17-Global CarbonEmissions Reached Record10 Billion Tons, Threatening2 Degree Target
impacts 2 Degrees C target Source: Stern Review
10 Effect of Climate Change The increased likelihood of more frequent and intense heat waves Heavy downpours & flooding More wildfires Degraded air quality Increased drought Greater sea level rise More intense storms Harm to water resources Harm to agriculture Harm to wildlife and ecosystems
Path Forward 1.6 Projections 1.4 Development and Number of Earths Used by Humanity application of 1.2 more sustainable Target technologies 1.0Number of Earths pathway Number of Earths Available 0.8 Opportunities for innovation 0.6 0.4 0.2 Today 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030