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Earthquakes
 

Earthquakes

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    Earthquakes Earthquakes Presentation Transcript

    • Earthquakes
    • The Richter Scale Earthquakes are measured using a scale called the Richter Scale. This scale ranks earthquakes from 1 to 12. If the earthquake is below 2.0 you usually can't feel it. Earthquakes that rank below the 4.0 usually do not cause damage. Earthquakes over 5.0 can cause damage. If the earthquake is 7.0 or higher on the Richter Scale it is considered a major earthquake. Below you will see a chart that explains the Richter Scale in more detail. Less than 4.3 No damage 4.4 - 4.8 Small unstable objects are moved. Dishes and glasses may be broken. 4.9 - 5.4 Damage slight. Windows, dishes, and glasses may be broken. Furniture moved. Weak masonry cracked. 5.5 - 6.1 Structural damage considerable 6.6 - 6.9 Structural damage severe. Underground pipes broken. Cracks in ground. 7.0 - 7.3 Most masonry and frame structure foundations destroyed. Some well built wooden structures and bridges destroyed. 7.4 - 8.1 Few or no masonry structures remain standing. Bridges destroyed. Underground pipelines completely destroyed. Greater than 8.1 ---------------Damage nearly total!!
    • Earthquake severity since 2003
    • The Ring of Fire
    • Earthquake Hazards in the US
    • Deadliest Earthquakes on Record Date Location Deaths Magnitude Comments January 23, 1556 China, Shansi 830,000 ~8 December 26, 2004 Sumatra 283,106 9.0 Deaths from earthquake and tsunami. July 27, 1976 China, Tangshan 255,000 (official) 7.5 Estimated death toll as high as 655,000. August 9, 1138 Syria, Aleppo 230,000 May 22, 1927 China, near Xining 200,000 7.9 Large fractures. December 22, 856+ Iran, Damghan 200,000 December 16, 1920 China, Gansu 200,000 8.6 Major fractures, landslides. March 23, 893+ Iran, Ardabil September 1, 1923 Japan, Kanto 143,000 (Kwanto) 7.9 Great Tokyo fire. 150,000
    • ..More Deadly Quakes October 5, 1948 USSR (Turkmenistan, Ashgabat) 110,000 7.3 December 28, 1908 Italy, Messina 70,000 to 100,000 (estimated) 7.2 Deaths from earthquake and tsunami. September, 1290 China, Chihli 100,000 November, 1667 Caucasia, Shemakha 80,000 November 18, 1727 Iran, Tabriz 77,000 November 1, 1755 Portugal, Lisbon 70,000 8.7 Great tsunami. December 25, 1932 China, Gansu 70,000 7.6 May 31, 1970 Peru 66,000 7.9 $530,000,000 damage, great rock slide, floods. 1268 Asia Minor, Silicia 60,000 January 11, 1693 Italy, Sicily 60,000 May 30, 1935 Pakistan, Quetta 30,000 to 60,000 7.5 Quetta almost completely destroyed. February 4, 1783 Italy, Calabria 50,000 June 20, 1990 Iran 50,000 7.7 Landslides.
    • Deadliest US Earthquakes Rank 1. Magnitude 9.2 2. Location Date Prince William Sound, March 27, 19641. Alaska Andreanof Islands, Alaska March 9, 1957 3. Rat Islands, Alaska 8.7 4. East of Shumagin Islands, Nov. 10, 1938 Alaska 8.3 Lituya Bay, Alaska July 10, 1958 8.3 Yakutat Bay, Alaska Sept. 10, 1899 8.2 Near Cape Yakataga, Alaska Sept. 4, 1899 8.2 8. Andreanof Islands, Alaska May 7, 1986 8.0 9. New Madrid, Missouri Feb. 7, 1812 7.9 10. Fort Tejon, California Jan. 9, 1857 7.9 6. Feb. 4, 1965 8.8
    • Famous U. S. Earthquakes San Francisco Earthquake - 1906 *Time: 5:10 am *8.2 on the Richter scale
    • At 5:12 a.m. on April 18, 1906, a foreshock hit San Francisco. However, it offered just a quick warning, for massive devastation was soon to follow. Approximately 20 to 25 seconds after the foreshock, the large quake hit. With the epicenter near San Francisco, the entire city was rocked. Chimneys fell, walls caved in, and gas lines broke. Asphalt that covered the streets buckled and piled up. Many people didn't have time to even get out of bed before they were killed by falling debris. *3,000 killed by quake and fire
    • *$400 million in damage
    • *28,000 buildings destroyed
    • *225,000 people left homeless
    • The San Andreas Fault moved up to 25 feet in some areas!
    • Anchorage Earthquake - 1964 *5:36 pm *March 27, 1964
    • *9.2 Richter scale
    • *9 deaths from quake
    • *122 deaths from tsunamis *parts of streets sank 11 feet
    • San Francisco Earthquake – 1989 *otherwise known as the “The World Series Earthquake” *October 17, 1989 *5:04 pm
    • *67 deaths *3,575 injuries *6.9 on the Richter scale
    • *12,000 homeless *$5.9 billion in damage
    • *warm-up for the third game of the World Series between the Oakland Athletics and the San Francisco Giants Because of the World Series game being held that evening, many people left work early or gathered at restaurants to watch the game. This made the rush hour traffic lighter than normal; otherwise, the death toll could have been much higher. At Candlestick Park, only half of the fans had arrived when the earthquake hit. This helped reduce the load and strain on the stadium structure. A seismic strengthening project had recently been completed on the upper deck of the stadium. The stadium was not damaged and the fans rode the wave and wanted the game to begin. It didn’t happen; the game was postponed for 10 days.
    • New Madrid, Missouri Earthquakes 1811-1812 In December of 1811, a the largest earthquake ever recorded in American History started. This earthquake, is called the New Madrid Earthquake, because of its location on the New Madrid Fault, near New Madrid, Missouri. December 16, 1811 – 8.1 January 23, 1822 – 7.8 February 7, 1812 – 8.8
    • Large areas sank into the earth, new lakes were formed, waterfalls emerged, and the Mississippi River changed its course due to the earthquakes.
    • Survivors reported that the earthquakes caused cracks to open in the earth's surface, the ground to roll in visible waves, and large areas of land to sink or rise. The crew of the New Orleans (the first steamboat on the Mississippi, which was on her maiden voyage) reported mooring to an island only to awake in the morning and find that the island had disappeared below the waters of the Mississippi River.
    • A Special survivors Christa