Preliminary Technical File Orheiul Vechi, MOLDOVA

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Preliminary Technical File

Orheiul Vechi, MOLDOVA

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  • 1. Avec le soutien du Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication With the support of the Ministry of Culture and Communication Kyiv Initiative Regional ProgrammePilot Project on the Rehabilitation of Cultural Heritage in Historic Towns Preliminary Technical File Orheiul Vechi, MOLDOVA
  • 2. Kyiv Initiative Regional Programme - Rehabilitation of Cultural Heritage in Historic Towns 2 TABLE OF CONTENTFOREWORD ..................................................................................................................................... 4INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................ 6I. REFERENCE FILE ........................................................................................................................... 91.1 General information about the town ..................................................................................................... 91.2 Brief summary ...................................................................................................................................... 91.3 Main stakeholders / potential partners ................................................................................................. 91.4 Geographic, climatic and/or other physical factors that have influenced the ......................................... morphology and structure of the town .................................................................................................. 91.5 Historical events that have shaped the town and its identity ................................................................ 91.6 Socio-economic situation ................................................................................................................... 101.7 Capacity of action of the municipality ................................................................................................. 101.8 Supply and demand for space ........................................................................................................... 101.9 State of public services ...................................................................................................................... 101.10 Legal and institutional situation .......................................................................................................... 101.11 Cultural heritage ................................................................................................................................. 111.12 The contribution that the heritage can make to the quality of life and to the social ............................... and economic prosperity of the town ................................................................................................. 111.13 Challenges and opportunities ............................................................................................................. 111.14 Participation in international co-operation (including technical support to projects) ........................... 12II. THEMATIC MAPS ......................................................................................................................... 14t.m. 2.1 Location of the town in the context of the Country ............................................................................. 14t.m. 2.1 Location of the town in the context of the Region .............................................................................. 15t.m. 2.2 Traffic circulation, transport and access to the town .......................................................................... 16t.m. 2.3 The main activities/functions in buildings ........................................................................................... 19t.m. 2.4 New buildings/development/interventions in the historic centre ......................................................... 22t.m. 2.5 Time periods/epochs of buildings ....................................................................................................... 25t.m. 2.6 Protected heritage .............................................................................................................................. 28t.m. 2.7 Building occupation and ownership .................................................................................................... 29t.m. 2.8 State of condition of buildings ............................................................................................................ 32t.m. 2.9 State of condition of street and sidewalk ............................................................................................ 35 PTF MO_04 Orheiul Vechi
  • 3. Kyiv Initiative Regional Programme - Rehabilitation of Cultural Heritage in Historic Towns 3 PTF MO_04 Orheiul Vechi
  • 4. Kyiv Initiative Regional Programme - Rehabilitation of Cultural Heritage in Historic Towns 4FOREWORDThe Orheiul Vechi Preliminary Technical File was prepared by the Local Technical Team Ms MarianaVasilache, local Co-ordinator and Mr Valeriu Paşa, Director of the Orheiul Vechi Reserve.The global process was co-ordinated by the National Working Team Dr. Sergiu Musteaţă, PP2 Project Co-ordinator and Ms Iulia Postică, Project Managerand overseen by the International Experts Mr. Bernard Bouzou (France); Mr. David Johnson (UnitedKingdom) and Mr. Robert Pickard (United Kingdom). PTF MO_04 Orheiul Vechi
  • 5. Kyiv Initiative Regional Programme - Rehabilitation of Cultural Heritage in Historic Towns 5 PTF MO_04 Orheiul Vechi
  • 6. Kyiv Initiative Regional Programme - Rehabilitation of Cultural Heritage in Historic Towns 6INTRODUCTIONThe Pilot Project for the Rehabilitation of Cultural Heritage in Historic Towns is taking place within theCouncil of Europe’s Kyiv Initiative Regional Programme. The Preliminary Phase, launched jointly with theEuropean Commission (Directorate General for Education and Culture) in September 2009, wascompleted in December 2011.The pilot project has been proposed in small and medium-sized historic towns maintaining a closeconnection with their surrounding environment to define geographically coherent territories where localstakeholders face difficulties in improving living conditions, creating social cohesion or engaging ineconomic activities. So far, forty five “pilot towns” are mobilised in the five participating countries (Armenia,Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine) to implement the common working methodology.Each pilot town is being guided in the identification of the main challenges involved in initiating a projectfor future development. The process is based on the underlining of heritage resources, including theirimportance in creating a sense of place and in safeguarding local identity for the local community, whilstalso considering their present connections with the specific urban problems to be solved in each town.The pilot project reponds to various shared objectives:• to develop and strengthen architectural and urban awareness in order to organise its careful adaptation to modern lifestyles;• to decide on the priority interventions to be carried out in order to launch a sustainable process for urban development;• to facilitate transversal reflections involving all public and private stakeholders towards a town project;• to create local dynamics inspired by the best European practices;• to set up a new urban governance through the direct participation of the inhabitants in the debate about the future of the town.Urban rehabilitation as another way of organising and managing townsAs part of the pilot project, the basis for the elaboration of the urban project is the enhancement of themain heritage assets in order to consolidate the attractiveness of each town. By offering each citizen thepossibility to highlight its link to the town or a specific area of the town, the process gives citizensresponsibilities in the complex processes acting on the transformation of the built environment. An intenselocal life, animated by an active civil society and supported by the different levels of authorities is a clearalternative to the urban development logic that has severely marked previous generations by focusing ondemolition rather than rehabilitation, and on the extension of space instead of the reuse of existing urbanareas.The model of the town envisaged is a compact urban space, with a high quality of life and social cohesion.Such a town offers direct access to a social and cultural infrastructure with a sense of social justice. Itdoes not exclude the adaptation of the historic parts to modern necessities, but targets sustainabledevelopment requirements giving priority to the economy of the ground by regenerating existing buildingsand giving priority to housing in order to preserve the populations in all their diversity.The Preliminary Technical File (PTF): the first crucial step in the processThe PTF was set up during the Preliminary Phase by twenty-three Pilot Towns. It is set up through acommon methodology and is organised on the basis of identical sections and maps for all the pilot towns.The number of issues considered in this document is voluntarily limited, and therefore necessitates aselection of information available or collected by the local technical teams set up in each pilot town. PTF MO_04 Orheiul Vechi
  • 7. Kyiv Initiative Regional Programme - Rehabilitation of Cultural Heritage in Historic Towns 7Presentation of the information, focusing on a limited number of maps, proposes a snapshot of thesituation, which offers a simple and clear understanding of the main assets of the towns, organisedaround four main themes:- urban history: a description of the urban structure on the basis of its historical development underlines the permanencies of the past in today’s town, which are important for inhabitants’ perceptions of their own towns, as well as the emotions the visitors may experience. These permanencies represent the material resources of that urban heritage, which is the potential which can support the future development of the town.- the functionalities of the town: the level of services offered in the historic centre and the quality of its accessibility allow an assessment of the users’ daily situation, as well as the resilience or the fragility of the central functions, on a town-wide scale.- the economic position and role of the town in the surrounding territory: the economic attractiveness of the town can be appreciated by considering its geographical location, the features of its associated territory, the quality of the accessibility to major infrastructures, the dynamism of its industrial and services network and the capacity of the municipality, especially in terms of investment.- heritage resources: resources can be assessed by identifying the buildings according to their time period, their situation as far as ownership and occupation are concerned and their state of conservation, including the level of protection and the effectiveness of the protection regulations as well as any architectural interventions and urban intrusions perturbing the image of the town.A step-by-step process based on project buildingThe publication of the PTFs targets the local stakeholders’ awareness of the richness and diversity of theurban heritage defining the identity of their town and the level of resources at their disposal. Thisdocument also allows the local and national technicians and urban specialists of all sectors to engage inthe next phase. The aims will be to define a strategic and pragmatic approach connecting heritage andurban projects in local synergies, and to set up good governance principles and mechanisms, ensuringthe involvement of all stakeholders in the community in decisions about proposed rehabilitation actions.The Operational Phase will involve the pilot towns in a practical way, through:- the elaboration of an integrated local development strategy: the Diagnostic will identify the strengths and weaknesses specific to each town, indicating what could be a realistic ambition for a urban development project.- the adoption of operational guidelines: the Strategy will identify a series of key and priority rehabilitation actions implementable in the short-term and capable, if correctly connected, of generating a global revitalisation process.- the design, promotion and funding of the priority interventions on buildings: technical assessment, feasibility study and business plan (budget estimates, funding, investment partnerships), project management, conditions of implementation, site management. PTF MO_04 Orheiul Vechi
  • 8. Kyiv Initiative Regional Programme - Rehabilitation of Cultural Heritage in Historic Towns 8Armenia Azerbaijan Georgia Moldova UkraineAR_01 Alaverdi AZ_01 Barda GE_02 Akhaltsikhe MO_01 Balti UK_01 BilovodskAR_02 Ashtarak AZ_02 Gazakh GE_04 Chiatura MO_02 Cahul UK_02 Ivano-FrankivskAR_03 Dilijan AZ_03 Göygöl GE_05 Dusheti MO_03 Leova UK_03 KhmilnykAR_05 Goris AZ_05 Gakh GE_06 Gori MO_04 Orheiul Vechi UK_04 LutskAR_06 Gyumri AZ_07 Ordubad GE_07 Mestia MO_05 Soroca UK_05 MedzhybizhAR_07 Meghri AZ_08 Sheki GE_08 Poti UK_06 MelitopolAR_09 Oshakan AZ_09 Shemkir GE_09 Telavi UK_07 PrylukyAR_10 Vagharshapat AZ_10 Zagatala GE_10 Tskaltubo UK_08 Starokostiantyniv UK_09 Vinnitsa UK_10 Zhovkva PTF MO_04 Orheiul Vechi
  • 9. Kyiv Initiative Regional Programme - Rehabilitation of Cultural Heritage in Historic Towns 9I. REFERENCE FILE 1.1 General information about the town Name Medieval town ‘Orheiul Vechi’, Cultural-natural reserve ‘Orheiul Vechi’ Status Town (site) – Trebujeni comuna Contact person Position Name Address Telephone E-mail Director Paşa s. Butuceni, Orhei, +373 79 837 pasha_valeriu@yahoo.com Valeriu Republic of Moldova 134 Mayor Moraru s. Trebujeni, Orhei, + 373 56 236 Tudor Republic of Moldova 1.2 Brief summary Orheiul Vechi is a unique place in the Republic of Moldova where the past cohabits with the present. It is where the traditional Moldovan way of living tries to meet the challenges of modern development whilst preserving the elements that define it. Orheiul Vechi is a large area where contemporary people from three villages – Trebujeni, Butuceni and Morovaia – live in a historic environment dating back as far as twenty thousand years ago. It is a place where humans and nature have always coexisted in harmony, complementing each other. Orheiul Vechi preserves cultural and natural features unique not only at a national level, but also at a larger, regional, European level. Amongst these we can mention many archaeological remains, monuments of vernacular architecture, traditions and crafts, flora and fauna, and an extraordinary landscape made by the meanders of the Răut river, uncovering the bottom of the million-year-old Sarmatian Sea. There is something special about Orheiul Vechi and the people who live there; it is a real matter of pride for all Moldovans and a constant subject of interest for its visitors. Orheiul Vechi is a town from the past and a living community of the present, made up of three villages. People have lived here without interruption for millennia. The locals’ inheritance is of great value to them and is also a great opportunity for growth, and rural tourism seems to be the natural way for this region to develop. 1.3 Main stakeholders / potential partners Name Contact Local Private investors, NGOs, associations and Cultural-natural reserve ‘Orheiul Vechi’ unions, local figures, religious authorities, Paşa Valeriu, Director the chamber of commerce, foundations. +373 79 837 134 pasha_valeriu@yahoo.com Moraru Tudor, Major +373 56 236 Regional Orheiul Vechi District Council National Ministry of Culture 1.4 Geographic, climatic and/or other physical factors that have influenced the morphology and structure of the town The medieval town of Orheiul Vechi is situated in the central part of Moldova, 50km north-east of the capital city, Chisinau. The landscape is a historical and uniquely natural complex, located in the Raut river gorge, cut into the reef of limestone in the Central Moldavian Plateau. This river has shaped the plateau, forming a series of limestone cliffs that have sheltered human settlements and religious communities for millennia, located at the crossroads of various civilisations that characterised the area from prehistoric times to Moldova during the Middle Ages. The site occupies seven major headlands, fascinating in terms of landscape. The originality and uniqueness of the resort is eloquently illustrated by the flora, vegetation and ecosystems. Orheiul Vechiul Vechi holds great scientific importance because of historical, ethnographic, archaeological, geo-climatic and ecological specificity. 1.5 Historical events that have shaped the town and its identity The Orheiul Vechi complex was populated and urbanised during the Palaeolithic and Neolithic ages. On the surface of the promontories there are Geto-Dacian traces (fourth to third centuries BC. AD) and medieval towns – Sehr al- Djedid, which was built by the Tatar-Mongols (fourteenth century) and Orhei, which was built by Moldavians (fifteenth to sixteenth centuries). The limestone rocks contain Christian cave monasteries, monks, and religious inscriptions carved in stone by medieval monks. Beneath the limestone cliffs there are the beautiful villages of Trebujeni, Morovaia and Butuceni, which maintain perfect harmony between man and nature, interweaving traditional rural lifestyle with the natural environment. PTF MO_04 Orheiul Vechi
  • 10. Kyiv Initiative Regional Programme - Rehabilitation of Cultural Heritage in Historic Towns 10 1.6 Socio-economic situation Population 2,100 people Migration Around 400 people in the last 15 years. Key sectors of Agriculture, tourism, services. local economy Education level The villages within the reserve territory are provided with enough places at all levels of education, except for the Trebujeni community, where children may only study until secondary school. The problem is with specialised education: professional and educational schools that would use local human potential and prepare it for jobs specifically for the locality, which could become a source of wealth for the area. Educational  Trebujeni kindergarten – 41 children infrastructure  Trebujeni General School – 161 pupils  Butuceni General School – 51 pupils Local and The ‘Cultural Landscape Management Plan for the years 2008-2020 Orheiul Vechi’ represents regional the practical implementation of the site strategy, being developed in accordance with the development requirements of the modern management of cultural and natural heritage. The document policy includes six basic sections: Introduction, Des-descriptions of the site, site evaluation, strategies and policies, programmes and development projects, and funding sources. The Management Plan sets out seven strategies that are formulated under twenty-four policies for protecting and promoting cultural and natural heritage, which themselves comprise sixty-four programmes to be carried out over twelve years within 213 projects. st ‘Tourism recovery plan Orhei Cultural Landscape’, approved for practical implementation on 1 January 2008. Employment 84.8% of the local workforce is engaged in agriculture, 10% in education, 1.9% in the commerce and services sector and 1.7% in public administration. 1.7 Capacity of action of the municipality Financial 2 000 000 lei resources Expense  Education – 50% structure  Community services – 15%  Assuring the functionality of local public administration – 15%  Organisation of manifestations and events – 5%  Capital investments - 15% 1.8 Supply and demand for space Offices There is a cultural house in each of the three villages in the Trebujeni commune and two libraries in Trebujeni and Butuceni. In Butuceni, there is a permanent exhibition within the headquarters of the Orheiul Vechi Museum Complex, with information and artefacts from the discoveries made in the reserve. Shops/markets There are nine mixed shop/markets in the commune. Hotels The commune has one hotel and ten agro-tourist pensions. Houses 1,112 households. 1.9 State of public services The Trebujeni and Butuceni medical offices provide healthcare services for villages within the reserve. In Trebujeni, there is a post office, a cadastral engineer and public transport provided by three operators. 1.10 Legal and institutional situation The judicial status of the Orheiul Vechi reserve is stipulated in a series of official acts and documents:  Law 251 of 04.12.2008 and Government Decision 228 of 23.03.2009 regarding the foundation of the natural- cultural reserve Orheiul Vechi.  The Museum Law of 2002.  The Law on the protection of archaeological heritage, 2011. PTF MO_04 Orheiul Vechi
  • 11. Kyiv Initiative Regional Programme - Rehabilitation of Cultural Heritage in Historic Towns 11 1.11 Cultural heritage Main features The natural-cultural reserve Orheiul Vechi has an archaic natural landscape, well-preserved fauna and flora, exceptional archaeological sites, historical and architectural diversity, traditional rural habitats and ethnographic originality. All these can be seen in archaeological sites, complex architecture of caves and medieval walls, vernacular architecture, ecclesiastical architecture, cemeteries and funerary complexes. Value The objectives of the cultural heritage monument of Orheiul Vechi are of national importance. 1.12 The contribution that the heritage can make to the quality of life and to the social and economic prosperity of the town Changes:  Mentality: to restore relations between the museum and community and the museum and the church, which will lead to changes in attitude towards the perception of the place and the role of cultural heritage in local development;  Awareness: adequate understanding of local communities and visitors of the significance of protecting the natural and cultural heritage in the Orhei Vechi complex. Benefits:  Orheiul Vechi is the beneficiary of financial resources that could be applied to research, protection, heritage conservation and restoration objectives,  Local people will get special opportunities to organise and conduct small cultural, ecological and rural tourism business to obtain new revenue and ensure decent living  The local community will convey a new national and international image, which will facilitate new opportunities for obtaining funding for regional infrastructure development and other administrative programmes, educational and cultural. Results:  Authenticity and integrity ensured natural historical heritage;  Sustainable and responsible partnerships with local public administration;  Central government, travel agencies, NGO, etc;  New museum management and infrastructure;  Improvement of the environmental situation in the microzone;  Actual policy of protection, preservation, restoration and heritage;  Concrete research programmes, protection, conservation, restoration and museum education;  Complex natural, historical and international standards;  Interest of the local population in pensions;  Thorough scientific studies on the medieval town Orheiul Vechi;  International promotion of the medieval town of Orheiul Vechi. 1.13 Challenges and opportunities Strengths  Exceptional natural landscape;  Unique cultural landscape;  Biodiversity;  Representative ecosystems;  Historical heritage of all ages;  Museum complex under the open sky;  Relevant exhibition spaces;  It is an integral part of the National Museums;  Museum complex with representative targets, favourable for scientific activities, educational, cultural and tourism;  Favourable conditions for the development of cultural tourism, scientific, environmental and agricultural.  Decent hotel accommodation and guest houses;  The existence of a stable market for the sale of services related to the sphere of tourism;  Private interest of residents in developing new business in the provision of tourism services;  Favourable location in relation to the capital city; Weaknesses  Lack of specialised scientific staff;  Lack of a continuous training system of specialised personnel and auxiliary staff;  Lack of storage conditions for museum pieces;  Lack of museum property management;  Lack of laboratories and workshops, conservation restoration;  Lack of distinctive competencies in the fields of management, research, development, PTF MO_04 Orheiul Vechi
  • 12. Kyiv Initiative Regional Programme - Rehabilitation of Cultural Heritage in Historic Towns 12 quality of service, commercial, etc;  Lack of well-established co-operation with local authorities and the district;  Lack of co-operation with the Church and the monastic community;  Insufficient community support;  Insufficient budgetary funding;  Lack of monitoring system for cultural heritage objectives;  The absence of a system for the assessment of services provided and staff performance. Opportunities  Development of new museum system;  Possibilities of integration of the Orheiul Vechi complex with the process of modernisation and computerisation;  Interest in and priority to the cultural heritage of the Orheiul Vechi national public authorities, public organisations, research institutions, environmental NGOs and the scientific and cultural environment;  Connection to the requirements of modern legislation in the field;  Integration of the Orhei complex in national educational projects;  The Orheiul Vechi complex is of special interest to international bodies and cultural heritage institutions (UNESCO, etc.). Possibilities for inclusion in the List of World Heritage sites and the integration of Orheiul Vechi in international projects for scientific, cultural, educational and natural heritage protection and historical-cultural activities.  Opportunities to join European structures and international museums;  Accelerated development of tourism in Moldova, the surge in number of tour agents. Possibility of integrating the Orheiul Vechi complex in the international tourist circuit and broaden interest in the site, given national and regional cultural tourism development and scientific and agro-ecological areas;  Expanding the network of international institutions from Chisinau and increase their interest in natural and cultural landscapes. Authentic opportunities to develop new relationships and common cultural and tourist projects. Threats  The organic catastrophe of acid rain;  Earthquakes;  Excessive heat and periodic droughts;  Turnover of research staff, poor wages;  Lack of proper living and working conditions for the museum;  Insufficient financial resources;  Lack of investment programmes for the Orheiul Vechi complex;  Lack of training or methodical documentation for certain areas;  Lack of overall vision for the future of the rural Orhei complex composition;  Lack of interest of APL in CMOV;  Illegal acquisition by the Metropolitan Church of Moldova of the Christian cave complex, their anti-scientific interventions in CMOV, damaging the condition of these monuments;  Part of the population’s failure to acknowledge the importance of measures taken to protect natural and cultural heritage objectives and the economic advantages offered by the complex historical and cultural landscape. 1.14 Participation in international co-operation (including technical support to projects) Type of project or  Sacred rock architecture in the context of South-East European civilisations: area of main International Scientific Seminar; activities (urban  List of projects is attached. rehabilitation, art/culture, transfrontier collaboration, etc.) Donors  The Soros-Moldova foundations;  US Embassy in Moldova;  UNESCO;  UNDP Moldova;  Culture Promotion Fund (UNESCO);  National Ecological Fund;  World Bank;  Youth and Sport Department of the Moldovan Government;  ANTREC;  National Agency of Employment;  Papyrus-Studio Plastic Artists Association; PTF MO_04 Orheiul Vechi
  • 13. Kyiv Initiative Regional Programme - Rehabilitation of Cultural Heritage in Historic Towns 13  Information Bureau of the Council of Europe in Moldova;  Polish Foundation for Rural Tourism;  Literatura si Arta. Partners  CCARM - The Archaeological Research Centre of the Republic of Moldova;  ULIM – Free International University of Moldova;  ANTIM – National Association of Young Historians in Moldova;  ANTREC – National Association for Ecological, Cultural and Rural Tourism;  ‘Museion’ Cultural-Scientific Association;  SEM – Society of Ethnology in Moldova;  UMP – Folk Artists’ Union;  NGO ‘Era Nova’;  AFPMDD – Women’s Association for Environment Protection and Sustainable Development;  AFSSI – Association of Women with Higher Education ‘Imperativ’;  CAC KSA:K – Contemporary Art Center KSA:K;  UAPM – Plastic Artists’ Union of Moldova;  AAPPS - Papyrus-Studio Plastic Artists Association;  ARS DOR Association. PTF MO_04 Orheiul Vechi
  • 14. Kyiv Initiative Regional Programme - Rehabilitation of Cultural Heritage in Historic Towns 14II. THEMATIC MAPS PTF MO_04 Orheiul Vechi
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