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Santa Clara Presentation



Presentation on the Technical and Public Health Work Associated with the Potable Water System in Santa Clara, El Salvador.

Presentation on the Technical and Public Health Work Associated with the Potable Water System in Santa Clara, El Salvador.



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  • Promoters and the InterventionCommunity members consider the issues of hygiene and sanitation to be both household and community matters; consequently, the program has been designed to address these issues on both levels. The promoters have three major functions: 1) hygiene promotion and education; 2) demonstrations/assistance to achieve proper hygiene practices; and 3) evaluating the intervention. Their efforts focus on building necessary knowledge and skills to adopt and maintain proper hygiene practices; they also serve as role models of these practices. In addition, through community-based participatory research methods, the promoters collect data for evaluating the inputs and outcomes of the program. Training of PromotersThe promoters were recruited from Santa Clara based on certain characteristics, such as leadership skills, minimum literacy and educational requirements, permanent residence in Santa Clara, and long-term interest in the program goals. Nineteen applicants applied for the positions and the final candidates were selected by community vote. Thepromoters received an initial 5-day training by the GWU/EWB/Santa Clara team, and receive follow-up trainings from the MOH and PCV on a regular basis. They were trained with skills in the areas of: leadership, communication and hygiene promotion, time management, problem solving, participatory learning, and data collection/instrumentation. A training manual was created and translated by the GWU team, Ms. Putzer and Ms. Jurado (available upon request).
  • 99% HP had visited home 2x in past month50% had participated in activity past mo. 88% receive hygiene info from HPs (p<0.001)Nearly all (96%) of respondents reported being visited by a health promoter at least one in the past month, compared to only 61.9% at baseline, and the number of persons who reported participating in at least one activity in the previous month increased significantly between baseline and follow-up. More respondents reported receiving information about personal/domestic hygiene specifically from health promoters compared to baseline. Respondents were more likely at follow-up than at baseline to indicate that they had received information from promoters on the following hygiene topics: drinking clean water, treating water, preparing foods safely, and disposing trash adequately.
  • Latrine cleaningSweep floor (p=0.001); clean seat/lid with disinfectant (p=0.041; p<0.001) Diarrhea treatmentGiven more to drink (p=0.022); given ORS (p=0.002)

Santa Clara Presentation Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Rotary Club of Glen Burnie, MDRotary Club of San Miguel El Chapparistique Engineers Without Borders – Washington DCGeorge Washington University – Public Health
    Santa Clara, El Salvador - Water Distribution & Public Health Project
  • 2. Community Location
  • 3. Santa Clara, El Salvador
    Santa Clara (pop. 3,165) is a rural community within the municipality of San Rafael Oriente (pop. 16,929), in the Eastern region of San Miguel
    Local Organizations:
    Associacion de DesarrolloComunitario (ADESCO)
    AsociacionNacionalpara la Defensa, Desarrollo y Distribucion del Agua a Nivel Rural (ANDAR)
    Peace Corps
  • 4. Background & Objectives
    The people of Santa Clara suffer many hardships, as the majority live in suboptimal conditions without adequate housing, education, or an improved water source and the community’s residents are burdened with a high incidence of water-related illness.
    Households contract local drilling companies to construct raw water wells. Most wells access the same shallow aquifer contaminated by community pit latrines. The contamination of wells has been confirmed through bacteriological testing of samples throughout the community that were positive for excessive levels of fecal coliform bacteria.
    High rate of morbidity associated with water-borne pathogens and related illnesses.
    - Clean water for the Santa Clara community: Households 260 (Expandable to 400).
    - Current expressed community preference for piped water delivery to each individual household.
    - The community has already located a preferred; semi-remote well from which to extract the raw water for their system.
  • 5. The project has a comprehensive approach to preventing illness by improving water supply and key hygiene behaviors, especially ensuring safe household drinking water and food, proper personal and domestic hygiene, and effective use of sanitation.
  • 6. Water Collection - Today
    Carry water in large containers
    Use of horsepower to draw buckets from well
    Transport water with wagons
  • 7. EWB Assessment & Implementation Trips for Santa Clara Project
  • 8. Implementation Trips & Technical Design
    Water system components include:
    • Water Board Office
    • 9. Water Pump & Storage Shed
    • 10. Chlorination System
    • 11. Control System
    • 12. Storage Tank
    • 13. Distribution Network
    • 14. Household Connection
    • 15. Grey Water Pits
  • 16. Lodging
  • 17. Potable Water System Schematic
    Ground Storage Tank
    Tank Storage: 100 m3 (25,000 Gallons) Tank Diameter: 6.8m (22’-4”)
    Tank Height: 3.9m (12’-10”)
    Chlorine Tablet Feeder
    Desired Chlorine
    Residual: 0.5 – 0.8 mg/L
    Tablet Feeder Design
    4” PVC Well Fill Line
    Grade at well = 200m
    Distribution System
    Number of Homes: 260
    Gallons per home per day: 160
    Maximum Pipe Diameter: 6”
    Minimum Pipe Diameter: 2”
    Maximum Pressure: 80 psi
    Minimum Pressure: 20 psi
    Control System and VFD
    Minimum Pressure: 1psi
    Maximum Pressure: 100 psi
    Well and Pump
    Well Casing Diameter: 8”
    Design Point:
    95 gpm @ 425ft
  • 18. Distribution System
  • 19. Phase 1 of Dist. System (Tank to School)
  • 20. Distribution (Cont.)
  • 21. Water Board Office
  • 22. Storage Tank Location
  • 23. Storage Tank Design
  • 24. Soil Test
  • 25. Storage Tank Excavation
  • 26. Soil Profile
  • 27. Well Site & Pump
    Chlorine Tablet Feeder
  • 28. Power for Pump
    Meeting with Mayor
    • Mayor Sent Electrical Engineer to Town
    • 29. Mayor Promised to Pay for Power to Pump
    • 30. Changed from 3 Phase to 1 Phase
    • 31. Added VFD to Pump
  • Pump to Tank Supply Line
  • 32. Mock-up House Hookup
  • 33. Mock-up Grey Water Pit
  • 34. Community Ownership
    The planning, development and implementation of this initiative has been community-driven, and the resultant water system and health promotion program will be community-owned and operated.
    What kind of help is the community providing?
    • Unskilled labor for approximately 8300 m3 of
    trenching for an estimated contribution of
    $43,000 USD (1 m3/person/day, $5/day)
    • Free lodging for volunteers
    • 35. Transportation
    • 36. Equipment includes shovels, wheelbarrows,
    pickup trucks, etc.
    • The local water board has already collected of
    $6500 for land (central well and tank locations)
    and $6000 for individual household
  • 37. Sustainability
    ANDAR provides ongoing community trainings:
    Operation & Maintenance
    Administration, like transparent bookkeeping, end of year income/expense reports & development of user fees
    General and state laws governing potable water systems
    Protection and conservation of the water source
    Empowerment-to encourage leadership as owners of the system
    Management of the Water Board (ADESCO), including participatory, democratic decision-making, roles of leadership
  • 38. Public Health
  • 39. Public Health
    Solid Waste
  • 40. Public Health
    Solid Waste
  • 41. Health Promotion/Education Program
    Health Educators
    Complement ongoing health education & promotion efforts
    Enhance local capacities for sustainable program
    Enhance health impact of water system
  • 42. Health Promoters
    Household visits
    School hygiene
    Materials Assistance
    Role models/leaders
    Community mobilization (dengue, & trash clean-up)
    Upcoming: Water Management Education
  • 43. Study Results: Exposure to Program
  • 44. Study Results: Knowledge Gained
  • 45. Study Results: Adopted Practices
  • 46. Still some work to be done…
    Water quality/quantity
    Water storage/handling
    Grey water disposal
    Child hygiene/care
    Open defecation of children
    Trash disposal
    Proximity of domesticated animals to homes
  • 47. Your New Water System
    Handbook for households to understand:
    • How the water system works
    • 48. Do’s and don’ts of system use
    • 49. How to use/store it properly
    • 50. How to conserve the resource
    • 51. How to prevent standing water
    • How to understand their
    bill/quantity used
  • 52. Thank you!