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Report by the Committee t Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development of Higher Education in Malaysia

Report by the Committee t Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development of Higher Education in Malaysia

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  • 1. ENTER
  • 2. © Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia, 2006All rights reserved. No part of this Report may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system or transmitted inany form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the priorwritten permission from the Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia, Block E3, Parcel E, Federal GovernmentAdministrative Centre, 62505 Putrajaya.Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia Cataloguing-in-Publication DataReport: the committee to study, review and make recommendations concerning the development and direction of higher education in Malaysia, Ministry of Higher Education in Malaysia : towards excellence Bibliography : p. 279 ISBN 983-3643-61-2 1.Education, Higher--Malaysia. 2.Universities and colleges-- Malaysia. 378.595Cover Design : Billion Printing Sdn. Bhd.Typesetting : Siti Nurshahidah Sah Allam Mohd Fadhel Mohd DrusTypeface : Times New RomanType Size : 12/15Printed by : Univision Press Sdn. Bhd. (Email: univisionpress@gmail.com)This is a translation of the original text entitled: Laporan Jawatankuasa Mengkaji, Menyemak dan MembuatPerakuan Tentang Perkembangan dan Hala Tuju Pendidikan Tinggi Malaysia: Langkah-langkah Ke ArahKecemerlangan. iv Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 3. CONTENTS PageDiagrams viiCharts ixTables xiAddenda xiiiMessage from the Honourable Minister xvPreface xviiAcknowledgements xxiExecutive Summary xxiiiRecommendations xxxviiPart I: IntroductionChapter 1 : Imperatives 3Chapter 2 : The Study 15Part II: Background of Higher Education in MalaysiaChapter 3 : History of the Development of Higher Education 21Chapter 4 : The National Policies and Vision 2020 27Chapter 5 : National Education Policy 31Chapter 6 : National Values 37Chapter 7 : Laws Governing Higher Education 41Part III: Empowering Institutions of Higher EducationChapter 8 : Vision and Mission of Higher Education 47Chapter 9 : Legislation and Governance 53Chapter 10 : Funding, Financial Management and Control 65Chapter 11 : Human Resources 79Chapter 12 : Quality, Competitiveness and Internationalisation 91Chapter 13 : Information & Communication Technology 107 Towards Excellence v
  • 4. Part IV: Excellence in Teaching and LearningChapter 14 : Curriculum 123Chapter 15 : Teaching and Assessment 137Part V: Excellence in Research and DevelopmentChapter 16 : Research and Development 149Part VI: Excellence in Contributing to Malaysian SocietyChapter 17 : National Unity 173Chapter 18 : Access and Equity 177Chapter 19 : The Strategic Way Forward 191Part VII: ConclusionChapter 20 : Conclusion 199AppendicesAppendix I : Committee Members 203Appendix II : Biodata of Main Committee Members 207Appendix III : List of Participants in Dialogue Sessions on National Higher Education 219Appendix IV : List of Participants in Round Table Discussions on National Higher Education 243Appendix V : List of Countries and Institutions Visited on International Benchmarking and Best Practices Study 253Appendix VI : Statistics of Malaysia’s Population, Public and Private Institutions of Higher Education 257Appendix VII : List of Institutions of Higher Education in Malaysia 259Appendix VIII : Ranking of the Top 500 Universities in the World 2004 263Appendix IX : Top 200 Universities in the World 2004 275Bibliography 279Glossary of Abbreviations and Acronyms 285vi Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 5. DIAGRAMS PageDiagram 9.1 : Relationship of Public IHE with Various Government Agencies 61Diagram 9.2 : Supervision Scheme in the Governance of Private IHE 62Diagram 13.1 : eHigher Education (eHiED) Simplified Business Architecture 119 Towards Excellence vii
  • 6. CHARTS PageChart 10.1 : Composition of Workforce with Certificate, Diploma and Degree for Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea and Australia 70Chart 10.2 : Private IHE Graduates by Levels of Certification, 2004 74Chart 16.1 : Research Intensity in Selected Countries (Percentage) 150Chart 16.2 : FTE of Researchers per 1000 Labour Force in Selected Countries 151 Towards Excellence ix
  • 7. TABLES PageTable 3.1 : Number of Non-University Level Private IHE, 2004 24Table 10.1 : Number of Public IHE Graduates by Level of Certification 66Table 10.2 : Expenditure on Higher Education by Member Countries and Partner Countries of OECD, 2001 and Malaysia, 2004 66Table 10.3 : List of Registered Professionals for 1988 and 2004 67Table 10.4 : HDI and Education Index of Selected Developed Countries and Malaysia for 2002 68Table 10.5 : Percentage of Malaysian Workforce Pursuing Degrees, Diplomas and Certificates for 1980 and 2003 69Table 10.6 : The Number of Private and Public Universities in Japan 2003 73Table 14.1 : Malaysia’s Palm Oil Industry, 2004 128Table 14.2 : Malaysia’s Maritime Assets 130Table 16.1 : Breakdown of Researchers According to Qualification (Percentage) 151Table 16.2 : Grants, Funds and Schemes for Research Promotion 152Table 16.3 : Sources of Funding for R&D in IHE 154Table 16.4 : Breakdown of Researchers in IHE 154Table 18.1 : Enrolment and Participation Rate by Cohort in Public IHE 180 Towards Excellence xi
  • 8. ADDENDA PageAddendum 1.1 : Mission and Functions of Higher Education 9Addendum 8.1 : Proposed Vision of National Higher Education 50Addendum 8.2 : Proposed Mission of National Higher Education 51Addendum 9.1 : The Power of the Board of Directors According to the Views of Legal Consultants 59Addendum 10.1 : Comparison of Percentage of Students in Higher Education between South Korea and Malaysia 71Addendum 11.1 : Proposed Higher Education Service Scheme and Academic Staff Career Pathway 88Addendum 12.1 : A Study on the Status of Malaysian Public IHE Graduates 100Addendum 16.1 : Basis for Research in Malaysia’s Human Resources Development 149Addendum 16.2 : Aspirations for R&D in the Vision Development Policy 153Addendum 16.3 : The Korean Advanced Institute of Technology, South Korea 160Addendum 16.4 : The Australian National University, Australia 161 Towards Excellence xiii
  • 9. KEMENTERIAN PENGAJIAN TINGGI MALAYSIA BLOK E3, PARCEL E PUSAT PENTADBIRAN KERAJAAN PERSEKUTUAN 62505 PUTRAJAYA Tel : 03-88835000 Faks : 03-88891327 Web : http://www.mohe.gov.my MESSAGE FROM THE HONOURABLE MINISTER OF HIGHER EDUCATIONThe Government of Malaysia is firm in its resolution to ensure the re-emergence and continuanceof excellence in higher education in the country, so that institutions of higher learning are capable ofproducing cohorts of quality human capital, who are fully competent to make outstandingcontributions to the development of the nation.In order to succeed in this endeavour, there is need for a sea change in the way we currentlymanage the higher education enterprise. We require, in the words of the Right Honourable PrimeMinister, an “education revolution”. This revolution commenced when the Ministry of HigherEducation was created and I have the honour and privilege of being the first Minister of this newMinistry.The Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning theDevelopment and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia was appointed by me so that,acting on the recommendations, the momentum of change can be maintained and even acceleratedsuch that there can be no turning back or half-measures put in place in our push for excellence.Since expediency was of the essence, the Committee, made up of selected distinguished Malaysiansunder the capable chairmanship of Tan Sri Dato’ Dr. Wan Mohd Zahid Mohd Noordin, was givena six-month deadline to complete the project.I wish to express my deepest appreciation and heartfelt gratitude to the Committee for meeting notonly the deadline but also for producing a comprehensive Report. The recommendations captureprecisely what we need to do in our quest for excellence. My Ministry will now conduct an in-depth study of this Report and explore avenues to pragmatically implement as many of therecommendations as possible, especially those which have been identified as requiring immediateaction.It is my hope that the Committee members would be able to make further contributions to thisnoble cause. Their experience and wisdom would be invaluable as the Ministry undertakes thenecessary but daunting task of bringing to fruition the thorough and painstaking work that has beenput in producing this Report.DATO’ DR. HAJI SHAFIE BIN HAJI MOHD SALLEHMinister of Higher Education Malaysia 18 July 2005 Towards Excellence xv
  • 10. PREFACET he Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning theDevelopment and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia was appointed by theMinister of Higher Education, the Honourable Dato’ Dr. Haji Shafie bin Haji Mohd Salleh, on17 January 2005. This Committee was given the mandate to study the status of highereducation in Malaysia taking into account contemporary regional and international developmentsin tertiary education. In addition, the Committee was instructed to prepare a report withrecommendations for the Ministry of Higher Education based on Terms of Reference stipulatedby the Honourable Minister. A six-month deadline was set for the completion of thisundertaking. On 18 July 2005, by the grace of God, the Committee completed its work andsubmitted this Report to the Honourable Minister of Higher Education.The scope of this study covers the core functions of higher education: teaching and learning,research and development, service to the community, life-long learning, issues related to thedemocratisation of education such as access and equity, and the commitment of these institutions,by benchmarking with international best practices to unremitting efforts to upgrade the qualityof the education that they provide. The Committee has tried its level best, given the extensivescope that this study encompasses, to avoid deviating from its mandate: the formulation ofrecommendations, based on in-depth analysis of the current situation, which are targeted toachieve the aspiration to make Malaysia an internationally acknowledged centre of excellencefor higher education.In this connection, the Committee has carried out benchmarking studies to identify internationalbest practices through visits to prestigious higher education institutions throughout the world,covering North America, Europe and Asia.This Report has adopted, as frames of reference for higher education, the perspectives of theNational Philosophy of Education, the National Vision, and policies that have the goal of Towards Excellence xvii
  • 11. developing human capital that is resilient, competitive, cultured and intellectually rigorous.These qualities will enable them to face the challenges of globalisation and contribute towardsthe attainment of national unity and the socio-economic development of the country.Based on the above-mentioned core functions and perspectives of this study, the theme ofthis Report is: Towards Excellence. There are seven parts in the Report and each parthighlights sub-themes, all of which endorse the main theme. Each part is also divided intochapters, each of which deals with a specific sub-theme followed by recommendationspertaining to that particular sub-theme.Parts I and II deal with imperatives, historical development, vision, policies, values and lawspertaining to higher education. Part III, entitled: Empowering Institutions of HigherEducation presents an analysis of the current situation of higher education in the country aswell as recommendations to empower these institutions to carry out their core functionsefficiently and deal with the challenges of competing effectively in the global arena. Part IV,entitled: Excellence in Teaching and Learning, focuses on the most basic yet foremostprecondition for any educational institution to attain excellence and international pre-eminence.In Part V, the focus of study is on Excellence in Research and Development withaccompanying recommendations. R&D is the second most vital component in higher education,a variable that qualitatively differentiates one institution of higher education from another.Directly or indirectly, IHE and society are inextricably linked, not least because of theconsiderable financial contribution made by the latter. Part VI therefore is entitled, Excellencein Contributing to the Malaysian Society. This part elaborates on this sub-theme andsuggests action to raise the quality of the contribution that higher education can make to thelocal as well as to the international community. Finally, in Part VII, the committee identifiescertain limitations and constraints to this study as well as several factors that inhibit the successfulinplementation of the recommendations that have been put forward.By and large, the Committee has avoided making recommendations which have prohibitivefinancial implications for the Government.The excellence that is loudly and persistently demanded by everyone concerned with the stateof higher education requires a strong sense of purpose together with concentrated andsustainable effort in the implementation of appropriate courses of action.In this connection, the Committee wishes to echo the sentiments expressed by a representativeof the community who attended one of the Committee’s consultative sessions: “… we have atour disposal every facility to enable us to achieve eminence. In fact, we have in the pastachieved this excellence in quality but with the passage of time this has eroded somewhat.The question before us now is: have we the resoluteness to regain our former pre-eminence?” xviii Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 12. TAN SRI DATO’ DR. WAN MOHD ZAHID BIN MOHD NOORDIN Chairman Tan Sri Dato’ Seri Prof. Emeritus Dato’ Prof. Dato’ Dr. Haji Zainul Ariff Haji Hussain Dr. Khoo Kay Kim Dr. T. Marimuthu Chairman Professor, History Department Vice PresidentBank Pembangunan Malaysia Berhad University of Malaya International Graduate Studies College Prof. Dato’ Dr. Hassan Said Prof. Dato’ Dzulkifli Abdul Razak Datuk Dr. Sulaiman Mahbob Director General Vice Chancellor President Department of IHE Management, Universiti Sains Malaysia Institute of Integrity Malaysia Ministry of Higher Education Datuk Dr. Abdul Monir Yaacob Prof. Dato’ Prof. Dato’ Mohd. Shukri Ab. Yajid, Commissioner of SUHAKAM Dr. Ibrahim Ahmad Bajunid President(Former Director General, Institute of Dean University College of Technology Islamic Understanding Malaysia) Faculty of and Management Malaysia Humanities and Social Sciences Universiti Tun Abdul Razak Prof. Datuk Mustafa MansurDr. Shaik Md. Noor Alam Shaik Mohd Hussain President Professor Federation of Malaysian Faculty of Economics and Management Manufacturers Universiti Putra Malaysia 18 July 2005 Towards Excellence xix
  • 13. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTST he Committee wishes to express its profound appreciation and gratitude to the highestechelon of leadership in the country, the Right Honourable Prime Minister, Dato’ Seri Abdullahbin Haji Ahmad Badawi, and the Right Honourable Deputy Prime Minister, Dato’ Sri Mohd.Najib bin Tun Abdul Razak, for giving us the benefit of their time and ideas. We are beholdento the Minister in the Prime Minister’s Department, the Honourable Dato’ Mustapa Mohamed,for his generous input to the Committee. We also wish to record our sincere thanks to formerPrime Minister, His Excellency Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad, former Deputy Prime Minister,His Excellency Tan Sri Musa Hitam, and former Chief Secretary, Tan Sri Dato’ Seri (Dr.)Ahmad Sarji Abdul Hamid, for their insights and advice.The Committee also takes this opportunity to record its appreciation and indebtedness tovarious institutions and renowned universities in the many countries visited as well as thenumerous agencies and individuals in these countries who generously shared information andideas which resulted in the Committee being able to collate its findings and formulate constructiverecommendations.The Committee would be remiss in its responsibility if special mention is not made to theinvaluable contributions by specific groups and institutions. The members of the WorkingCommittee especially deserve particular citation for its unswerving dedication to the task athand, working to the very end, well beyond the call of duty, to expeditiously complete thisReport.We also wish to express our appreciation and thanks to the members of the Secretariat fromthe Ministry of Higher Education as well as to the Institute of Integrity Malaysia. A special‘thank you’ is extended to Universiti Teknologi MARA for its benevolence in printing theReport and providing secretarial services. We thank also the academic staff and administratorsof the institutions of higher learning in the country, government officers, various professionals,society leaders and non-governmental organisations, student unions, women’s organisations,and all those who contributed their suggestions and opinions through the Committee’s website.Finally, the Committee wishes to record our heartfelt thanks and appreciation to the Ministerof Higher Education, the Honourable Dato’ Dr. Haji Shafie bin Haji Mohd. Salleh, whoentrusted us with this important and momentous assignment. Towards Excellence xxi
  • 14. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY1. INTRODUCTION1.1 The theme of this Report is: Towards Excellence. The Committee decided on this theme after exhaustive and in-depth deliberations of a number of substantive and valid contentions.1.2 Firstly, the Terms of Reference of this study focus on the achievement of excellence. The Committee was charged to formulate recommendations that would enable higher education in Malaysia to achieve world class status and establish the country as a regional centre of excellence in education.11.3 Secondly, the country’s leaders have consistently and resolutely reiterated the call for higher education in the country to attain world class and become a regional centre of excellence.1.4 Thirdly, the Prime Minister himself is convinced that, “…we will need nothing less than an ‘education revolution’ to ensure that our aspirations to instil a new performance culture in the public and private sectors is not crippled by our inability to nurture a new kind of human capital that is equal to the tasks and challenges ahead.”21 Refer Chapter 2, para 2.12 Extract from the speech of the Prime Minister Malaysia at The NEAC Dialogue Forum on 13 January 2004, IOIMarriott Hotel Putrajaya Towards Excellence xxiii
  • 15. Executive Summary1.5 Fourthly, feedback obtained by the Committee through dialogue and discussion sessions as well as website commentaries overwhelmingly call for positive action towards excellence in higher education.1.6 There is no question therefore, that serious attention should be paid to the concerted voices emanating from all walks of life to garner our resources to achieve excellence. In other words, the citizens of this country have clearly articulated the desire for higher education in Malaysia to be reliably depicted as excellent, pre-eminent, and world class. Their views on this matter are a strong indication of their profound dissatisfaction vis-á-vis the current state of education in this country, particularly higher education.1.7 This matter was raised in every meeting the Committee convened with various interest groups, that is, the urgency and boldness with which much needed change should be executed so that we can regain the glory and excellence we attained in the past. In this context, the Right Honourable Prime Minister himself has added his voice to the chorus of demands by calling for an education revolution to ensure that Malaysians are equal to the tasks and challenges ahead of us.1.8 There is therefore no question but that change is an absolute necessity requiring concentrated effort and the courage to implement bold measures. Some quarters, however, have expressed grave reservations concerning the work undertaken by this Committee because they have experienced half-hearted attempts to bring about change with only partial implementation of such change-driven projects. For instance, in a round-table discussion, organised by the Committee, concerning the direction of higher education in this country, one of the participants had this to say, “…If a decision has been made, we must have the political will to carry it out. We must change what needs to be changed. What we do not want to see is the fragmentary and piecemeal implementation of projects based on superficial and incomplete studies. I hope this Committee would be able to make bold and unambiguous decisions. Let this be the very last Committee to study higher education for the next ten years. We have been talking about this matter for at least 30 years.”1.9 The Committee has every confidence that this call for excellence is not mere rhetorics but reflects our authentic and sincere aspiration for institutions of higher education (IHE) in this country to quickly achieve world class status and become a regional centre of excellence. The Committee unreservedly recognises the seriousness of public expectations that IHE become highly reputable institutions. The Committee is also persuaded that there is tremendous public support for this enterprise which would be displayed through their taking some responsibility in the journey towards excellence and prestige. xxiv Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 16. Executive Summary1.10 The Committee wishes to emphasise that the analysis and recommendations put forth in this Report were informed and guided principally by such unequivocal expressions of intent and desire by the Malaysian public. It must be stressed that the call for excellence has consequences for both strategy and policy. The Committee is cognizant of the existence of affirmative initiatives for restructuring society and abolishing identification of race with economic activity and residential locations. However, in order to promote national unity and harmony, affirmative action together with other policies need to be implemented in the context of a multi-ethnic society.1.11 In this regard, the Committee acknowledges the conflict of interests that prevails between two contrasting claims. On the one hand, there is the pressure to meet the needs of historically disadvantaged groups and, on the other, the imperative for the country to push forward and become competitive internationally. The most judicious resolution is to effect progress through a modusoperandi that is balanced yet dynamic.1.12 It must be stressed that the pursuit of progress must be undertaken tirelessly and in all seriousness. The implication of this is that the country cannot wait for groups which are not yet ready before striving for excellence. If the nation ever takes this course, then this ‘levelling down’ can only result in loss and regressiveness.1.13 The best formula for this country is, in fact, a ‘levelling up’ strategy which would be consistent with the balanced and dynamic approach we advocate to achieve progress. The Committee is of the opinion that this ‘levelling up’ strategy will benefit the disadvantaged groups and simultaneously provide opportunities for all Malaysians to be involved in the pursuit of progress and excellence.1.14 ‘Levelling up’, with its twin goals of achieving excellence and catering for the disadvantaged, is precisely what this Committee advocates in bringing about the democratisation of education. This balanced and dynamic strategy will form the basis of the Committee’s recommendations relating to the curriculum for higher education.1.15 The concern to upgrade the market value of graduates has become more pressing with the increase in the number of unemployed graduates. This has resulted in more pressure from certain quarters, including intellectuals, to view education purely from a utilitarian perspective. The consequence, if this outlook prevails, would be negative, because education should not be limited to the achievement of an overly narrow and specific objective. Towards Excellence xxv
  • 17. Executive Summary1.16 Education is an enterprise that embodies a whole range of goals and objectives requiring time and focused effort. The pursuit of excellence, therefore, is a time consuming and complex endeavour. The Committee has identified two aspects which are requisites for achieving excellence. They are:3 1.16.1 The social objectives of education 1.16.2 The economic objectives of education1.17 These social and economic objectives are the main drivers of the noble goals of education, that is, the development of exemplary human beings who are balanced, knowledgeable, skilled, responsible and wise.1.18 It is not appropriate therefore, to view education solely from a utilitarian perspective because, by neglecting the moral dimension, mankind would be driven only by passion. Any society dominated by utilitarian and materialistic individuals become ineffectual because of the avarice and corruption of these individuals. One symptom of this malaise is graft or the widespread practice of bribery. The Government is currently stepping up its efforts to stamp out this malignancy, a move that further strengthens the argument for a balanced and holistic education.1.19 The Committee therefore fully endorses the National Philosophy of Education (NPE) with the goal of producing citizens who are balanced in their outlook. The Philosophy of Education is as shown below: “Education in Malaysia is an ongoing effort towards further developing the potential of individuals in a holistic and integrated manner, so as to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced and harmonious, based on a firm belief in and devotion to God. Such an effort is designed to produce Malaysian citizens who are knowledgeable and competent, who possess high moral standards, and who are responsible and capable of achieving a high level of personal wellbeing as well as being able to contribute to the betterment of the society and the nation at large.41.20 The Philosophy of Education does not compromise the aspiration to develop human capital. It is a balanced philosophy which is responsive to the utilitarian perspective and advocates the development of skills to raise the market value of human resources who have gone through the educational process. At the same time, their development is reinforced by a belief in God and the assimilation of moral values and principles.3 The Committee recognises that the objective of education is wider and more encompassing than described above.Nevertheless, it is not the intention of the Committee to discuss all these objectives.4 Education Act 1996. xxvi Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 18. Executive Summary1.21 This Committee takes the stand that the national higher education curriculum should be balanced such that graduates would be equipped with the skills and competencies required for their careers and also be true to values and moral principles.2. SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS2.1 The above fundamental considerations form the nucleus for this Committee to understand and approach the question of the direction higher education should take in this country. The Committee’s stand is that the thrust towards excellence must be in tandem with the democratisation of educational opportunities for everyone. No one should be sidelined while at the same time the nation must not deviate from the challenge of reaching out to achieve excellence and prominence in the international arena.2.2 This Committee has put forward 138 recommendations for consideration by the Government, the Ministry of Higher Education, the various institutions of higher education in the country and by the society at large. These recommendations have been grouped under five categories: 2.2.1 Excellence in teaching and learning 2.2.2 Excellence in research and development 2.2.3 Excellence in the capability of institutions of higher education (IHE) to make contributions to the economy and society 2.2.4 Excellence in the capacity of IHE to fulfil their core functions 2.2.5 Excellence in initiating the democratisation of education by ensuring access and participation of all Malaysians irrespective of race, colour or political loyalty3. EXCELLENCE IN TEACHING AND LEARNING3.1 Teaching is a core function of higher education. Mastery of the art of teaching is a pre-condition for effective pedagogy in the transmission of any given subject. It is generally accepted that exceptional teaching begets excellent institutions and outstanding lecturers produce outstanding graduates who display their excellence in meeting any challenge in life.3.2 The Committee has made recommendations to upgrade the quality of teaching and learning. The Committee has proposed that training in pedagogy and andragogy be a requirement for new lecturers taking into account that democratisation has made higher education accessible to a significantly larger number of students. Towards Excellence xxvii
  • 19. Executive Summary3.3 The democratisation of education means that higher education is no longer elitist but is open to students from a variety of background and with wide-ranging learning capabilities.This situation requires the mastery of pedagogical skills on the part of lecturers to cope with such mixed ability groups. Teaching can no longer be carried out on a trial and error basis. The Committee therefore recommends that ongoing efforts be made to upgrade the qualifications and expertise of lecturers not only in methods of teaching but also in evaluation procedures.The Committee also recommends that lecturers work closely with professionals outside universities in the development of relevant curricula and evaluation procedures. Furthermore, it is recommended that lecturers acquire work experience in the industrial and commercial sectors.4. EXCELLENCE IN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT4.1 Research and Development (R&D) is another mainstay in higher education which qualitatively differentiates a world class institution of higher education from another. Research stimulates students to discover new knowledge. It challenges, stimulates and encourages them in the pursuit of knowledge and in understanding humanity.4.2 The country’s IHE are lagging far behind in research. The post-graduate enrolment in local IHE is very small compared to that of developed nations. In Japan, for instance, post-graduates comprise 27.3 per cent of the total enrolment while in South Korea the figure is 13.1 per cent. Post-graduates in Malaysia only comprise 5.9 per cent of total enrolment in IHE.5 This cries out for urgent and bold measures to be taken by the Government to rectify the imbalance. As an initial step, the Committee has proposed that the Government identify five prominent universities in the country for conversion into research and post-graduate institutions.4.3 In this connection, the Committee has proposed that already existing public universities, which meet criteria stipulated by the Ministry of Higher Education, be converted into research, post-graduate and post-doctoral universities.5 The Committee’s analysis is based on data from the Annual Book of Statistics Malaysia 2004 and MoHE.http:/www.mohe.gov.my (30 August 2005) xxviii Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 20. Executive Summary4.4 In line with this move, the Committee has also recommended the formation of a Malaysian Research Board composed of representatives of IHE, research institutions, commercial and industrial institutions and government economic agencies. This Board would work in cooperation with the National Research and Development of Science Council to develop and strengthen research activities as landmark innovations in science, technology and the humanities as well as be models of cross- border and interdisciplinary collaborations between top-flight researchers. The Malaysian Research Board will play the role of facilitating renowned scientists and scholars from all over the world to carry out research in Malaysia jointly with their local counterparts.4.5 The Committee is of the opinion that the promotion of R&D projects should not be confined to government initiatives. State governments and other public sector boards should be actively involved by sponsoring R&D projects in IHE through the creation of Research Chairs in strategic fields such as Communications, Energy, Agriculture, Banking, and Management of Development Policies.4.6 In addition, students who have done research and produced innovative findings ought to be given encouragement through the awarding of scholarships or one-off grants. Appropriate remuneration should be accorded to students whose articles have been accepted by national, regional and international journals of repute. The same should apply for post-graduate scholars especially those involved in research which directly contributes to the development of the country and the wellbeing of the society. The Committee also supports the Government’s initiatives in sponsoring students to study overseas and recommends that post-graduate and post-doctoral sponsorships be increased.4.7 However, the Committee emphatically asserts that only post-graduate students be sent overseas and only to world renowned institutions. This means that the time has come to discontinue the practice of sending large numbers of students overseas for their first degree. Perhaps selected students can still be allowed to pursue their first degree overseas with the proviso that they gain admission to world class institutions in fields of study that are considered critical to the needs of the nation and society. We have to accept the fact that, by and large, undergraduates do not conduct substantive research and generally are not supervised by world renowned professors. Towards Excellence xxix
  • 21. Executive Summary4.8 To increase collaboration in research between disciplines, the Committee proposes that research universities be given the responsibility to initiate the setting up and activating of the following academies: 4.8.1 Academy of Science and Technology6 4.8.2 Academy of Engineering Science 4.8.3 Academy of Social Science 4.8.4 Academy of Humanities It is recommended that these four academies be integrated to form a National Scholars Academy Council. This Council can act as the sponsor and platform for intellectual inquiry as well as bring together various interdisciplinary initiatives in innovation and research.4.9 In this connection, the Committee recommends the formation of the Malaysian International Higher Education Corporation (MIHEC), to promote Malaysian research efforts internationally by prevailing on foreign researchers to carry out projects in Malaysia jointly with local researchers. It is also recommended that a Malaysian Research Data Clearing House be established as a centre for information storage and reference for local and international researchers.4.10 The Committee has found that a certain amount of overlapping in research projects has occurred in IHE. If such duplication of efforts is avoided, Government funds allocated to these institutions can be more effectively utilised. In other words, each institution should focus on its core fields and thus steer clear of staff-pinching, and implement its programmes guided by the economies of scale. Among the emerging fields that warrant attention are: 4.10.1 Biobased: biotechnology, biomedicine, bioengineering 4.10.2 Micro Technology: nanotechnology, precision engineering 4.10.3 Natural Resources: water, wind, solar energy, oil and gas 4.10.4 Social Science and Humanities: multicultural and intercultural studies 4.10.5 Interdisciplinary Science4.11 It is proper to note that autonomy and academic freedom are important prerequisites to galvanise research and development activities.Universities therefore should be given complete jurisdiction in all decisions that lead to productive and outstanding R&D outcomes.6 The Academy of Science Malaysia which has been established, should be developed into the Academy of ScienceTechnology Malaysia and promote expert collaboration to advance interdisciplinary research. xxx Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 22. Executive Summary5. EXCELLENCE IN CONTRIBUTION TOWARDS ECONOMY AND SOCIETY5.1 Institutions of higher education are critical agents of national wealth promotion and wealth creation and the overall wellbeing of society. The relationship between education and economic development is well documented. Hence, far from distancing itself from society, IHE must integrate themselves and strive to contribute in every way possible to increasing the wealth-creating capacity of the nation. The Committee recommends that IHE should be industry friendly and demonstrate this by forming strategic alliances and collaborative ventures with industries.5.2 In this regard, both IHE and industry have made proposals concerning joint ventures. The IHE have offered the industry various facilities and expertise in research to carry out R&D initiatives. At the same time, the industrial sectors have garnered funds and expertise for commercialising R&D products. The IHE too have proposed the setting up of innovation centres and intellectual property management teams to forge collaborative initiatives between the two parties. Furthermore, IHE have been responsible for the development of innovative entrepreneurs who will jointly commercialise intellectual property and research products.6. ADVANCING INSTITUTIONAL STRENGTHS6.1 The Committee has identified a number of critical aspects that must be addressed in order to position IHE to become world class and centres of educational excellence. A priority requirement is a clearly articulated vision and mission statement that IHE can refer to in working out their strategies. The Committee has taken the initiative to prepare a draft version. (Refer to Addenda 8.1 and 8.2)6.2 In the effort to strengthen IHE in the country, the Committee is strongly in favour of the universities being managed as corporate organisations and not be micro-managed by the MoHE. The Committee stands by its conviction that a corporate management style is a very important imperative that should be operationalised if the Government is earnest in promoting the efficiency and effectiveness of the universities. The Committee recommends that the Board of Directors be fully empowered to administer the universities, and that the Minister of Higher Education delegates to the Board of Directors the authority and responsibility to administer the universities, so that all operational and decision-making prerogatives are transferred from the MoHE to the universities. Towards Excellence xxxi
  • 23. Executive Summary6.3 However, it must be stated that by delegating power to the Board of Directors, the Minister does not surrender his control over IHE. Just as in any corporate entity, the power to hire and fire the Directors of the Board resides solely with the Minister of Higher Education. It should be pointed out that good corporate governance requires that the Board consult the main stakeholder, in this case the Minister, in critical matters that affect the university.6.4 The Committee believes that the above move would free the Minister from the burden of micro-managing the universities and enable him to channel his creative energies in providing leadership in policy matters and, most importantly, provide guidance so that all IHE can be steered towards achieving the National Vision.6.5 In this arrangement, the Vice Chancellor, as the chief executive officer of the institution of higher education would be directly responsible to the Board of Directors. The role of the Vice Chancellor needs to be reinforced by being given responsibility in the context of the high culture which is based on intellectual excellence. At the same time, it is important that the Vice Chancellor is apolitical in order to carry out the responsibility entrusted to him with full dedication.7. EXCELLENCE IN PROMOTING THE DEMOCRATISATION OF EDUCATION: ACCESS AND PARTICIPATION7.1 The Razak Report clearly enunciates the concept of democratisation of education with the declaration that free education should be provided for all Malaysians regardless of race, colour or creed. The preamble of the Education Act 1961 eloquently details the idea of the democratisation of education in the following manner: “And whereas it is considered desirable that regard shall be had, so far as it is compatible with that policy, with the provision of efficient instruction and with the avoidance of unreasonable public expenditure, to the general principle that pupils be educated in accordance with the wishes of their parents…”77.2 The Committee endorses the above principles of democratisation and recommends that no student who has the qualifications, and is offered a place in an institution of higher education at diploma or undergraduate level, should be denied the opportunity to follow the course of study he has been offered. In this connection it is recommended that the conditions for entry into IHE accommodate a multi-tiered system to enable students to gain entry at their convenience.7 Education Act 1961. xxxii Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 24. Executive Summary7.3 This recommendation is in line with the concept of life-long education. The pursuit of self-improvement should be an ongoing quest and a person’s opportunity to improve himself should not be hindered by entry conditions which are inflexible and standardised. The Committee is confident that this recommendation opens wide the doors of opportunity to all Malaysians who desire to improve themselves.7.4 This concept of the democratisation of education would be impaired if a student has gained the necessary qualifications but is denied entry because of limited places. The Committee therefore recommends that the Government, public boards, and the private sector cooperate and find the means to provide places to all citizens who wish to develop their potential through higher education.8. GOING FORWARD8.1 The Committee is of the opinion that a number of recommendations cry out for immediate action, not only because of their systemic and critical importance, but also because their implementation would not entail complex and time consuming logistical orchestration. These have been categorised as Priority Recommendations which will need to be implemented within 12 months of submission of this Report.8.2 The Priority Recommendations are: 8.2.1 Recommendation 17: The Committee recommends that there be a moratorium on the awarding of licences for the setting up of private IHE and this be urgently established so that all existing private IHE can be clearly assessed. 8.2.2 Recommendations 35 & 36: The Committee recommends that a Quality Control, Audit and Accreditation Agency (QCAAA) be established under an Act of Parliament. The Committee recommends that the function of the QCAAA be as follows: 8.2.2.1 Audit the quality of IHE every five years 8.2.2.2 Report the findings of the audit to Parliament 8.2.2.3 Summarise, periodically review and update the accreditation criteria for institutions 8.2.3 Recommendation 43: The Committee recommends that the University Scholars Programme be implemented as a mandatory course for all undergraduate and post-graduate students up to Masters level. Towards Excellence xxxiii
  • 25. Executive Summary 8.2.4 Recommendation 67: The Committee recommends that the Government and the private sector jointly develop and administer a post-graduate institution of higher education based on the oil palm industry to cover all aspects of the industry including planting, agronomy, oil production and advanced oil palm products. This institution could accept students from other countries which are interested to carry out research in palm oil related fields. 8.2.5 Recommendation 68: The Committee recommends that the Government and the private sector jointly work to raise the Malaysian Maritime Academy to the status of a university. It is proper that the Malaysian Maritime Institute be incorporated in the university. 8.2.6 Recommendation 69: The Committee recommends that curriculum development in polytechnics and community colleges be done in partnership with professionals from the industrial and commercial sectors with the professionals in the polytechnics and community colleges making adjustments in line with pedagogical principles. This approach may use the methods, Develop-A- Curriculum (DACUM) and Systematic Curriculum and Instructional Development (SCID), which were developed by Ohio University, USA. 8.2.7 Recommendation 72: The Committee recommends that Malay, as the National Language, be used for all official purposes. English should be used as the medium of instruction for science, mathematics and professional subjects. Other subjects should be taught in the language that is most effective in the delivery of content. At the same time, students should be encouraged to master other international languages. 8.2.8 Recommendation 75: The Committee recommends newly recruited teaching personnel and lecturers take mandatory training programmes in pedagogy and andragogy. Even professors should be encouraged to be involved in post- doctoral studies. 8.2.9 Recommendation 86: The Committee recommends the establishment of research and post-graduate universities by converting public universities which meet the criteria set by the Ministry of Higher Education, into research, post- graduate and post-doctoral universities. xxxiv Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 26. Executive Summary 8.2.10 Recommendation 95: The Committee recommends the setting up of a Malaysian Research Board in which IHE, research institutions, commercial and industrial institutions, and Government economic agencies are represented. The aim of this body is to cooperate with the National Research and Advancement of Science Council to develop and strengthen research activity as the basis for innovation in science, technology, humanities and learning through collaboration with top-flight researchers across borders. The Malaysian Research Board will enable quality scientists and scholars throughout the world to undertake research in Malaysia together with their Malaysian counterparts. 8.2.11 Recommendation 130: The Committee recommends that project MyBrain15 be structured and implemented as an activity for the development of the model national citizen. MyBrain15 should produce 100,000 Ph.D graduates in the next 15 years.9. CONCLUSION9.1 The Committee has found that higher education in Malaysia has high credibility among the Malaysian public. It also established that society has high expectations with regard to the Government’s aspirations to make higher education world class and Malaysia a centre of excellence in education. Leaders of a variety of establishments, professionals, stakeholders, renowned personalities, community leaders and academicians were consulted by the Committee. All these groups expressed their commitment, together with the Government, to respond and support the call to effect changes aimed at excellence in higher education in the country.9.2 Provided that these expressions of determination and noble intentions, combined with the resources and capabilities that are extant, are fully channelled to bring to fruition the recommendations in this Report, the Committee is confident that within the next 10 years the IHE in this country can proudly take their place with the best in the world. Towards Excellence xxxv
  • 27. RECOMMENDATIONS1. The Committee proposes that the National Philosophy of Education should be the basis of the Philosophy of Higher Education.2. The Committee proposes that the Vision and Mission of higher education in this country be drafted based on statements shown in Addendum 8.1 and Addendum 8.2.3. The Committee recommends that the laws governing higher education be reviewed and suitable changes be made to formulate an integrated Act which will cover educational institutions, including polytechnics, community colleges and all agencies related to higher education, parallel with the establishment of the Ministry of Higher Education which is responsible for the supervision and governance of the national higher education and for specific recommendations in this Report to be legislated for the purpose of implementation.4. The Committee recommends that student discipline at polytechnics and community colleges be supervised through the same method which is used for university and university college students. The Education Institution Act (Discipline) 1976, First Schedule needs to be amended accordingly.5. The Committee recommends that the University Constitution be amended so that professors can elect twenty members from among themselves to represent the University Senate.6. The Committee recommends that the Minister of Higher Education delegate his power to the Board of Directors so that the latter can play its role as the guardian of autonomy, academic excellence and accountability.7. The Committee recommends that all policies and the governance of universities be the responsibility of the Board of Directors. Towards Excellence xxxvii
  • 28. Recommendations8. The Committee recommends that the powers of the Board of Directors be widened to enable it to play its role as the guardian of autonomy.9. The Committee recommends that together with the Vice Chancellor, two others be appointed as members of the Board of Directors, one to represent the academic staff society and the other to represent the Senate.10. The Committee recommends that the Government should view higher education as a strategic investment in the development of human capital and continue to finance it.11. The Committee recommends that education funding, especially the funding of higher education should be increased to strengthen and spur the growth of higher education so as to boost the quantity and quality of human capital so that it is at par with that of developed countries.12. The Committee recommends that higher education financing should be focused on the core functions of IHE, namely: (a) to increase opportunities for Malaysians to participate in national higher education; (b) to enhance the quality of teaching and learning; (c) to upgrade the quality of research and development; (d) to increase collaboration with the local communities; (e) to diversify programmes and activities; (f) to increase national competitiveness at the global level; (g) to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of IHE governance.13. The Committee recommends that a State Government Chair be established in IHE to carry out research and development which will contribute towards enhancing the capabilities of state and local governments and the effective implementation of socio- economic and socio-cultural development programmes in the respective states.14. The Committee recommends that polytechnics and community colleges which have been established in the states be utilised to implement life-long learning and continuous education to train the workforce in various fields of specialisation.15. The Committee recommends that public bodies which have links with the Government (i.e.GLC) such as Petronas, Telekom Malaysia, Malaysian International Shipping Corporation (MISC), Tenaga Nasional and Maybank, be encouraged to set up state- of-the-art IHE if they have not already done so. These IHE are also encouraged to admit foreign students into their technical and commercial programmes.16. The Committee recommends that GLC should create Research Chairs in national universities and take the lead in research and the teaching of sectors which are of national importance such as energy, maritime, communication, banking, agriculture and plantation.xxxviii Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 29. Recommendations17. The Committee recommends with immediate effect a moratorium on the awarding of new licences for the establishment of private IHE until a thorough evaluation of all existing private IHE has been carried out.18. The Committee recommends that private IHE be continually innovative and responsive towards k-economy, produce skilled human resources relevant to global markets, create links with the international community, generate new knowledge and diversify the curricula.19. The Committee recommends that private IHE be recognised as a sector that generates economic growth while playing a role in increasing access and equity. Therefore, a comprehensive incentive scheme should be established to enhance the effectiveness of private IHE, as has been done for other sectors.20. The Committee recommends that the burden of responsibility of higher education financing should also be borne by the private sector, including the banking sector, so that within a reasonable period of time, the financial strain on the Government can be reduced. This should include loans at a reasonable interest rate to public IHE as well as to students.21. The Committee recommends that an obligatory condition for the recruitment of leaders at all levels in IHE is outstanding achievement, which is reviewed and evaluated annually based on Key Performance Indicators (KPI).22. The Committee recommends that a Higher Education Service Scheme be created for academic staff of IHE. Terms of service, promotion prospects and work ethics for academic staff are as shown in Addendum 11.1.23. The Committee recommends that in the evaluation of academic staff for promotion purposes, proper emphasis be given to the development of globally recognised corpora of indigenous knowledge and local expertise.24. The Committee recommends that the appointment of Vice Chancellors for post-graduate and undergraduate universities be carried out through advertising openly in order to obtain the best candidates. Vice Chancellors should be appointed on two-year terms and be given competitive salaries, with the proviso that their services can be renewed, extended or terminated at any time.25. The Committee recommends the creation of Key Performance Indicators as the instrument to gauge the performance of Vice Chancellors. This evaluation procedure should be included in their service contract.26. The Committee recommends that open, precise and stringent conditions be applied in the selection of professors who would be offered competitive salaries and grades. Towards Excellence xxxix
  • 30. Recommendations27. The Committee recommends that high calibre professors be given special gratuities based on academic excellence and that they should not hold executive positions.28. The Committee recommends that researchers be permitted to have joint ownership of research findings and be entitled to part of the royalties accrued through the commercialisation of patented products.29. The Committee recommends that at least 15 articles published in international refereed journals be mandatory for the appointment to the position of Professor. This condition for appointment, whether for promotion purposes or otherwise, should apply to all public and private universities.30. The Committee recommends that human resource development funds used for recruitment of staff for public IHE be handled by the institutions concerned. The principles applied for staff recruitment which should be open to all are: academic excellence, appropriate speciality, experience and positive disposition for scholarship.31. The Committee recommends that universities introduce a special Industrial Lecturer Programme to enable those in the industry to deliver lectures. Universities should award credit points to these industrial lecturers to encourage their involvement in the university and assist in the efforts to promote life-long learning.32. The Committee recommends that the post of Reader, with specific functions, as well as other senior posts, be created to increase promotion opportunities for academic staff.33. The Committee recommends that universities take full advantage of the posts of Writer/ Researcher, Guest Lecturer and Fellow to create knowledge and experience as well as enable them to share their expertise.34. The Committee recommends that recipients of the title Professor Emeritus be given proper facilities to enable them to continue contributing their expertise including acting as mentors to younger staff members.35. The Committee recommends that a Quality Control, Audit and Accreditation Agency (QCAAA) be established under an Act of Parliament.36. The Committee recommends that the function of the QCAAA be as follows: (a) Audit the quality of IHE every five years; (b) Report the findings of the audit to Parliament; (c) Summarise, periodically review and update the accreditation criteria for IHE. xl Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 31. Recommendations37. The Committee recommends that the Board of Directors of the QCAAA comprise seven members as follows: (a) five members who are respected, have high integrity, possess in-depth knowledge of higher education and are willing to be devoted and committed to the development of scholarship and higher education as a whole;* (b) Two world renowned foreign scholars;* (c) The Chief Executive of the QCAAA to act as ex-officio. *The MoHE to set up a selection committee for this purpose38. The Committee recommends that a Secretariat be set up by the MoHE for the QCAAA which is to be headed by the Chief Executive who possesses a Ph.D and will hold the position of Premier Grade ‘A’.39. The Committee recommends that every institution of higher education create and develop a Quality Indicator Instrument (IPK) to measure its own attainment of excellence.40. The Committee recommends that the MoHE develop an IPK to gather data to assess the progress of higher education.41. The Committee recommends that the MoHE encourage and support an academic ranking and rating system which is flexible, coherent and reliable in keeping with international criteria for excellence.42. The Committee recommends that Higher Education Statistics Bureau be set up with the aim of collecting and analysing a comprehensive set of data regarding higher education and to initiate the setting up of various databases for strategic use by the Government and IHE.43. The Committee recommends that the University Scholars Programme be implemented as a mandatory course for all undergraduate and post-graduate students.44. The Committee recommends that IHE take the necessary action to benefit from the evaluation of international ranking and rating bodies to strengthen further their competitiveness in the country and also strengthen their ability to become global leaders in their niche areas. Towards Excellence xli
  • 32. Recommendations45. The Committee recommends that a mechanism be put in place: (a) To build inter-institutional partnership for research and partnership projects among institutions; (b) To increase networking in the areas of business, commerce and industry which are directed towards establishing research collaboration; (c) To build and strengthen relationships with various regional and international institutions; (d) To ensure that all IHE in the country benefit from the different professional bodies and groups in the region and internationally which have the skills and knowledge in the areas of their specialisation; (e) To contribute to the regional and international community by pooling the expertise of IHE so that the country can be recognised and respected by the global community; (f) To systematically implement strategies in the regional and international arena so as to enable national IHE to establish strategic alliances easily and effectively and contribute to the development of the local community.46. The Committee recommends that initiatives to promote our IHE internationally be stepped up by preparing comprehensive short and long term action plans.47. The Committee recommends that national professional bodies endeavour to be in accord with standard professional practices of international bodies so that the professional qualifications of Malaysian IHE are recognised worldwide.48. The Committee recommends that there be incentives to encourage IHE to implement activities for promoting and marketing their programmes to other countries.49. The Committee recommends that a special fund sourced from various sectors be set up for international student and staff exchange activities.50. The Committee recommends that every institution of higher education ensure that total student enrolment is made up of at least 10 to 15 per cent of high achieving foreign students.51. The Committee recommends that a policy be formulated for an integrated eHigher Education (eHiED) environment to ensure the achievement of improved ICT capabilities and enhanced information management.52. The Committee recommends that a centralised Higher Education ICT Council be formed to champion the overall strategy and implementation of eHiED environment. This Council shall be spearheaded by the Ministry of Higher Education and is to be the highest ICT strategic body for the nation’s higher education. xlii Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 33. Recommendations53. The Committee recommends that applications for Open Source Solution (OSS) be adopted in the management and development efforts in MoHE, public universities, polytechnics and community colleges to realise the potential economic and practical benefits of open source models.54. The Committee recommends that secure networks be further developed using Gigabyte Ethernet and wireless technology for MoHE, public universities, polytechnics and community colleges in order to improve connectivity among students, faculty and administrators within eHiED.55. The Committee recommends that ICT Shared Service Centres be implemented for all public universities, polytechnics and community colleges. For example, it is proposed that MoHE implement single Shared Service Centre (SSC) for the northern region of Peninsular Malaysia to serve USM, UUM, polytechnics and community colleges.56. The Committee recommends that all public universities, polytechnics and community colleges within eHiED environment implement Data Recovery Centres by leveraging on the services from eHiED ICT Shared Service Centres.57. The Committee recommends that e-learning content development by experts be significantly increased. Incentive-based rewards be drawn up and implemented to promote interests in e-learning content development for public universities, polytechnics and community colleges.58. The Committee recommends that the National Library be the central digital repository for e-journals, e-periodicals, e-books, etc. for use by all stakeholders in private and public universities, private colleges, polytechnics and community colleges.59. The Committee recommends that an integrated Knowledge Management (KM) capability be developed for all public universities, polytechnics and community colleges paving the way for these institutions to implement efficient cross-institution sharing of knowledge and collaboration.60. The Committee recommends that the Ministry of Higher Education be given access to analyse and consolidate real time data from public universities, polytechnics and community colleges through the employment of integrated Executive Information System (EIS), Data Warehouse (DW) and Enterprise Integration (EI).61. The Committee recommends that each institution in eHiED employ an integrated Campus Management System (CMS) to manage student affairs, curricula, library, financials, assets, facilities and human resources.62. The Committee recommends that IHE adopt a standardised smart card system. In order to facilitate this, the MoHE should establish a central Smart Card Centre (SCC) to manage end-to-end process of personalisation and production of the smart cards for IHE. Towards Excellence xliii
  • 34. Recommendations63. The Committee recommends that the higher education curriculum in the country be drafted and implemented in order to: (a) Develop human resources who can think critically, are able to present their ideas to society and translate and manage these ideas innovatively to benefit themselves as well as society; (b) Develop human resources who are able to comprehend issues in the context of societal realities; (c) Develop human resources who are literate not only in reading, writing and mathematics but also in IT. They should acquire the skills of organising, synthesising, analysing and using knowledge to solve newly emerging problems in society; (d) Develop human resources who are creative, innovative, risk takers, willing individuals and team players, and who have the zest for entrepreneurial commitment; (e) Develop professionals with managerial skills; (f) Develop professionals who are life-long learners.64. The Committee recommends that IHE continually review and update the curriculum and incorporate current developments.65. The Committee recommends that representatives from the corporate and industrial sectors be involved in the curriculum development process especially for the professional and science-based disciplines. They should also be involved in teaching and research.66. The Committee recommends that internships be made mandatory for a minimum period of six months for undergraduates in science and technology, students in pre-diploma, vocational and technical courses, and other disciplines that require practicum.67. The Committee recommends that the Government and private sector jointly develop and administer a post-graduate institution of higher education based on the palm oil industry to cover all aspects of the industry including planting, agronomy, oil production and advanced palm oil products. This institution could function as a centre of excellence and could accept students from other countries who are interested to carry out research in palm oil-related fields.68. The Committee recommends that the Government and private sector jointly work to raise the Malaysian Maritime Academy to the status of a university. It is proper that the Malaysian Maritime Institute be incorporated as part of the university. xliv Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 35. Recommendations69. The Committee recommends that curriculum development in polytechnics and community colleges be carried out in partnership with professionals from the industrial and commercial sectors, with the professionals in the polytechnics and community colleges making adjustments in line with pedagogical principles. This approach may use the methods, Develop-A-Curriculum (DACUM) and Systematic Curriculum and Instructional Development (SCID), developed by Ohio University, USA.70. The Committee recommends that Islam Hadhari be included in Islamic and Asian Civilisation Course which should be a compulsory subject in the higher education curriculum.71. The Committee recommends that the curriculum in higher education include components on integrity and good character, as well as work and business ethics in corporate management so that the workforce can understand, act on and internalise noble life values and practise accountability as part of their work and business culture.72. The Committee recommends that Malay, as the National Language, be used for all official purposes. English should be used as the medium of instruction for science, mathematics and professional subjects. Other subjects should be taught in the language that is most effective in the delivery of content. At the same time, students should be encouraged to master other international languages.73. The Committee recommends that IHE upgrade their capacity to offer the study of international languages.74 The Committee recommends that each student should master at least two international languages in addition to the Malay language.75. The Committee recommends newly recruited teaching personnel and lecturers take mandatory training programmes in pedagogy and andragogy. Even professors should be encouraged to be involved in post-doctoral studies.76. The Committee recommends that IHE create procedures which encourage new lecturers to refer to and have ongoing discussions with experienced lecturers and professors in order to upgrade their professionalism in teaching-learning activities.77. The Committee recommends that all IHE prepare long-term plans to raise the professionalism of their staff, create suitable awards and give appropriate salaries.78. The Committee recommends that a mentor-mentee system be created to provide opportunities for intellectual and socio-emotional counselling to students in the higher education system. The residential system in teaching and learning should be fully utilised for the attainment of authentic, individual, intellectual and scholarly personalities. Towards Excellence xlv
  • 36. Recommendations79. The Committee recommends that a mechanism be devised for channelling funds to enable higher education lecturers to upgrade their competencies in teaching, research and service to society as well as sharpen their intellectual skills through cooperative interaction with their colleagues in the same discipline, both local and overseas.80. The Committee recommends that without prejudice to the assumptions, approaches, methods and techniques already in use, higher education lecturers should be encouraged to explore approaches in teaching-learning that are based on constructivism.81. The Committee recommends that leaders in IHE be committed in bringing about innovations in philosophy, policy, teaching-learning practices and assessment as the pillars in creating excellent and prestigious IHE.82. The Committee recommends that all staff members of IHE be given ongoing training to acquire skills in ICT and that they utilise this in teaching-learning, assessment, research and administration.83. The Committee recommends that all IHE take steps to ensure that all students master ICT and other skills relevant to the digital era.84. The Committee recommends that all IHE give serious attention to academic assessment and ensure that all lecturers be given ongoing training to master assessment skills.85. The Committee recommends that the following principles for the funding of higher education research and research training be adopted: (a) The Principles of Excellence. The allocation of public funds should focus on the achievement of world class research and research training to ensure that Malaysian universities develop and maintain high quality and innovative research which is respected in a global context; (b) The Principles of Institutional Autonomy and Responsiveness. Institutions should have the autonomy to determine how they function and contribute to the generation, storage, dissemination, transmission, and application of knowledge; (c) The Principles of Linkages and Collaboration. A policy should be formulated to encourage and reward the development of an entrepreneurial culture in which researchers and the various institutions collaborate among themselves and across the world with other players in the research and innovation system. Universities should have policies and structures in place to facilitate the commercialisation of discoveries and encourage the development of technopreneurs; (d) The Principles of Contestability, Simplicity and Accountability. The process for allocating funds for research and research training should be competitive in nature, simple to administer, and be readily intelligible to researchers, institutions, students and the wider community. All funding allocation decisions should be free from conflicts of interest. xlvi Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 37. Recommendations86. The Committee recommends the establishment of research and post-graduate universities by converting public universities, which meet the criteria set by the Ministry of Higher Education, into research, post-graduate and post-doctoral universities.87. The Committee recommends that each university concentrate on a different R&D focus and that each field selected be in a cutting edge area, for instance: (a) Biobased: biotechnology, biomedicine and bioengineering; (b) Microtechnology: nanotechnology, and precision engineering; (c) Natural Resources: water, wind, solar energy, oil and gas; (d) Social Science and Humanities: multicultural and intercultural studies.88. The Committee recommends that research and post-graduate universities be given responsibility and the means to implement Project MyBrain15.89. The Committee recommends that research and post-graduate universities be given the responsibility to take the lead in founding and activating the following Academies: Academy of Science and Technology, Academy of Engineering Science, and Academy of Social Science and Humanities. These Academies should be grouped under the National Scholars Academy Council which would focus on producing and advancing knowledge in all fields and bringing together these disciplines through research and the application of knowledge.90. The Committee recommends that IHE provide opportunities to enable industries to implement R&D activities in universities while ensuring that the industries provide the funds and market expertise to commercialise the products of the joint R&D projects.91. The Committee recommends that all IHE establish innovation centres, intellectual property management centres and technology licencing offices to increase links and cooperation with the industry while at the same time encouraging entrepreneurs to commercialise innovations from the intellectual property obtained through research.92. The Committee recommends that universities formalise efforts to involve the industry to participate in their research activities through collaborative research programmes.93. The Committee recommends that IHE initiate joint projects with internationally renowned research and industrial centres so as to enhance their R&D capability, make possible technology transfer, and provide publicity to their research products in international markets. Towards Excellence xlvii
  • 38. Recommendations94. The Committee recommends the formation of an International Higher Education Board to elevate R&D to world standard in the field of Science and Technology thereby promoting the country’s higher education internationally. This Board will be an autonomous body and will be made up of representatives of the Government and IHE. The Board’s mission will be to: (a) Enable post-graduate and post-doctoral students become scholars in relevant fields of knowledge and thus raise Malaysia’s competitive capability; (b) Enable post-graduates from all over the world to become scholars and partners with Malaysia in priority areas of knowledge; (c) Enable scholars in Malaysia to play the role of leaders and pioneers in the academic and research world by strengthening international and intercultural ties; (d) Promote efforts to internationalise higher education in the country by making IHE more attractive to post-graduates and researchers from all over the world.95. The Committee recommends the setting up of a Malaysian Research Board in which IHE, research institutions, commercial and industrial institutions, and government economic agencies are represented. The aim of this body is to cooperate with the National Research and Advancement of Science Council to develop and strengthen research activity as the basis of innovation in science, technology, humanities and learning through collaboration with world class international researchers. This Malaysian Research Board will provide opportunities for renowned scientists and scholars throughout the world to undertake quality research in Malaysia together with their Malaysian counterparts.96. The Committee further recommends that the Malaysian Research Board be given the responsibility to: (a) Act as secretariat to coordinate and organise research projects; (b) Stimulate multidisciplinary research between universities that contributes to the socio-economic development of the country; (c) Consolidate financial resources to sponsor autonomous and independent research work; (d) Act as consultant managers for research contracts, patent ownership, copyright licencing, publishing rights, and the commercialisation of intellectual property on behalf of institutions, industry and researchers. xlviii Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 39. Recommendations97. The Committee recommends that the following principles be the fundamental operational guidelines for the Malaysian Research Board: (a) Encourage excellent achievement; (b) Sponsor outstanding personalities in addition to projects; (c) Be autonomous and independent in management; (d) Be neutral and not be purely commercial; (e) Encourage innovation, freedom, truth, tolerance, flexibility and individuality; (f) Maintain cooperative links on a sustainable basis; (g) Identify new challenges and formulate innovative problem-solving strategies especially through cooperative initiatives.98. The Committee recommends a Malaysian Research Information Base be established to compile national research data to provide strong support and up-to-date information in the management of universal and indigenous knowledge in order to be an effective source of reference for academicians, researchers as well as for the local and international communities.99. The Committee recommends that IHE frame an intellectual property policy for themselves to encourage registration of patents of discoveries and inventions resulting from R&D and subsequent developments of innovative products.100. The Committee recommends R&D facilities in eHiED be linked to Malaysian Research and Education Network (MYREN).101. The Committee recommends that the efforts to instil national unity be continued and extended to higher education.102. The Committee recommends that a course of study which focuses on inter-cultural and intra-cultural studies be introduced and undertaken by all students, the teaching- learning of which should be through discussion and participation.103. The Committee recommends that IHE students participate in compulsory community work and that these activities be given credit points.104. The Committee recommends that the Government create greater opportunities including proper infrastructure throughout the country so that every citizen will be given maximum opportunity to take advantage of the life-long learning facilities provided.105. The Committee recommends that community colleges utilise the facilities of the existing educational infrastructure and its resources.106. The Committee recommends that both the public and private sectors set up facilities to create a learning organisation so that their employees are able to upgrade their skills and be motivated to continue learning. Towards Excellence xlix
  • 40. Recommendations107. The Committee recommends that no eligible student who has been offered a seat at an institution of higher education at diploma or undergraduate level be denied the opportunity to learn because of financial difficulties.108. The Committee recommends that efforts be made to upgrade the quality of private IHE through collaboration with public IHE so that facilities and expertise in teaching- learning can be shared.109. The Committee recommends that to achieve the target set by the Education Development Plan 2001-2010 especially for higher education, various strategies should be employed, for example increasing distance-learning and e-learning programmes, and upgrading the quality of private IHE.110. The Committee recommends that matriculation programmes be continued and expanded.111. The Committee recommends that there be more avenues for entry and access to degree courses, for example, by increasing the intake of diploma holders and by giving due recognition to work experience.112. The Committee recommends that the Government provides adequate financial allocation to those institutions which accept the democratisation of higher education policy and which have the mechanism to provide greater opportunities for indigenous students, rural students, students from low socio-economic backgrounds and students who are physically, socially and mentally challenged.113. The Committee recommends that the Government extend financial allocation to IHE for the purpose of providing the necessary support and infrastructure facilities to students who are physically, socially and mentally challenged.114. The Committee recommends that the Government provide opportunities for students who are physically challenged to obtain a second or post-graduate degree so as to enable them to have added advantages in the job market.115. The Committee recommends that students who are physically challenged and who are knowledgeable and possess the appropriate skills be given opportunities to be employed at IHE in areas like research and other suitable fields.116. The Committee recommends that affirmative action in education be maintained.117. The Committee recommends that the Government take initiatives to strengthen the less established private IHE. l Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 41. Recommendations118. The Committee recommends that sponsorship should be multi-tiered so that those who are unsuccessful in fulfilling the minimum requirement for obtaining sponsorship at SPM level, may still have the opportunity to obtain sponsorship at post-SPM, professional certificate and diploma levels.119. The Committee recommends that the definition of study fees be extended to include fees and expenses for lectures, examinations, research activities, and other fees for case studies, field work, library, laboratory, publications, workshops, use of ICT, seminars, talks, intellectual discourse and sourcing for other intellectual resources.120. The Committee recommends that a reward mechanism in the form of a one-off payment be given to higher education students for discoveries, innovations and inventions through their inter-discipline or intra-discipline research. This should include articles published in professional national, regional or international journals.121. The Committee recommends that a fund be set up to sponsor graduates to undertake professional courses in their areas of study.122. The Committee recommends that there should be a concession in the repayment of loans based on achievement in fields of study, other than those stated in the sponsorship agreement, for research findings, discoveries, innovations, inventions, publications in national, regional or international professional journals, and for proficiency in a language other than the mother tongue, the National Language and English.123. The Committee recommends that sponsorship of post-graduate programmes be maintained with priority given to research-based post-graduate programmes which are related to the core business of the institution or which contribute to national development.124. The Committee recommends that sponsorship of post-graduate programme focus on research which can be commercialised to generate revenue for the university, while at the same time enrich the knowledge treasure trough of the university concerned or research findings which produce inventions that can be marketed.125. The Committee recommends that a special fund be set up to sponsor graduates who undertake research-based post-graduate programmes.126. The Committee recommends that additional sponsorship be given to students who undergo a double-degree programme.127. The Committee recommends that sponsorship be given to students who embark on distance-learning programmes in higher education.128. The Committee recommends that a sponsorship mechanism be instituted to encourage life-long education. Towards Excellence li
  • 42. Recommendations129. The Committee recommends that a special fund be set up to attract and sponsor excellent international students, especially at post-graduate level, to study and conduct research which is based on the strengths and needs of the country so that the benefits derived can be utilised by the university, Malaysian society and the international community.130. The Committee recommends that MyBrain15 be designed and implemented for the development of national human capital. It should be planned and implemented towards producing 100,000 Ph.D graduates within the next 15 years.131. The Committee recommends that the MoHE and the MoE jointly implement and ensure the success of MyBrain15.132. The Committee recommends that a foreign world class reputed university with an outstanding team be identified to act as mentor to an institution of higher education in Malaysia.133. The Committee recommends that an institution of higher education which fulfils stringent quality conditions of a mentor institution be identified to undertake the responsibility of becoming an incubator of excellence in research.134. The Committee recommends that an eminent individual who epitomises high culture be identified and appointed to lead the mentee institution.135. The Committee recommends that policies and programmes to stimulate and encourage the development of high culture be formulated and implemented for national higher education.136. The Committee recommends that stringent Key Performance Indicators which are to be included in the contractual terms of employment, become the basis for the selection and appointment of leaders of mentee institutions.137. The Committee recommends that the practice of sending undergraduates overseas be reviewed. It is probable that only a small number need to be sent overseas to excellent and highly ranked universities to pursue courses in selected disciplines which are critical to national development.138. The Committee recommends that a programme be set up to deal with the process of sending post-graduates to wellknown international universities and research institutions. lii Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 43. Part IINTRODUCTIONPart I presents the imperativeswhich form the basis of this study,the terms of reference,methodology and scope of study,and the approach adopted inpreparing this Report.
  • 44. Chapter 1 Imperatives Chapter 1 IMPERATIVES1.1 BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE1.1.1 We live and work in a world that is rapidly changing: changes in technology, values, culture, world view, and in the way we compete and use human resources. Such rapid changes demand equally expeditious responses if we are serious about getting ahead and maintaining this lead. We not only need to react with greater speed but also acquire a proactive attitude.1.1.2 Nevertheless, the mind and soul of mankind are often shackled and hampered by obsolete paradigms which cause mankind, either individually or in groups, to become enervated and diffident. As a result, we experience difficulty in adapting ourselves to these changes and inevitably fall behind.1.1.3 The most effective formula to thaw resistance and foil retrogressive thinking and attitudes in any society is education. This fact has been acknowledged in every civilisation since time immemorial. Since education – the system, institutions, content and personnel - at present operates in the context of the 21st century, the hallmark of which is rapid change, action to face up to these changes is extremely critical and urgent. Education that is rigid and outmoded will certainly not produce people with the flexibility to break through rigidity and obsolescence. Moreover, if changes in education occur at a sluggish pace, undoubtedly the system will continue to lag behind. The consequences of this procrastination will be apparent in the cohort of students produced by educational institutions that are antiquated, with disastrous consequences for the nation. Towards Excellence 3
  • 45. Part I Introduction1.1.4 Aware of the rapid pace of change and the revolution that is a consequence of it, the Prime Minister, the Right Honourable Dato’ Seri Abdullah bin Haji Ahmad Badawi, declared: “However, what we now have to ask ourselves is whether the quality of our education system has moved in tandem with its growth in quantity; whether the younger generation passing through our national education system is adequately equipped to thrive in an increasingly global and competitive environment. I believe we will need nothing less than an ‘education revolution’ to ensure that our aspirations to instil a new performance culture in the public and private sectors are not crippled by our inability to nurture a new kind of human capital that is equal to the tasks and challenges ahead.”11.1.5 To put into effect this pronouncement, the Prime Minister took the initial step of restructuring the Ministry of Education into the Ministry of Education (MoE) and the Ministry of Higher Education (MoHE). This move is proof of the determination of the Government to act to upgrade the capability of the education system to produce human capital of high quality, capable of competing and persevering in the international arena.1.1.6 The establishment of MoHE is also a clear indication that the higher education sector is to be the cynosure of the Government’s initiatives in education and will be given the responsibility, encouragement and direction to fulfil the aspiration to make Malaysia a centre of excellence for education. Therefore, the appointment of this Committee by the Minister of Higher Education to study, review and make recommendations concerning the development and direction of higher education in the country is one more step in the context of the educational revolution initiated by the Prime Minister himself.1 Extract from the Malaysian Prime Minister’s speech at The NEAC Dialogue Forum on 13 January 2004, IOIMarriott Hotel, Putrajaya.Source: Website of The Malaysian Prime Minister’s Department : http://www.pmo.gov.my (16 August 2005) 4 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 46. Chapter 1 Imperatives1.1.7 In this connection, it is clear that a number of pressing imperatives have emerged that call for a review and study of higher education to be carried out, followed by the formulation of action plans for change. The Committee has therefore identified the following imperatives which serve as stimuli for change:1.1.7.1 Internal Imperatives: 1.1.7.1.1 The aspiration to become a centre of excellence for education 1.1.7.1.2 The purpose of education 1.1.7.1.3 The role of moral education 1.1.7.1.4 Access and equity 1.1.7.1.5 The exponential demand for higher education 1.1.7.1.6 Producing employable graduates 1.1.7.1.7 The medium of instruction issue1.1.7.2 External Imperatives: 1.1.7.2.1 Globalisation and international links 1.1.7.2.2 The IT Revolution 1.1.7.2.3 The New World Order1.2 ASPIRATION TO BECOME A CENTRE OF EXCELLENCE FOR EDUCATION1.2.1 The creation of MoHE is a critically significant structural change that is decisive for the effort to make Malaysia a centre of excellence for education. The Ministry provides the leadership and stimulus to everyone involved in higher education so that this vital aspiration can be accomplished. The major responsibilities of the MoHE are to provide administrative leadership, enforce regulations and policies, facilitate and oversee implementation, evaluate achievement, and support and assist without curtailing freedom, curbing creativity and hampering the productivity of the institutions of higher education (IHE).1.2.2 The Committee is of the opinion that the move to make Malaysia a centre of excellence for education requires: 1.2.2.1 an overseeing body that implements policy, encourages initiative and insists on action that raises the reputation of the higher education system as a whole. Such an overseeing body has already been put in place by the leader of the Government with the creation of the Ministry of Higher Education. All that remains is to systematically develop this Ministry so that it can play its rightful role in nurturing excellence in education; Towards Excellence 5
  • 47. Part I Introduction 1.2.2.2 the recruitment of leaders, professors, lecturers and academic staff based on their demonstrated ability to raise standards of academic excellence. The search for such key people should be open world- wide so that the best can be recruited; 1.2.2.3 internationally accepted standards of academic achievement in all courses offered by institutions of higher learning; 1.2.2.4 specialisation by specifically selected institutions in specific areas of academic study and research which have relevance for current development and anticipated needs. In this way, these institutions can concentrate on their strengths so that they can emerge as premier institutions in these selected fields, recognised and respected internationally.1.3 THE PURPOSE OF EDUCATION1.3.1 Two contrasting views on the purpose of education have influenced the formulation of policy concerning the goals of education.The first view is that the purpose of education should be mainly utilitarian while the second emphasises the role of education in human development and knowledge acquisition.The tension between these two views has become more pronounced with the rise in the number of unemployed graduates in the country.1.3.2 This situation has strengthened the utilitarian position that the goal of higher education is to produce technocrats, bureaucrats, scientists, economists and other highly skilled professionals who are very much sought after in the labour market. This work force will have the capability to contribute towards the economic, industrial and trade development of the country.1.3.3 However, the humanists hold the view that education is not necessarily connected to providing specialist skills for employment, or training workers in industry or fulfilling the demands of the economy. The goal of education, according to the humanists, is the physical, intellectual, social, emotional and spiritual development of individuals who are life-long learners, who are value driven and who strive for unity and national integration.1.3.4 The Committee is of the opinion that both these points of view are relevant and important and need to be integrated in the effort to raise the quality of higher education in this country. 6 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 48. Chapter 1 Imperatives1.4 THE ROLE OF MORAL EDUCATION1.4.1 There are certain quarters, both abroad and in Malaysia, who feel that tertiary education should not be concerned with the spiritual and moral development of young adults. This is based on the rationale that the school system adequately caters for this development, thus enabling the tertiary institutions to concentrate solely on the transmission of knowledge, skills and expertise.1.4.2 On the other hand, there is growing awareness that a lack of moral sensitivity has led to increasing white collar crimes and corporate scandals in the USA, Europe and Asia including Malaysia. The Committee is therefore of the opinion that values education at school level, pitched at the age and maturity level of young children and adolescents, is not adequate to guide young adult undergraduates who have, on leaving the university, to deal with real life situations which require moral discernment and ethical sensitivity.1.4.3 A very strong case can be made to provide opportunities for young adults to explore value orientations that address issues which are crucial in this day and age. Issues such as governing justly, freedom, pursuit of knowledge on a life-long basis, economic equity issues, rights of women, the minorities and the underprivileged, and protecting and nurturing the environment, all have moral and ethical dimensions that many religions are beginning to focus attention on. At tertiary level these values are vitally important and pertinent issues not only to develop the maturity of undergraduates but also relevant to their lives after they graduate.1.4.4 Concern for these issues as well as the crisis of the modern age has led the Prime Minister of Malaysia to put forward the concept of Islam Hadhari for every aspect and level of society. The Prime Minister stressed, “Islam Hadhari is made up of pure and exalted principles and policies that are accepted by all members of society, irrespective of gender, ethnicity, religion or culture.”21.4.5 In the light of the above, it is incumbent on the Committee to take this into account in formulating and making recommendations aimed at creating a system of higher education of the highest quality.2 Extract from the text of a speech by the Malaysian Prime Minister delivered at Westin Hotel, Kuala Lumpurin conjunction with the Annual Lecture Series of the Women’s Institute of Management on 15 January 2005http://www.pmo.gov.my (12 June 2005) Towards Excellence 7
  • 49. Part I Introduction1.5 ACCESS AND EQUITY1.5.1 While the general rule is that access to tertiary education should be open to all who desire to acquire information and knowledge and improve their quality of life, the actual situation differs.3 This is because demand far exceeds capacity and the universities are unable to provide places for all eligible students. In the context of a plural and complex Malaysian society, separated by economic and cultural divisions, affirmative action has resulted in unequal opportunities to obtain higher education.1.5.2 Affirmative action, a policy formulated during independence and enforced under Article 153 of the Malaysian Constitution and further refined after the May 13 1969 incident in the form of the New Economic Policy, was designed to eradicate poverty and restructure society to eliminate the identification of race with occupation and locality.4 It also reflected a desire for national unity and integration. As part of the affirmative policy, the limited places at the national universities have been made available on the basis of a racial quota. However, this quota is difficult to meet, and access to tertiary education remains limited.1.5.3 Therefore, the issue of access and equity is an important imperative in the preparation of this report.3 Article 3: “Equity of Access” in “World Declaration On Higher Education For The Twenty-First Century: Visionand Action”, UNESCO’s World Conference On Higher Education, 9 October 1998, Paris. Paris: UNESCO, 1998.http://www.unuesco.org/education/educprog/wche/declaration_eng.htm#world declaration (22 May 2005).4 Refer Chapter 4: New Economic Policy (Paragraph 4.4.1) 8 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 50. Chapter 1 Imperatives Addendum 1.1: Mission and Functions of Higher Education MISSION AND FUNCTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION Article 1 – Mission to educate, to train and to undertake researchWe affirm that the core missions and values of higher education, in particular the mission tocontribute to the sustainable development and improvement of society as a whole, should bepreserved, reinforced and further expanded, namely, to:(a) educate highly qualified graduates and responsible citizens able to meet the needs of all sectors of human activity, by offering relevant qualifications, including professional training, which combine high-level knowledge and skills, using courses and content continually tailored to the present and future needs of society;(b) provide opportunities (espace auvert) for higher learning and for learning throughout life, giving to learners an optimal range of choice and flexibility of entry and exit points within the system, as well as an opportunity for individual development and social mobility in order to educate for citizenship and for active participation in society, with a worldwide vision, for endogenous capacity building, and for the consolidation of human rights, sustainable development, democracy and peace, in the context of justice;(c) advance, create and disseminate through research and provide, as part of its service to the community, relevant expertise to assist societies in cultural, social and economic development, promoting and developing scientific and technological research as well as research in the social sciences, the humanities and the creative arts;(d) help understand, interpret, preserve, enhance, promote and disseminate national and regional, international and historic cultures, in the context of cultural pluralism and diversity;(e) help protect and enhance societal values by training young people in the values which form the basis of democratic citizenship and by providing critical and detached perspectives to assist in the discussion of strategic options and the reinforcement of humanistic perspectives;(g) contribute to the development and improvement of education at all levels, including through the training of teachers.Source: “World Declaration on Higher Education For the Twenty–First Century: Vision and Action” inthe UNESCO’s World Conference on Higher Education, 9 October 1998, Paris.http:/www,unesco.org/education/eduprog/wche/declaration-eng.htm@#world declaration (22 May2005) Towards Excellence 9
  • 51. Part I Introduction1.6 THE EXPONENTIAL DEMAND FOR HIGHER EDUCATION1.6.1 The demand for higher education continues to rise, not only in Malaysia, but also throughout the world. With the improvement in the quality of education at school level, the achievement levels of students have also risen, resulting in more school leavers obtaining qualifications to participate in higher education. Furthermore, with further education at post-SPM (Malaysian Certificate of Education) and post- STPM (Malaysian Higher Certificate of Education) levels, the rise in quality has resulted in many more youths qualified to continue their studies in institutions of higher education. The lure of higher education is strengthened by the awareness that investing in higher education results in better opportunities which are sustainable on a life-long basis. This has resulted in the demand for places in higher education not only from young school leavers, but also adults from every age group.1.6.2 The rising demand for higher education necessitates higher expenditure to meet this demand. According to the Strategic Plan for National Higher Education, by 2010, 1.6 million places in IHE need to be made available in order to achieve the target of 40 per cent of students from ages 17 to 23 gaining entry into higher education.5 This expenditure would escalate if these students are sent overseas.1.6.3 The high demand for tertiary education has stimulated the growth of private IHE owned by local entrepreneurs and branch campuses of overseas universities. The Committee accepts the fact that private IHE have assisted in the Government’s efforts to meet the demand for higher education in the country as well as contributed in producing high quality human resources. However, the Committee has found that there are issues relating to the quality of education provided that can affect the reputation of the country and hamper the progress towards becoming a centre of excellence for education.1.6.4 The Committee will take into account the issue of demand and availability in the national higher education sector and other issues related to this in the preparation of this Report.1.7 PRODUCING EMPLOYABLE GRADUATES1.7.1 While recently published statistics of unemployed graduates is disputable and has become controversial, the Committee has noted that there is no doubt that the number of graduates failing to find suitable employment is a cause for concern.5 Ministry of Education, Education Development 2001-2010, Kuala Lumpur: 2001. 10 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 52. Chapter 1 Imperatives1.7.2 After spending three to four years in tertiary institutions, many are unable to meet the expectations of would-be employers in the corporate world. Lack of communication skills in the English language, inadequate knowledge and information, aptitude, negative attitude and a general lack of confidence have all been cited as reasons for the failure of graduates to find suitable employment.1.7.3 The Committee is of the opinion, from any point of view, a significant level of unemployment is highly undesirable and the Government is fully aware that it has not only economic but also social and political consequences as well. The Committee cannot but agree that there exists some inefficiency or weakness in the education system which has contributed to the inability of these graduates, who have successfully completed their course work, to find suitable employment and make successful transitions into the workforce.1.7.4 Therefore, the Committee feels that there is a strong need to examine the school system, tertiary education, the curriculum, and the teaching-learning methodology to find ways to address this issue.1.8 THE MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION1.8.1 Malay has been accepted as the National Language and is enshrined in Article 152 of the Constitution of Malaysia. Prior to independence the proposal to make Malay the medium of instruction in the education system was discussed. The Razak Committee of 1956 recommended clearly that the Malay language should be the language of instruction in school.6 However, it was only in 1970 that a policy was pronounced that the Malay language would become the language of instruction at secondary and tertiary levels of education. The conversion from the English language to the Malay language was done gradually in stages. It took 14 years for the whole system of education to become fully national. It should be noted that the implementation of the policy was confined strictly to Peninsular Malaysia. Sarawak and Sabah adopted the policy some years later.76 Razak Education Report 1956.7 The Malay Language, as the medium of instruction, from school level to university was fully enforced in 1983. Towards Excellence 11
  • 53. Part I Introduction1.8.2 The Committee has found that currently, while the Malay language is the medium of instruction at the school level, it is not the case at the tertiary level of education. At the tertiary level, two distinct arrangements have been in force for over a decade. All public IHE, with the exception of Institut Teknologi MARA and International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), use the Malay language as the medium of instruction, while most private IHE use the English language as the medium of instruction. Although Section 41 (1) of the Private Higher Educational Institutions Act 1996 confirms that all private IHE should conduct their courses in the Malay language, Section 41 (3) gives authority to the Minister of Education to permit private IHE to run any course of study, or a substantial part of a course of study, in English. The Minister therefore has exercised this power and permitted English to be used as the medium of instruction. As a result of such exemptions, there exists a de facto dual system of education in our country. Arising from this, two kinds of graduates are produced by the national system of education, namely, graduates of the public sector, and graduates of the private sector, one having the Malay language, the other English as the medium of instruction.1.8.3 This situation is reminiscent of the pre-1970 days at the school level when two systems produced two kinds of school leavers. However, while this dichotomy at the school level was contentious and needed to be addressed, the language of instruction at tertiary level never became a serious issue with the Malaysian society.1.8.4 The absence of such controversy all these years is testimony that Malaysians have recognised and accepted that the new millennium and the challenges of globalisation require that an open mind must be demonstrated if we are to be in tandem with an intensely competitive world. The Committee will also take this observation into consideration in the preparation of this Report.1.9 GLOBALISATION AND INTERNATIONAL LINKS1.9.1 The term globalisation today refers to more than the opening up of trade and the free and easy flow of capital and technology. Globalisation, although having aspects that put us at a disadvantage, facilitates communication, expedites international linkages, pushes organisations and the leadership of nations to greater efficiency, and creates a world without borders. Recent events, where the nations of the world came together, mobilised its resources and gave direct assistance to remote parts of the world when disaster struck, are testimony to this. 12 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 54. Chapter 1 Imperatives1.9.2 The challenge of globalisation to our higher education is enabling our students to maximise their capacity to harness global resources for the betterment of themselves, the nation, the region and the world. Another challenge of globalisation for higher education in this country is to face the possibility that national identities may become blurred. Therefore it is the responsibility of education, especially higher education, to nurture a Malaysian citizenry who can compete globally and yet retain their patriotism. The Committee is of the opinion that IHE in this country have the obligation to act fast to develop curricula that are relevant and comprehensive enough to cope with the phenomena of the global village, and of new information and knowledge rapidly becoming obsolete.1.10 THE IT REVOLUTION1.10.1 The IT Revolution has brought in its wake consequences of unimaginable proportions. It has dramatically altered the way we work, the way we think, the way we live, the way we see the world.1.10.2 The advent of IT pushes society to yet another step in terms of its development. The developed world to be sure, is rapidly moving away from the industrial age to what is referred to as a post-industrial one. It is a knowledge-based world where brains count more than brawn. It is a world characterised by short shelf lives where inventions get outdated as quickly as new ones gain favour. This is a world where the limits of human possibilities are matched only by the depth and breadth of the imagination.1.10.3 In response to this challenge, Malaysia has positioned itself for entry into the post-industrial age with the setting up of the Multimedia Super Corridor. Most of our neighbouring countries too are not wasting any time in exploiting the potential of IT. This country has no alternative but to do the utmost to be competitive in this field.1.10.4 This has profound implications for tertiary education in the country. The recommendations in this report must take development in IT into account. Towards Excellence 13
  • 55. Part I Introduction1.11 THE NEW WORLD ORDER1.11.1 The preceding discussions have made it abundantly clear that we cannot live in isolation from trends and events happening in the rest of the world. The new world order is an intensely interdependent world. An event, natural disaster, lifestyle trend, war or peace occurring in one corner of the earth, impacts significantly on the rest of the world. The speed at which the media informs the world is unprecedented. The new world order is also intensely competitive. Intellectual property is fiercely protected and often blatantly violated.1.11.2 To survive and succeed in this world requires the mastery of diplomatic and negotiation skills, the capacity to quickly update ourselves on the latest developments in any field we are engaged in, make strategic alliances based on delicately worked out agreements and to identify and create opportunities and markets. All these require a new type of educated cohort, equipped with the basic skills necessary for quickly adjusting to ever changing circumstances in the region and the world at large.1.11.3 The Committee is of the opinion that IHE in the country have the responsibility to develop human capital with the readiness and capability to respond to the challenges of the new world order and cope successfully with the competition that these challenges bring. The new world order therefore is an important imperative for the Committee to consider.1.12 CONCLUSION1.12.1 The imperatives that have been examined are closely interconnected and very pertinent in setting the course for higher education in this country to be considered world class and for Malaysia to become a centre of excellence for education. These imperatives therefore would be the basis on which the Committee will conduct this study and review, approach the problems and issues of higher education, and frame its recommendations. 14 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 56. Chapter 2 The Study Chapter 2 THE STUDY2.1 TERMS OF REFERENCEThe Terms of Reference of the Committee are as follows:2.1.1 Survey the current growth and development of higher education in the country.2.1.2 Identify issues and problems related to the development of the higher education sector including polytechnics and community colleges.2.1.3 Make a comprehensive study and review of the higher education policy formulated in the Higher Education Development Plan (2001-2010) aimed at making the country a centre of excellence for education at the regional and international levels.2.1.4 Study and review higher education policies that could become instruments of integration and national unity.2.1.5 Produce a report that contains recommendations concerning the development and direction of higher education in Malaysia including the formulation of a sound and viable higher education policy. This report will make a contribution to the efforts of the Ministry of Higher Education to make tertiary education one of the factors that would enable the country to achieve glory, distinction and excellence in the fields of knowledge, culture and quality of life. Towards Excellence 15
  • 57. Part I Introduction2.2 SCOPE OF STUDYThe scope of the study has been set by the Ministry of Higher Education. It encompasses allinstitutions under the jurisdiction of the Minister of Higher Education namely,2.2.1 Community Colleges2.2.2 Polytechnics2.2.3 Private Institutions of Higher Education (University Level)2.2.4 Private Institutions of Higher Education (Non-University Level)2.2.5 Public Institutions of Higher Education, and2.2.6 Public UniversitiesThe scope of this study does not include institutions that come under the Ministry of Educationlike the Teachers’ Training Colleges.2.3 FOCUS OF STUDYBased on the terms of reference and the scope of the study which has been determined bythe Minister of Higher Education Malaysia, the focus of the study has been outlined by theCommittee as follows:2.3.1 Strategic focus. The main components are: 2.3.1.1 Vision and Mission 2.3.1.2 Legislation and Administration 2.3.1.3 Financing 2.3.1.4 Human Resources 2.3.1.5 Quality, Competitiveness and Internationalisation and 2.3.1.6 Information Communication and Technology2.3.2 Teaching and Learning. The main components are: 2.3.2.1 Curriculum 2.3.2.2 Teaching and Learning 2.3.2.3 Assessment and Evaluation 16 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 58. Chapter 2 The Study2.3.3 Research and development (R&D). The main components are: 2.3.3.1 Financing R & D 2.3.3.2 Research Universities 2.3.3.3 Integrating Research with Industry, and 2.3.3.4 Internationalisation, Development and Commercialisation of Innovation2.3.4 Contribution of Higher Education to Malaysia and the world. The main contents are: 2.3.4.1 National Unity 2.3.4.2 Democratisation of Education, Access and Equity 2.3.4.3 Financing Higher Education Students 2.3.4.4 Consolidation of Strength and Development of High Culture2.4 METHODOLOGY ADOPTED2.4.1 Prior to the formation of the Committee, there had been a large number of conferences, seminars, forums and workshops, all addressing issues similar to those contained in this study’s terms of reference. The Committee has had at its disposal sufficient information including documents, articles, reviews and research findings both qualitative and quantitative, to guide and assist in formulating its recommendations. Additional information and data were obtained through dialogues and interviews and benchmarking visits to selected foreign universities.2.4.2 The Committee adopted the action research strategy which encompasses two distinct components: ‘as is analysis’ and ‘to be analysis’. The ‘as is analysis’ highlights the current policies and practices of national, regional and international higher education while the focus of the ‘to be analysis’ is to ‘level up’ the current standard practices to international best practices and to sustain this quality in the years to come. Towards Excellence 17
  • 59. Part I Introduction2.4.3 The strategies effected by the Committee are as follows: 2.4.3.1 Discussion with the Right Honourable Prime Minister of Malaysia, Dato’ Seri Abdullah bin Haji Ahmad Badawi 2.4.3.2 Discussion with the Right Honourable Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia, Dato’ Sri Mohd. Najib bin Tun Abdul Razak 2.4.3.3 Discussion with the Honourable Minister of Higher Education of Malaysia, Dato’ Dr. Shafie bin Haji Mohd Salleh 2.4.3.4 Discussion with the Honourable Minister in the Prime Minister’s Department, Dato’ Mustapa Mohamed 2.4.3.5 Meetings of the Main Committee to formulate, analyse and debate relevant and related ideas, topics and issues 2.4.3.6 Smart Partnership Dialogues with stakeholders to obtain information of high strategic value with regard to their opinions and observations on significant aspects of higher education. This information was obtained using the SWOT model. 2.4.3.7 Round Table Discussions with eminent persons, intellectuals, leaders both at national and state levels, non-governmental organisations, student bodies, youth bodies, women’s organisations, professionals bodies, trade unions, academic staff societies, industrial and commercial chambers and organisations, and the media. 2.4.3.8 Discussions with central agencies of the Federal Government, agencies of the Ministry of Higher Education, senior officers in universities, university student affairs offices and student funding agencies. 2.4.3.9 Interviews with Tun Mahathir Mohamad, Tan Sri Musa Hitam and Tan Sri Ahmad Sarji Abdul Hamid. 2.4.3.10 Benchmarking and Best Practices Study Visits to foreign world class institutions of higher learning. 2.4.3.11 Discussions with individuals and agencies connected with higher education and quality control in countries which were visited. 2.4.3.12 Website www.policystudy.uitm.edu.my to elicit the views of the Malaysian public using the framework of the SWOT model. 2.4.3.13 Study of documents including acts, statutes, circulars, administrative directives, speeches of national leaders, reports, websites of regional and international institutions of higher learning and official documents of UNESCO, European Council and ASEAN. 18 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 60. Part IIBACKGROUND OF HIGHEREDUCATION IN MALAYSIAHigher education in Malaysia is one of the many componentswhich are an integral part of the aspirations of the nation toachieve harmony and prosperity and to build a developeddemocratic nation as pledged in the Rukunegara. Part IItherefore records the background of national higher educationthat has been established and operated within the framework ofvalues, vision, legislation and policies of the nation.
  • 61. Chapter 3 History of the Development of Higher Education Chapter 3 HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF HIGHER EDUCATION3.1 FORERUNNERS TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN MALAYSIA3.1.1 Higher education in this country began in colonial times with the establishment in Singapore of a School of Medicine in 1905 (which became known as the King Edward VII College of Medicine in 1926) and Raffles College in 1928. At that time, developments in education in Singapore and Malaya were inextricably linked. In 1946, the Technical College was established in Kuala Lumpur. A year later the Agriculture College was established in Serdang, Selangor.3.1.2 In addition to the above, efforts to establish a university college began in 1938 with a proposal to merge King Edward VII College of Medicine with Raffles College in Singapore. However, this proposal could only be implemented in 1949 and the institution was named University of Malaya.3.2 THE DEVELOPMENT OF PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION (PUBLIC IHE)3.2.1 The history of the development of higher education in Malaysia began a year after independence with the establishment, in Kuala Lumpur, of a branch campus of the University of Malaya in 1958. In that year, a group of engineering undergraduates began their course of study at the campus located in Pantai Valley, Kuala Lumpur. Three years later (1961) this branch institution was elevated to the status of a full-fledged university, retaining the name, University of Malaya (UM) while its parent body in Singapore was renamed University of Singapore. In 1967, Institut Teknologi MARA was established (which was initially the Rural Industrial Development Authority Training Centre, established in 1956, which became the MARA College in 1965). Towards Excellence 21
  • 62. Part II Background of Higher Education in Malaysia3.2.2 The country’s second university, established in 1969 in Penang was initially called University of Penang but was later renamed Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM). In the same year Kolej Tunku Abdul Rahman (KTAR) was founded in Kuala Lumpur while Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) was established in 1970 in Bangi, Selangor. The 1970’s saw the setting up of our fourth and fifth universities. In 1971, the Agriculture College was upgraded to university status and renamed Univesiti Pertanian Malaysia (UPM) and later renamed Universiti Putra Malaysia. This was followed in 1975 by an upgrading of the Technical College to full university status and renamed Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM). The sixth university, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) was established in 1983 in Gombak, Selangor while the seventh, Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM) commenced operations in 1984 in Sintok, Kedah. The establishment of more universities proceeded at an increasingly rapid pace in the 1990’s with the setting up of the following universities: Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS) in 1992, University Malaysia Sabah (UMS) in 1994, and Universiti Perguruan Sultan Idris (UPSI) in 1997 in Tanjong Malim with the upgrading of Sultan Idris Teachers’ Training College, and Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) in 1999 with the upgrading of Institut Teknologi MARA and all its branches in various states.3.2.3 As the year 2000 drew near, a number of university colleges were established: first, Kolej Universiti Islam Malaysia (KUIM) in 1998 (to be transferred to Nilai from its present temporary premises in Kuala Lumpur); second, Kolej Universiti Sains dan Teknologi Malaysia (KUSTEM) in 1999 in Terengganu. In the year 2000, two more university colleges were added to the list, that is, Kolej Universiti Teknologi Tun Hussein Onn (KUiTTHO) in Batu Pahat, Johor and Kolej Universiti Teknikal Kebangsaan Malaysia (KUTKM) in Melaka. The fifth, Kolej Universiti Kejuruteraan dan Teknologi Malaysia (KUKTEM) in Kuantan (to be relocated in Pekan) and the sixth, the Kolej Univerisiti Kejuruteraan Utara Malaysia (KUKUM) in Perlis, were established in 2001.3.2.4 To summarise, as of June 2005, there are 11 public universities, six university colleges and one public college in Malaysia. 22 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 63. Chapter 3 History of the Development of Higher Education3.3 THE DEVELOPMENT OF PRIVATE INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION (PRIVATE IHE)3.3.1 The history of private higher education began even before independence with the founding of Goon Institute in 1936, Stamford College in 1950 and Islamic College of Malaya in 1955. Taylor’s College and Maktab Adabi were established after independence in 1969. Further developments took place in the 1980’s with the setting up of Perkim Goon Institute (1981), Kolej Damansara Utama (1983), Kolej Informatics (1984), Sedaya College (1986), Inti College (1987), Prime College (1986), HELP Institute (1986) and Sunway College (1987). Institut Teknologi Tun Abdul Razak (ITTAR) and Advanced Management and Technology Centre were established in 1991 and 1996 respectively.3.3.2 Throughout the 1990’s, private education continued to grow at a rapid pace, especially after the implementation of the Private Higher Educational Institutions Act in 1996. From 156 private education establishments in 1992, the number rose to 354 by 1996, 470 in 2000 and 559 in 2004.3.3.3 Before the conferment of university status, especially after 1997, private institutions, college universities, branch campuses of overseas universities, and non-university level private institutions were permitted to conduct courses of study with the cooperation of universities in the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand and France through the 3+0 arrangement. According to this arrangement, the degree programmes of these universities are to be wholly conducted in Malaysia. Currently, there are 32 non-university private institutions which are permitted to carry out 3+0 programmes.3.3.4 The establishment of private universities as well as branch campuses of foreign universities began in 1999. The following universities were set up: Multimedia University (MMU) in Cyberjaya and its branch in Melaka; Universiti Tenaga National (UNITEN) in Kajang, Selangor and its branch, (set up in 2001) in Bandar Muadzam Shah, Pahang; Universiti Tun Abdul Razak (UNITAR) in Petaling Jaya, Selangor; Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP) in Tronoh, Perak; and International Medical University (IMU) in Bukit Jalil, Kuala Lumpur. In the year 2000, the following were established: Universiti Industri Selangor (UNISEL) in Kuala Lumpur; Open University of Malaysia in Kuala Lumpur; and Malaysian University of Science and Technology (MUST) in Petaling Jaya, Selangor. Towards Excellence 23
  • 64. Part II Background of Higher Education in Malaysia3.3.5 More private universities and institutions followed: in 2001, Institute Perubatan, Sains dan Teknologi Asia (AIMST) in Sungai Petani, Kedah; and Kolej Universiti Teknologi dan Pengurusan Malaysia (KUTPM) in Shah Alam, Selangor. In 2002, Universiti Kuala Lumpur (UniKL) was set up in Kuala Lumpur together with its branch UniKL MFI (Malaysian France Institute) in Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor. To this list was added Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR), established in Setapak, Kuala Lumpur with its branch campus in Petaling Jaya, Selangor and yet another branch in 2004 in Kajang, Selangor. In 2003, Kolej Universiti Teknologi Kreatif Limkokwing (KUTKL) was set up in Cyberjaya; Kolej Universiti Infrastruktur Kuala Lumpur (KliUC) in Kajang, Selangor; Kolej Universiti Antarabangsa Sedaya (UCSI) in Cheras; and Kolej Universiti Antarabangsa Teknologi Twintech (IUCTT) in Bandar Sri Damansara, Kuala Lumpur (its branch campus in Kelantan was opened in 2004).3.3.6 The location of the 535 non-university level institutions of higher learning is as shown in Table 3.1. Table 3.1: Number of Non-University Level Private IHE, 2004 State No. of Non-University Level Private IHE Selangor 117 Wilayah Persekutuan 114 Johor 49 Pulau Pinang 45 Perak 41 Sarawak 33 Negeri Sembilan 25 Sabah 25 Melaka 25 Pahang 19 Kedah 18 Kelantan 11 Terengganu 11 Perlis 2 TOTAL 535 Source: Private Education Department, 2004 24 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 65. Chapter 3 History of the Development of Higher Education3.4 THE DEVELOPMENT OF POLYTECHNICS3.4.1 The development of polytechnics began in 1969 with the establishment of Politeknik Ungku Omar in Ipoh, Perak. The second, Politeknik Sultan Ahmad Shah (POLISAS) was established in 1979 in Kuantan, Pahang. Three other polytechnics were built in the 1950’s: in Jitra, Kedah (POLIMAS), Kota Bharu, Kelantan and Kuching, Sarawak. This was followed in the 1990’s with seven other polytechnics in the following locations: Port Dickson (Negeri Sembilan), Kota Kinabalu (Sabah), Shah Alam (Selangor), Johor Bahru (Johor), Seberang Prai (Pulau Pinang) and two city polytechnics in Bandar Raya Melaka (Melaka) and Kuala Terengganu (Terengganu). In the period 2001 – 2003, seven more polytechnics were set up in Dungun (Terengganu), Merlimau (Melaka), Kulim (Kedah), Tanjong Malim (Perak), Arau (Perlis), Muadzam Shah (Pahang) and Sabak Bernam (Selangor). In 2005, another polytechnic commenced operations in Mukah (Sarawak).3.4.2 In short, at the time of writing this report, the country has 20 polytechnics distributed in all the states in Malaysia with the exception of the Federal Territory.3.5 DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNITY COLLEGES3.5.1 A new chapter in the history of the development of higher education in this country was written with the introduction of community colleges in the year 2001. In that year, the Ministry of Education established 12 pioneering community colleges. In the following year, the total had risen to 17. In 2003, 17 more such colleges were set up.3.5.2 These community colleges have been established in all states except Kelantan and the distribution by state is as follows: Perlis 1, Kedah 2, Pulau Pinang 2, Perak 5, Selangor 4, Federal Territory (KL) 1, Negeri Sembilan 2, Melaka 4, Johor 4, Pahang 5, Terengganu 1, Sabah 1, Sarawak 2. By the year 2004, a total of 34 community colleges had been established. In the following year, the total had risen to 17. In 2003, 17 more such colleges were set up.3.5.2 These community colleges have been established in all states except Kelantan and the distribution by state is as follows: Perlis 1, Kedah 2, Pulau Pinang 2, Perak 5, Selangor 4, Federal Territory (KL) 1, Negeri Sembilan 2, Melaka 4, Johor 4, Pahang 5, Terengganu 1, Sabah 1, Sarawak 2. By the year 2004, a total of 34 community colleges had been established. Towards Excellence 25
  • 66. Chapter 4 The National Policies and Vision 2020 Chapter 4 THE NATIONAL POLICIES AND VISION 20204.1 INTRODUCTION4.1.1. Since achieving independence in 1957, the overriding objective of the nation has been to create a nation which is independent, stable, strong, progressive and united. The May 13 1969 incident has reinforced the nation’s determination to ensure the achievement of this objective. Furthermore, in the Rukunegara (National Ideology), various policies which are related to social, economic, political and foreign affairs have been reviewed or formulated focusing on the realisation of the aspirations and objectives of the nation.4.1.2. Measures to generate the development of a successful and competitive economy are mirrored in the economic policies which emphasise industrial and knowledge- based economies. At the same time, steps to create a work culture which is positive, possesses the right values, has high productivity and excellence have been reflected in various socio-political policies such as the Policy on the Instillation of Islamic Values and the Look East Policy.4.2 RUKUNEGARA (NATIONAL IDEOLOGY)4.2.1 The May 13 1969 incident showed that the British colonial policy of divide and rule still adversely affected the nation such that even after 12 years of independence, national unity was still fragile. There was need for constructive measures to be taken to foster shared perspectives and values based on universal ideals and embraced by all citizens of the country. The Government therefore formulated the Rukunegara (National Ideology) as the national philosophy. Towards Excellence 27
  • 67. Part II Background of Higher Education in Malaysia4.2.2 The preamble to the Rukunegara (National Ideology) is as follows: “Our Nation, Malaysia is dedicated to: Achieving a greater unity for all her people; maintaining a democratic way of life; creating a just society in which the wealth of the nation shall be equitably distributed; ensuring a liberal approach to her rich and diverse cultural tradition, and building a progressive society which shall be oriented to modern science and technology.”8 The principles of the Rukunegara are as follows: • Belief in God • Loyalty to the King and Country • Upholding the Constitution • Sovereignty of the Law, and • Good Behaviour and Morality4.3 VISION 20204.3.1 In the year 1991, these aspirations and goals were incorporated and formulated into what came to be known as Vision 2020. Vision 2020 clearly expresses the aspiration to make Malaysia a developed nation by the year 2020. The objective is to create a united nation, with a citizenry which is confident and which possesses high moral and ethical values in a democratic society which is open-minded, tolerant, caring, just, progressive and prosperous, with an economy that is competitive, dynamic, stable and sustainable.8 The Malaysian Government’s official portal http://www.gov.my/MYGOV/BI/Directory/Government/AboutMsianGov/GovRukunegara (21 February 2006) 28 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 68. Chapter 4 The National Policies and Vision 20204.4 NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT POLICIES4.4.1 The New Economic Policy (NEP)4.4.1.1 The May 13 1969 incident is closely connected with the reality of economic imbalances between the races, poverty and the identification of economic activity and employment according to race. The Government launched the New Economic Policy a year later to address this problem. The implementation of this policy spanned a 20-year period, that is, from 1971 to 1990. The principal objective of this policy was to foster national unity. This policy was carried out through a two- pronged strategy: 4.4.1.1.1 Reduce and ultimately eliminate poverty by increasing employment opportunities for all citizens regardless of race; 4.4.1.1.2 Restructure society to reduce and ultimately eliminate identification of race with economic function.4.4.2 Post-NEP Development Policy4.4.2.1 The national development policy since 1991 had focused on efforts to accomplish the objectives of Vision 2020. From 1991 to 2000 the National Development Policy (NDP) was implemented, followed by the implementation of the National Vision Policy (NVP) from 2001 to 2010. The objective of the NDP is to achieve development which was balanced thus creating a more united and just society, while the objective of the NVP is to increase the stability and competitiveness of the country. Both these policies focus on the development of human resources.4.4.2.2 In the NDP, human resources development focuses on creating a disciplined and productive workforce with a capability based on knowledge, science and technology. In the NVP, the emphasis is, “…towards raising the level of competitiveness to meet the challenges of globalisation, develop a knowledge- based economy, optimise the thinking skills of the citizens, and develop skilful, productive and knowledgeable human resources”.99 Vision Development Policy 2001-2010, MAPEN II Report, 31 January 2001 Towards Excellence 29
  • 69. Chapter 5 National Education Policy Chapter 5 NATIONAL EDUCATION POLICY5.1 EDUCATION ACT 19615.1.1 The national education policy which was in existence since independence is enshrined in the Education Ordinance 1957 and in the Education Act 1961. The education policy as recorded in the Education Act 1961 is as follows: Whereas the education policy of the Federation, originally declared in the Education Ordinance, 1957 is to establish a national system of education which will satisfy the needs of the nation and promote its cultural, social, economic and political development; And whereas it is considered desirable that regard shall be had, so far as it is compatible with that policy, with the provision of efficient instruction and with the avoidance of unreasonable public expenditure, to the general principle that pupils are to be educated in accordance with the wishes of their parents; And whereas further provision is required for securing the effective execution of the said policy, including in particular provision for the progressive development of an educational system in which the national language is the main medium of instruction. Towards Excellence 31
  • 70. Part II Background of Higher Education in Malaysia5.2 EDUCATION ACT 19965.2.1 The Education Act 1961 was replaced by the Education Act 1996. In this Act, the education policy was consolidated and widened in keeping with current and future developments. The education policy as specified in the Education Act 1996 is: And whereas the purpose of education is to enable the Malaysian society to have a command of knowledge, skills and values necessary in a world that is highly competitive and globalised, arising from the impact of rapid development in science, technology and information; And whereas education plays a vital role in achieving the country’s vision of attaining the status of a fully developed nation in terms of economic development, social justice and spiritual, moral and ethical strength, towards creating a society that is united, democratic, liberal and dynamic; And whereas it is the mission to create a world class quality education system which will realise the full potential of the individual and fulfil the aspiration of the Malaysian nation; And whereas the National Education Policy is based on the National Philosophy of Education which is expressed as follows; “Education in Malaysia is an ongoing effort towards further developing the potential of individuals in a holistic and integrated manner so as to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced and harmonious, based on a firm belief in and devotion to God. Such an effort is designed to produce Malaysian citizens who are knowledgeable and competent, who possess high moral standards and who are responsible and capable of achieving a higher level of personal well- being as well as being able to contribute to the betterment of the family, the society and the nation at large.” 32 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 71. Chapter 5 National Education Policy5.3 HIGHER EDUCATION POLICY5.3.1 The above-mentioned national education policy encompasses all education levels in the national education system, including higher education. An exclusive policy concerning higher education is not specified in any Act that deals with higher education or universities except the Private Higher Educational Institutions Act 1996. This Act states: “Whereas higher education plays an important role in realising the vision towards academic excellence and professional and technical enhancement whilst meeting the manpower needs of the nation; And whereas it is imperative to facilitate and regulate private higher education institutions so as to ensure its healthy development and the provision of quality education…”5.4 MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION5.4.1 The Razak Education Report 1956 (Paragraph 12) proposed that Malay, the National Language, be the instrument to ‘bring together children of all races,’ and that it becomes ‘the main medium of instruction.’ In the following year, when the country attained its independence, the Malay Language was formally enshrined as the National Language and was so recorded in Item 152 of the Federal Constitution. It was therefore to be used for ‘official purposes’. Item 152 (6) explains ‘official purposes’ as whatever government purpose, whether at Federal or State levels, including any purpose on the part of any public authority. ” The same is emphasised in the National Language Act 1967 (Section 2) while Section 4 states that His Majesty the King, “… may permit the continued use of English for certain official purposes.”5.4.2 In the context of the National Education System, the introduction to the Education Act 1961 stresses: “… and whereas further provision is required for securing the effective execution of the said policy, including in particular provision for the progressive development of an educational system in which the National language is the main medium of instruction”. Section 17 (1) of the Education Act 1996 also affirms: “The National Language shall be the medium of instruction in all educational institutions in the National Educational System except a national-type school established under Section 28 or any other educational institution exempted by the Minister from this sub-section.” Towards Excellence 33
  • 72. Part II Background of Higher Education in Malaysia5.4.3 The Education Acts of 1961 and 1996 do not include public universities which are subject to AUKU 1971. AUKU 1971 makes no mention of the medium of instruction. As public universities are in the public domain, the use of the National Language is mandatory under Section 2, National Language Act 1967. Nevertheless, public universities too are part of the national education system as defined in the Education Act 1996. Section 17 (1) of this Act empowers the Minister to exempt any institution from using the National Language as the medium of instruction. However, in the Private Higher Educational Institutions Act 1996, the position of the medium of instruction is clearly stated in Paragraph 41 (1): “All private higher educational institutions shall conduct their courses of study in the National Language.” Nonetheless, Section 41 (3) makes it clear that, with the permission of the Minister, private IHE may conduct courses or a substantial part of a course in English or Arabic, and in such cases, Section 41 (4) specifies that the National Language has to be taught as a compulsory subject.5.4.4 In the years following independence, the National Language was the medium of instruction in national primary and secondary schools while it was taught as a compulsory subject in national-type primary schools (Mandarin, Tamil and English) and in national-type secondary schools (Mandarin and English). In 1970, a national conversion plan was put into operation beginning with Year One in National Type Primary Schools (SRJK) (English) and by 1976 it was carried over to Form One in National Type Secondary Schools (SMJK) (English). By 1982, the conversion for English medium schools encompassed all school levels, including Form Six.5.4.5 At the university level too, the use of the National Language as the medium of instruction for some courses of study began at the end of the 1960’s. The National Language became the medium of instruction in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) when it was established in 1970. Meanwhile, when the language conversion process in upper secondary schools was completed, all public IHE began the process of conversion from 1983. By the end of the 1980’s, the National Language was the main medium of instruction in all public IHE with the exception of ITM and KTAR.5.4.6 When public IHE were established and rapidly developed, especially after the Private Higher Educational Institutions Act 1996, many public IHE obtained exemptions from using the National Language as the medium of instruction. Almost all private IHE used the English Language as the medium of instruction because they were offering programmes of foreign higher education institutions or were branch campuses of overseas universities. 34 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 73. Chapter 5 National Education Policy5.5 NATIONAL INTEGRATION5.5.1 The Razak Education Report 1956, which is the basis for the formulation and establishment of the National Education Policy, also specifies national unity as one of the primary objectives of the education system. Paragraph 12 of the Report states: “The aim of the education policy in the country is to unite the youth of all races through the utilisation of a common education system which involves all races using the National Language as the main medium of instruction, although this cannot be implemented immediately and would need to be done incrementally.”5.5.2 In order to achieve this objective, the Razak Report specified two priorities, that is, a common school system, and a common curriculum. The Rahman Talib Report 1960 also maintained and further strengthened the recommendations of the Razak Education Report. In addition, national unity became one of the terms of reference for the Report of the Cabinet Review Committee on Education 1979 and is stated as follows: “…to ensure that the education system achieves the national objective of producing a society that is united, disciplined and educated.”5.5.3 Although the various education reports that have been produced are not explicit on higher education, as part and parcel of the national education system, higher education is subject to the national education objectives, including national unity.5.6 NURTURING HUMAN RESOURCES5.6.1 Among the functions of a system of education is to produce knowledgeable, trained and skilled human resources. In the Education Act 1961, the role of education to produce human resources is implied in the following policy statement: “…system of education that can meet the nation’s needs and encourage cultural, social, economic and political development.” The Cabinet Committee to Review the National Education Policy 1974 (Report, 1979) however, expressly stated as one of its terms of reference the following: “… ensure that the short and long term manpower needs of the country are realised.” Towards Excellence 35
  • 74. Part II Background of Higher Education in Malaysia5.6.2 When the Education Act 1996 was drafted, this role was again implicit in all the policy statements in the Act. However, this role is clearly expressed in the policy statements of the Private Higher Educational Institutions Act 1996 and reiterated in the document ‘Development of Education 2001-2010’, which states the following: “Tertiary education is the primary catalyst for developing knowledgeable and skilful human resources to meet the need to achieve the nation’s vision.” 36 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 75. Chapter 6 National Values Chapter 6 NATIONAL VALUES6.1 PRIMARY SOURCES OF NATIONAL VALUES6.1.1 The main framework for national values can be obtained from the Rukunegara, which gives emphasis to religious values, patriotism, loyalty, justice, good behaviour and morality. The Clean, Efficient and Trustworthy Policy together with the policy of Instillation of Islamic Values 1985, places emphasis on honesty, trustworthiness and efficiency. Eleven Islamic values which have been identified as universal values are practised by all followers of the religion. These values are: trustworthiness, responsibility, sincerity, dedication, temperance, diligence, cleanliness, discipline, cooperation, noble behaviour and thankfulness.6.1.2 Vision 2020, which was officially declared in 1991, also emphasises many important values which need to be nurtured, instilled and shared by all Malaysians. These values are: peace, harmony, cooperativeness, loyalty, dedication, freedom, tranquility, industry, democracy, morality, ethics, faith, being liberal, tolerance, being scientific, progressiveness, creativity, being visionary, being caring, justice, fairness, competitiveness, being dynamic, being hardworking and perseverance.6.2.1 NATIONAL INTEGRITY PLAN6.2.1 The Government established the Malaysian Institute of Integrity and launched the National Integrity Plan on 23 April 2004 to foster the culture of integrity and ethics among the citizens of Malaysia. This objective of the National Integrity Plan is in line with the fourth challenge of Vision 2020, which is to promote a moral and ethical society that holds steadfast to religious and spiritual values and noble conduct. Towards Excellence 37
  • 76. Part II Background of Higher Education in Malaysia6.2.2 For the five-year period (2004 to 2008), the National Integrity Plan focuses on five resolutions, which are, to eliminate corruption and the misuse of power, to improve efficiency of the delivery system of the Government, to enhance corporate governance and business ethics, to strengthen the institution of the family, and to upgrade the quality of life.6.3 NATIONAL VALUES6.3.1 Based on these primary sources, the national values can be summarised as follows: 6.3.1.1 Belief in God 6.3.1.2 Loyalty to the country or patriotism 6.3.1.3 Good behaviour and morality 6.3.1.4 Justice and fairness 6.3.1.5 Sincerity and honesty 6.3.1.6 Efficiency, trustworthiness and cooperativeness 6.3.1.7 Commitment and dedication 6.3.1.8 Open mindedness and tolerance 6.3.1.9 Being caring 6.3.1.10 Creativity 6.3.1.11 Integrity and ethics 38 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 77. Chapter 6 National Values6.4 ISLAM HADHARI AND HIGHER EDUCATION6.4.1 In conjunction with the values stated above, the Government in its efforts to develop its people so that Malaysia becomes a truly developed nation which is excellent, glorious and distinguished has promoted Islam Hadhari, an initiative that advocates progress and excellence based on Islam. Islam Hadhari posits ten fundamental principles namely:10 6.4.1.1 Faith and Piety in the Almighty God 6.4.1.2 Just and Trustworthy Government 6.4.1.3 Free and Independent People 6.4.1.4 Vigorous Pursuit and Mastery of Knowledge 6.4.1.5 Balanced and Comprehensive Economic Development 6.4.1.6 Good Quality of Life for the People 6.4.1.7 Protection of the Rights of Minority Groups and Women 6.4.1.8 Cultural and Moral Integrity 6.4.1.9 Safeguarding Natural Resources and the Environment 6.4.1.10 Strong Defence Capabilities6.4.2 These national values and universal Islamic values form the basic framework and guide for the nation to achieve its objective of becoming a fully developed nation by the year 2020. The fundamental principles of Islam Hadhari stated above are also crucial to steer and support the implementation and development of higher education in the country.10 Extract taken from the text of a speech by the Prime Minister of Malaysia entitled ‘Islam Hadhari’ delivered atJamia Milia Islamia, Delhi, India on 12 December 2004 http://www.pmo.gov.my (29 August 2005) Towards Excellence 39
  • 78. Chapter 7 Law Governing Higher Education Chapter 7 LAWS GOVERNING HIGHER EDUCATION7.1 ACTS RELATING TO HIGHER EDUCATION7.1.1 The initial laws governing higher education were the Universiti Malaya Act 1961 (Act 44) followed in 1971 by the Universities and University Colleges Act 1971 known as AUKU 1971 (Act 30). In 1976, a special Act known as the Institut Teknologi MARA Act (Act 173) was formulated to establish ITM. Besides these Acts, many others were formulated, all relating to higher education. These Acts are: Education Act 1996 (Act 550), Private Higher Educational Institutions Act 1996 (Act 555), National Council on Higher Education Act 1996 (Act 546), National Accreditation Board Act 1996 (Act 556) and National Higher Education Fund Corporation Act 1997 (Act 566).7.1.2 Laws on higher education contained in the many Acts, except the Education Act 1996, do not make any reference to polytechnics. In the Education Act 1961 (including amendments until 1982) polytechnics are not mentioned specifically, but in the Education Act 1996, polytechnics are given particular mention in Section 34 (1). Community colleges are a new addition whose formation was approved by the Cabinet (Memorandum 398 /2225/00) on 5 July 2000. From the point of law, community colleges are subject to the Education Act 1996 Section 34 (1) (d), which is as follows: “Subject to the provisions of this Act, the Minister may establish and maintain the following educational institutions: (d) any other educational institution, the establishment or maintenance of which is not provided for under this Act or the Universities and University Colleges Act 1971.” On the aspect of discipline, polytechnics and community colleges are governed by the Education Institution Act (Discipline) 1976. Towards Excellence 41
  • 79. Part II Background of Higher Education in Malaysia7.2 DEFINITION OF HIGHER EDUCATION7.2.1 In the Universities and University Colleges Act 1971 (AUKU 1971) and the Education Act 1996, the term used to refer to tertiary education is ‘higher education’. In AUKU 1971, ‘higher education’ is interpreted to mean, “Including education at universities and university colleges”, while the Education Act 1996, interprets ‘higher education’ as “education which is available at institutes of higher education”. A similar interpretation with regard to ‘higher education’ is contained in the National Council of Higher Education Act 1996, whereas the meaning of ‘higher educational institution’ in AUKU 1971 is “whichever university or university college which has been established under this Act”. In the Education Act 1996 however, institutions of higher education are “education institutions which provide higher education which results in the awarding of diplomas, degrees or equivalent qualifications,” and the National Council on Higher Education Act 1996 explains “institutions of higher education as institutions that have been established by any written law and this includes private education institutions which offer tertiary education which leads to the awarding of certificates, diplomas, degrees and equivalent qualifications.”7.3 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE LAWS AND IMPLEMENTATION POLICY7.3.1 The Universities and University Colleges Act 1971 outlines matters relating to the establishment of universities and university colleges, the constitution, management and administration as well as matters pertaining to students. In Schedule One of the Act, an example of the Constitution which should be used by all public universities and university colleges is given. The Institut Teknologi MARA Act 1976 explains specifically the establishment of ITM, including its branch campuses, the Board, officers and staff, finance, and general and transitional matters. (Chap. I.VII).7.3.2 The Education Act 1996 states “The Minister may provide higher education in higher educational institutions in accordance with any written law relating to higher education and shall be responsible for the general direction thereof” (Section 70). The Act also provides that the Minister may establish and maintain the following educational institutions: polytechnics and any other educational institution, the establishment or maintenance of which is not provided for under this Act or the Universities and University Colleges Act 1971 (Section 34 ) (1) (c) and (d). 42 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 80. Chapter 7 Law Governing Higher Education7.3.3 The Private Higher Educational Institutions Act 1996 provides for the establishment, registration, management, supervision and quality control of the curriculum that is offered by the private IHE. The National Accreditation Board Act 1996 outlines the responsibilities of LAN (National Accreditation Board): to formulate policies on standards and quality control; to determine, monitor, review and ensure the quality of courses; and to determine the level of achievement for the National Language and all the compulsory subjects specified; and to advise and make recommendations to the Minister for his approval of courses of study to be conducted by private IHE (Section 4). The National Council on Higher Education Act 1996 outlines the functions of the Board to plan, formulate and determine the national policies and development strategies of higher education. The functions include encouragement in the development of higher education, formulation of policies and criteria for the allocation of funds, student entry requirements, salary structure, areas or courses of study, collaboration with local and foreign universities, and involvement in business activities (Section 12) (1).7.3.4 The National Higher Education Fund Corporation Act 1997 (PTPTN) outlines the responsibilities of the National Higher Education Fund Corporation (PTPTN) to obtain and disburse education loans and financial assistance to IHE students, to recover loans and to set up a higher education loan scheme (Section 9).7.4 ADMINISTRATIVE POLICIES AND CIRCULARS7.4.1 Policies affecting finance and service in public IHE are the same as in a Government agency, as a public institution of higher education is a Government agency. In fact, all public IHE are bound by Government circulars, especially the Circular on Finance and Service. Circulars or Guidelines relating to student support are released by relevant Government agencies such as the Public Services Department, MARA and PTPTN. Apart from this, the Higher Education Department in the Ministry of Education, which is now under the Ministry of Higher Education, releases various Guidelines relating to the study and implementation of AUKU 1971. Among these guidelines are: Joint Public/Private IHE Programmes 1999, Formation of Companies in Public IHE and Collection of Donations outside the campus.7.4.2 Private IHE are not Government agencies and are therefore not subject to the Government finance and service circulars, except those dealing with such matters as loans, financial support, research grants, admission of foreign students and employment of expatriate staff. However, all private IHE are subject to all circulars, directives and guidelines of the Private Higher Educational Institutions Act 1996 and the National Accreditation Board Act 1996. Towards Excellence 43
  • 81. Part II Background of Higher Education in Malaysia7.5 ROLE OF THE MINISTRY OF EDUCATION7.5.1 In 1971, public universities were set up and AUKU 1971 was given the Government’s approval to regulate the operations of these universities. The Government also formed the Higher Education Advisory Council to advise the Education Minister on the development of the universities and on the setting up of new universities. To support this Council in its task, the Ministry of Education formed the Higher Education Division in 1972 which functioned as the Secretariat to the Council. However, the Council had no authority over funding or the running of universities and in fact did not play an effective role at all. There was thus no renewal of the Council’s service when its term ended on 21 October 1976.7.5.2 After the termination of the Council, the role of the Higher Education Division was extended to include the coordination of IHE policies, student entry, controlling the allocation of funds, collecting student information, taking care of the welfare of Malaysian students abroad and also to act as Secretariat to the Conference of Vice Chancellors. Following the restructuring of the Education Ministry in 1995, the status of this division was elevated to that of a department. In the same year, the School and Teacher Registration Division [Private] was elevated to the Private Education Department and authorised to approve or cancel the registration of private IHE, to gather information, to control the running of private IHE and to maintain quality. On 27 March 2004, the Government restructured the Ministry of Education and established the Ministry of Higher Education. Both of the above departments have been placed under the new Ministry. This means that all public and private IHE, including polytechnics and community colleges, are now under the Ministry of Higher Education. 44 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 82. Part IIIEMPOWERINGINSTITUTIONS OFHIGHER EDUCATIONTo be the torch bearers of excellence, institutionsthat have been assigned this responsibility need tohave a strong structural framework, outstandingleadership and excellent human resources, withoutwhich the aspiration to achieve world class statuscan become a burden. In Part III, the Committeeanalyses principal elements which are deemedcritical and formulate recommendations which arenecessary for developing strong institutions ofhigher education. These elements are: vision andmission, legislation and governance, funding andhuman resources, quality, competitiveness,internationalisation, and information andcommunication technology.
  • 83. Chapter 8 Vision and Mission of Higher Education Chapter 8 VISION AND MISSION OF HIGHER EDUCATION8.1 The knowledge and information explosion of the second half of the 20th century gave rise to the new knowledge economy and profoundly influenced the economic development of the world. This development in the knowledge domain is expected to continue well into the 21st century, enhancing the corpus of national intellectual capital. In view of the dominance of the global economy which requires people who have mastery of information and knowledge (knowledge-workers), Malaysia needs to produce a critical mass of well-informed and erudite human resources who are creative, innovative and imaginative. Therefore, to stimulate and drive growth and development, the effort to develop Malaysians who are knowledgeable and committed to life-long learning is the responsibility of those at all levels of education, including higher education.8.2 Awareness of the challenges of k-economy and globalisation has driven IHE all over the world to work earnestly to raise the standards and quality of these institutions. Only those institutions which take on the challenges would focus on improving the quality of teaching and learning as well as raising the calibre of researchers and applying their research findings strategically. Consequently, these institutions manifest flexibility in curriculum development. In addition, such institutions proactively adopt policies of inclusion of off-campus groups and strive to forge closer ties among the private and public sectors as well as non-governmental organisations (NGOs). Towards Excellence 47
  • 84. Part III Empowering Institutions of Higher Education8.3 The 21st century is witnessing changes in science and technology and in competitive global strategies in tandem with changes in human resource development. These dynamic global scenarios undoubtedly present vast opportunities to nations willing to take advantage of the situation and are able to adapt themselves to these changes. However, changes can have negative consequences especially at the societal level resulting in the disintegration of the fabric of society and dignity, the break-up of families and even that of society. It is only through education founded upon and reinforced by faith, noble values and human dignity can society successfully respond and rise to the challenges of the social environment. Education thus epitomises the effort to develop all-round potential of the individual in a balanced and integrated way as enshrined in the National Philosophy of Education. This National Philosophy of Education was drafted and promulgated in 1987 and subsequently included in the Education Act 1996 as an education policy. Therefore, the National Philosophy of Education is also a basic tenet in the philosophy of higher education.8.4 The National Philosophy of Education expresses the ideals of a nation. In order to face the challenges of the future which are increasingly varied and complex, higher education in the country must have a clearly articulated mission and vision. This mission and vision should include the goals, objectives, values and standards that need to be attained. Both mission and vision are very important in providing guidance and focus to everyone involved in attaining the aspirations and objectives of the country to enable the citizens to face the challenges stated in vision 2020.11 In this respect, the MoHE has put in writing the vision and mission of the Ministry. The vision is: “To achieve the National Vision to make Institutions of Higher Education in Malaysia internationally recognised centres of excellence for knowledge acquisition.” The mission statement is as follows: “ The Ministry of Higher Education is fully committed to provide opportunities in higher education by undertaking to offer quality programmes in order to produce a workforce which would be acknowledged as competent, knowledgeable, and able to meet domestic and international demand.” 1211 Refer Chapter 4, paragraph 4.3.12 Ministry of Higher Education: http://www.mohe.gov.my (17 September 2005) 48 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 85. Chapter 8 Vision and Mission of Higher Education8.5 This Committee acknowledges and appreciates the diligence of the Ministry of Higher Education in drafting the above-mentioned Vision and Mission Statements. Basically, both statements emphasise the quality and excellence of the education that is to be provided in IHE. However, based on the foregoing analysis, this Committee is of the opinion that all efforts and initiatives of the Ministry of Higher Education have to be guided by the National Philosophy of Education. In addition, both the Vision and Mission Statements need to be elaborated and refined so as to be more appropriate and relevant to meet current and future challenges. It is in this context that the Committee has put forward suggestions to reinforce the National Higher Education Vision and Mission Statements. RecommendationsBased on the above review, study and observations, the Committee makes thefollowing recommendations:1. The Committee proposes that the National Philosophy of Education should be the basis of the Philosophy of Higher Education.2. The Committee proposes that the Vision and Mission of higher education in this country be drafted based on statements shown in Addendum 8.1 and Addendum 8.2. Towards Excellence 49
  • 86. Part III Empowering Institutions of Higher Education Addendum 8.1: Proposed Vision of National Higher Education13 VISION OF NATIONAL HIGHER EDUCATION A system of education based on the combination of high quality human resources and up-to-date technology to achieve the following objectives: • Enable and stimulate individuals to develop their abilities on a life-long basis to achieve the highest possible level of intellect and skills, emotion and character as well as to hone the capacity to achieve personal wellbeing through loyal, effective and excellent contribution to the profession, to the organisation and to society whether at the national, regional or global level. • Maintain continuity, development and the sharing of knowledge so as to contribute toward the socio-economic prosperity of society and the nation. • Contribute towards the development of a progressive and scientific knowledge-based society and economy (k-society and k-economy) at national, regional and international level. • Contribute towards the development of a mature democratic society which is tolerant, moral and harmonious. • Contribute towards the development of a society which is just, progressive, with a national identity, and which is capable of competing globally.13 The suggestions contained in both addenda are based on studies of various documents, reference materials, and benchmarkingstudies by the Committee, within the country and overseas. 50 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 87. Chapter 8 Vision and Mission of Higher Education Addendum 8.2: Proposed Mission of National Higher Education MISSION OF NATIONAL HIGHER EDUCATIONThe Mission of Higher Education in the country is to develop and refine:• Institutions of higher education which are of high quality, affordable and accessible to all citizens throughout their lives.• Educational institutions which stimulate students to “acquire knowledge and skills that would enable them to be competitive through the implementation of ‘research-led’ or knowledge generating education with international standards as the benchmark whether at certificate, diploma, undergraduate or post-graduate level.• Institutions of higher education which enable their graduates to contribute towards the development of Malaysia, the region and the global community.• Educational institutions that use their influence to the fullest to carry out training in research, to conduct research, to commercialise the products of research and innovation for the benefit of institutions, society and the nation.• Institutions that consistently strive to enrich and strengthen academic activities through the generation of resources and intellectual capital that are needed to maintain and promote academic excellence. Towards Excellence 51
  • 88. Chapter 9 Legislation and Governance Chapter 9 LEGISLATION AND GOVERNANCE9.1 LEGISLATION9.1.1 The laws in existence which are directly related to national universities are the Universities and University Colleges Act 1971. This Act was enacted against the backdrop of the higher education environment of the 60’s and the early 70’s. Students were then actively involved in various issues, both in-campus and outside, until eventually, the smooth running of the university including its academic activities were adversely affected. In fact, the primary focus of the Act was the coordination and control in the running of public universities and university colleges. Since the enactment of the said Act, the atmosphere in IHE has experienced major changes. Challenges to higher education have also undergone changes and are no longer confined to only the nation but have reached the international and global arena.9.1.2 Since the enactment of AUKU 1971, the number of public IHE has increased and many more private IHE have been set up. In the 1990’s there was rapid growth in the setting up of private IHE. AUKU 1971 was also undergoing a number of modifications until the final enactment of the Act in 1996, and this Act is still in force.9.1.3 Apart from this, the Government has enacted and passed several new Acts. These Acts are: 9.1.3.1 The National Council on Higher Education Act 1996 (Act 546) 9.1.3.2 The Private Higher Educational Institutions Act 1996 (Act 555) 9.1.3.3 The National Accreditation Board Act 1996 (Act 556) 9.1.3.4 The National Higher Education Fund Corporation Act 1997 (Act 566) Towards Excellence 53
  • 89. Part III Empowering Institutions of Higher Education9.1.4 The restructuring of the Ministry of Education (MoE) resulted in the creation of a new ministry, which is the Ministry of Higher Education (MoHE). While the MoE is responsible for education from pre-school to secondary level, the MoHE is responsible for post-secondary higher education. However, from a legal perspective, public IHE which are of university and university college status and all private IHE are subject to the Acts mentioned above. Polytechnics and community colleges, on the other hand, are subject to the Education Act 1996. This means that Acts relating to higher education do not encompass all educational institutions which are categorised as IHE, specifically polytechnics and community colleges. The Committee is of the opinion that polytechnics and community colleges, which are currently subject to the Education Act 1996, should be merged with other public IHE and the Education Act 1996 itself needs to be amended.9.1.5 In addition, the Committee found that there are differences in the interpretation of ‘higher education’ or ‘higher learning’ in the respective Acts. In AUKU 1971, ‘higher learning’ is interpreted as ‘university or university college education’. In the Education Act 1996 however, ‘higher education’ is interpreted as ‘education which is provided by a higher educational institution’ and ‘higher educational institution leading to the awarding of diploma, degree or the equivalent thereof’. In the National Council of Higher Education Act 1996, the meaning of ‘higher educational institutions’ has been extended to include both public and private IHE including those awarding certificates besides diplomas and degrees. The existence of the varied interpretations regarding ‘higher learning’ and ‘higher education’ necessitates a standardisation and consolidation to allow it to be acceptable to all.9.1.6 Apart from quantitative development, higher education needs also to focus on the qualitative aspects. This is important so that IHE can build on their strengths and international competitiveness in line with global developments and changes in technology. To enable IHE to fulfil new demands, enhance quality and excellence and increase competitiveness, the legislative framework which forms the basis of the governance of higher education needs to be changed, modified, extended and further stabilised in keeping with current developments.9.1.7 Besides this, the Committee has found that the legal framework of higher education is not comprehensive, especially in the case of AUKU 1971. This Act only outlines those matters which are related to the setting up of universities and university colleges, the constitution, management and administration, and student affairs. Many other academic matters related to IHE, for example, study programmes, research and standards, have not been included in the Act. 54 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 90. Chapter 9 Legislation and Governance9.2 GOVERNANCE9.2.1 The governance of public and private IHE is determined through various legislations, and all related matters and their operations are based on one or a particular legislation. Currently, legislations which have taken effect are: 9.2.1.1 Education Act 1996 (Act 550) 9.2.1.2 Universities and University Colleges Act 1971 (Act 30) 9.2.1.3 Universities and University Colleges (Amendments) Act 1996 (Act A 946) 9.2.1.4 National Council on Higher Education Act 1996 (Act 546) 9.2.1.5 Private Higher Educational Institutions Act 1996 (Act 555) 9.2.1.6 National Accreditation Board Act 1996 (Act 556) 9.2.1.7 National Higher Education Fund Corporation Act 1997 (Act 566) 9.2.1.8 Statutory Bodies (Discipline and Surcharge) Act 200, (Act 605) 9.2.1.9 Companies Act 1965 9.2.1.10 Institut Teknologi MARA Act 1976 (Act 173) 9.2.1.11 Institut Teknologi MARA (Amendment) Act 1996 (Act 964) 9.2.1.12 Institut Teknologi MARA (Amendment) Act 2000 (Act 1073) 9.2.1.13 Education Institution Act (Discipline) 19769.2.2 Public IHE are subject to AUKU 1971 and AUKU (Amendment) 1996. It is recorded in the preface that AUKU 1971 is “An Act to enable/make allocations for the setting up, maintenance and administration of the universities and university colleges.” Section 8 (1) states the form of the university constitution which must contain all matters in the First Schedule of the said Act. Whereas Part III, Section 12 (1) in the First Schedule of the Constitution of Public Universities and University Colleges states: “The University authorities are the Board, Senate, Faculties, Schools, Units, Academies, Institutes, Education Committees, Election Committees, Student Welfare Committees and any other Bodies which have been determined by the Senate as Members of the University Authority.”9.2.3 For private IHE, provisions with regards to governance is contained in Section 30 and Section 31 of the Private Higher Educational Institutions Act 1996. Section 30 deals with College Constitution while Section 31 concerns the appointment of the Chief Executive. The scope of duties of the Chief Executive is stated in Section 33: “…to perform general supervision…”9.2.4 Besides this, private IHE are also subject to the Companies Act 1965 and this Act determines the powers of the Board of Directors and shareholders in the administration of the private IHE. Those who have the final say in the private IHE are actually the shareholders who delegate the management of the private IHE to the Board of Directors and the Chief Executive. Towards Excellence 55
  • 91. Part III Empowering Institutions of Higher EducationThe Minister and the Ministry of Higher Education9.2.5 According to Section 3 of AUKU 1971, the Minister of Education is responsible for the general direction of higher education and administration, and this is executed through the Ministry of Education, and effective March 2004 under the Ministry of Higher Education. The main function of the Ministry is to control financial resources as 80 to 90 per cent of public IHE expenditure, both administrative and developmental, is obtained from the Government. In addition, the Ministry also supervises the academic programmes as all new programmes, including any which have more than 30 per cent curriculum change, have to be brought to the attention of the Higher Education Committee.9.2.6 The Private Higher Educational Institutions Act 1996 gives the Minister wide powers to approve a number of major matters: application to establish a private institution of higher education (Sections 6 (1) and 10 (1) and Section 21); to set up branches, to merge, to form alliances or partnerships, (Section 18 (1) and (6)) for negotiation or agreement (Section 19 (1) and (6)); to amend requirements (Section 20); study courses (Section 38); use of the National Language (Section 42); rules of supervision and control of standards (Section 45); directives to safeguard the interest of students (Section 58); and to make rules (Section 88). The Registrar-General and the Department of Private Education are empowered by the Minister of Higher Education to carry out these functions. The Registrar-General approves the private IHE Constitution and the appointment of the Chief Executive. The Constitution determines the areas of power of those in authority in private IHE, including the Board of Directors and the Chief Executive.Board of Directors9.2.7 The highest authority of the university is the University Board of Directors. The Minister appoints the Chairman and the Members of the Board. (Section 14, University Constitution). The powers of the Board are as stated in Section16 of the Constitution: “The Board is the working body of the university, and has the authority to carry out all the powers given it by the university.” 56 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 92. Chapter 9 Legislation and GovernanceSenate9.2.8 The second highest authority of the university is the Senate which is chaired by the Vice Chancellor. The Senate is the academic body and “….has the right to control and give general directives on education, research and evaluation and the conferring of degrees, diplomas, certificates and other academic credits.” According to Section 2 (1) the Senate comprises the following: (a) the Vice Chancellor, who will be the Chairman; (b) all the Deputy Vice Chancellors; (c) all the Deans of Faculty and Heads of Schools, Departments, University Academic Centres and Institutes; and (d) not more than 20 Professors who are appointed by the Vice Chancellor. With regard to the appointment of the 20 Professors to the Senate, the Committee is of the opinion that this provision needs to be reviewed and amended so that it is based on scholarship, principles of objectivity and transparency in management.Vice Chancellor9.2.9 According to Section 9 of the University Constitution, the Vice Chancellor is the Chief Executive and the Head of Academia and he is appointed by the Minister, after consultation with the University Board of Directors. The responsibilities of the Vice Chancellor are to ensure that the provisions in the Constitution, Statutes, Procedures and Regulations are adhered to, and he has all the powers necessary especially to ensure that each of the University’s authorised bodies and committees acts according to the powers or duties which have been stated. The duration of the appointment and other conditions of service of the Vice Chancellor are determined by the Minister in consultation with the Board of Directors.The Internal Governance9.2.10 Internal governance of a public institution of higher education is provided for by AUKU 1971 and the Public IHE Constitution. The Constitution has put in place a framework through various university bodies and authorities. The University Board of Directors is the highest executive body in the university and all powers of the university are placed and held by the Board of Directors. The distribution of these powers is determined by AUKU 1971, the Constitution and the Statutes. Section 19 of the University Constitution which provides for the areas of power clearly indicates that the Board of Directors possesses only ‘residual power’. In fact this ‘residual power’ can be minimised until it becomes ineffectual. For example, under Section 19, action can be taken to distribute power to various university authorities. Towards Excellence 57
  • 93. Part III Empowering Institutions of Higher Education9.2.11 The Senate has responsibility over the governance of the academia in the university. The relationship of the Board of Directors and the Senate is stated in the Constitution, and in the eventuality of conflict, including conflict over academic matters, the Board of Directors has the right to make the final decision, so long as the Senate has been given the opportunity to record and extend its comments, (Section 29 (2) Constitution). Nevertheless, any suggestion to enact, change or repeal a statute can only be done by the Board of Directors. If the change or repealing of the said statute infringes on those areas which are under the purview of the Senate, then the Senate should have been referred to regarding this and its comments duly recorded.9.2.12 The situation stated above with regards to the authority of the Board may be referred to as the ‘fault line’ (see Insertion 9.1). Such a situation can give rise to an unhealthy relationship between the Board of Directors and the Senate. For example, there is no provision in the law for the Senate to report its comments to the Board. As a consequence, the suggestions of the Board of Directors may not be implemented. There is a further possibility, that the Board of Directors/Senate relationship may further deteriorate as according to AUKU 1971 and the University Constitution, the appointment of the 20 Professors as members of the Senate is determined by the Vice Chancellor (Section 20 (d) Constitution). 58 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 94. Chapter 9 Legislation and Governance Addendum 9.1: The Power of the Board of Directors according to the views of Legal Consultants14 (This is the view expressed by lawyers Nik Saghir & Ismail, Legal Consultant) It is clear that the Board is vested with all the powers of the University, which are not already expressly vested in any other authority, body or officer of the University. The vesting of the powers of the University is not only prescribed under the University Constitution but also under the subsidiary legislative instruments, namely, the Statutes, Rules and Regulations. Thus, where any power of the University is expressly vested under any provision of the University Constitution or any of these instruments in any particular body, that power can only be exercised by that body and not by the Board. On the other hand, where any of the powers of the University is not expressly vested in any body or person whether under the University Constitution or otherwise, the Board will have the right to exercise such power. The above provisions provide to the university the means to efficiently allocate or distribute the exercise of the powers of the University. This is simply because the University may, if it is considered that certain powers which are not already expressly vested in any particular authority or other entity of the University should (whether by reason of appropriateness, efficiency or otherwise) be exercised by a particular entity, vest such power in such entity. Is the Senate answerable to the Board? As observed above, the Senate has been vested with the powers and responsibilities vis-à-vis academic matters. This simply means that the Senate has the right to decide on any such matters without the Board’s concurrence. However, as the highest authority in the University, the Board may consequently, if it so desire, require the Senate to report any of its proceedings to the Board. Such directions may be given by the Board to the Senate either specifically on certain matters or generally on all matters. From the administrative point of view, it would certainly be cumbersome and impractical for the Senate to be required by the Board to report all of its proceedings. Instead, the Board should, in consultation with the Senate, expressly specify those matters which need to be reported to the Board. Has the Board the right to make decisions affecting academic matters? As stated above, under Section 19 (1) of the University Constitution, the Board does not have the right to exercise powers of the University which are already vested in the other authorities of the Universitiy. This would therefore mean that the Board does not have the power to decide on matters within the powers of the Senate. What is the implication of the provisions contained in Section 19 (2) of the University Constitution? The Section reads as follows: “No resolution shall be passed by the Board relating to any matter within the powers of the Senate, unless the Senate has first been given the opportunity of recording and transmitting to the Board of its opinion thereon.” (continued to next page)14 Notes from legal firm Nik Saghir & Ismail, 2005 reproduced here by kind permission of Nik Saghir & Ismail. Towards Excellence 59
  • 95. Part III Empowering Institutions of Higher Education (continuation from previous page) The powers of the Senate are primarily prescribed under Section 20 (4) of the University Constitution and it reads as follows: “ The Senate shall be the academic body of the University and subject to provisions of the Constitution, the Statutes, Rules and Regulations, shall have the control and be responsible for the general direction of instruction,………, and determination of and awards of degrees, diplomas,……… and other academic distinctions.” Under the above provisions, the Senate is the academic body of the University and is vested with the right to control, and the responsibility relating to academic matters prescribed therein to the extent any of such matters are not already vested in any other entity of the University. In this respect, the position is quite the same as in the case of the Board vis-à-vis the powers of the University. Statutes, Rules and Regulations may be made by the University to vest any of such academic powers or responsibilities in any other entity of the University. What is the relationship between the Board and the Senate? Under Section 15 (1) of the University Constitution, both the Board and the Senate are authorities of the University vested respectively with certain powers and responsibilities. It would therefore appear from this respect that they possess the same level of authority. However, a closer examination of the implication of Section 19 (1) of the University Constitution would reveal that the Board, albeit an authority like that of the Senate, has in fact been vested with the powers of the University itself and for this reason, the Board is the highest of all the authorities in the University. The first part of the section i.e., “No resolution shall be passed by the Board relating to any matter within the powers of the Senate…” clearly prohibits the Board from making decisions pertaining to those matters which are within the powers of the Senate. However, the second part of the section i.e. “…unless the Senate has first been given the opportunity of recording and transmitting to the Board of its opinion thereon” implies that if the Board has given an opportunity to the Senate to record and transmit its opinion on any particular matter which is within the Senate’s power to decide, the Board may pass a resolution on such matter. This provision is quite consistent with the position of the Board as the highest body in the University, which is being generally vested with the powers of the University and hence possesses the residual power of right to exercise any powers of the University, which would also include academic matters. But being a residual power or right, such power or right can only be properly exercisable in respect of matters, which has not as yet been exercised and decided upon by the Senate. To construe otherwise would clearly run against the clear and specific wordings of not only Section 19 (1) of the University Constitution but also of Section 20 (4) of the University Constitution, which specifically vest in the Senate the control, and responsibility of academic matters. In summary, we are of the view that upon proper construction of the provisions of Section 19 (2), the Section read together with the provisions of Section 19 (1) and Section 20 (4) of the University Constitution, the section merely confers upon the Board the power to pass resolutions in respect of matters which the Senate has yet to resolve. It does not confer upon the Board the absolute power to pass resolution over all matters which are within the Senate’s powers. 60 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 96. Chapter 9 Legislation and GovernanceEXTERNAL GOVERNANCE9.2.13 Every public institution of higher education is subject to Government supervision specially in relation to financial allocation for administrative expenditure. The main supervisory power is with the Ministry of Higher Education and other Central Government Agencies which undertake peripheral supervision. MoHE PUBLIC SERVICES TREASURY DEPARMENT • Finance Public IHE Universities University Colleges Polytechnics Community Colleges MOSTI PTPTN • Research Grants • Education Loans NATIONALAUDIT DEPARMENT • Audit Diagram 9.1: Relationship of Public IHE with Various Government Agencies9.2.14 Supervision of public IHE by MoHE and other Government Agencies is conducted directly through member representation. Supervision by MoHE is usually carried out through the Board of Directors. The other Government Agencies however, supervise the governing of public IHE through member representation, that is, through membership in the Board of Directors.9.2.15 For private IHE, which are set up through the Companies Act 1965, their supervision is the responsibility of MoHE through the Private Higher Educational Institutions Act 1996. This power also includes that of giving directives to ensure that national policies are adhered to. In the case of private IHE which run franchise programmes, monitoring the quality of programmes and ensuring adequate teaching and learning facilities, are done by the franchisor universities, be they local or foreign. Towards Excellence 61
  • 97. Part III Empowering Institutions of Higher Education MoHE Companies Franchisor Commission of Private IHE University Malaysia Franchisee Diagram 9.2: Supervision Scheme in the Governance of Private IHEBUREAUCRATISATION OF THE CAMPUS9.2.16 With the creation of various regulations, which were numerous and arduous, there arose a phenomenon known as ‘the bureaucratisation of the campus.’ This gave rise to the setting up of various university offices, such as the Registrar’s Office, Bursar’s Office and the Head of Library. These offices then enacted their own rules for the academic staff and students. Consequently, academic staff had to fulfil the requirements set by the administration, and thus were often unable to complete their core duties. At the same time, those appointed as deans, deputy deans, heads of department and others were made responsible for the supervision of every administrative matter, so much so that their academic duty was often neglected. As a result, the imperative to increase quality and academic excellence was replaced by the bureaucratic imperative.9.3 AUTONOMY9.3.1 The practice of IHE governance should create an atmosphere which encourages academic excellence and research. Universities should therefore not be so bureaucratic as to restrict academic and research initiatives. The Committee recognises the need for autonomy of IHE to encourage academic development and hence expect academic staff to be ethical, accountable and trustworthy in accordance with the trust bestowed upon them. The academic staff should implement academic activities according to the university system, regulations and procedures which have been collectively agreed upon to maintain the positive image of the university in the eyes of stakeholders. 62 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 98. Chapter 9 Legislation and Governance9.3.2 With regard to the issue of autonomy, the Committee has found that American universities derive their profits for academic development by responding to the demands of their society. One obvious characteristic of the universities is that they are free of government control. For example, a faculty can appoint a professor without having to refer to the government. Public and private institutions are also free to choose their students at least at the level of undergraduates. The faculty can also determine its own curriculum from a wide parameter that has been set by licencing and accreditation agencies.9.3.3 Besides, these universities also have the discretion to disburse as they see fit the funds derived from the Government. At the same time, universities can also obtain funds from various other sources. With this, the disparities between public and private universities can be reduced to a minimum. In fact, while public institutions continue to receive Government assistance, private institutions have to aggressively solicit funds from the private sector, alumni and endowments.9.3.4 Nevertheless, in line with globalisation and k-economy, the challenge to IHE worldwide is not only to secure autonomy, but also to increase productivity and quality. Thus, there is a strong case for insisting on a re-examination of the IHE standard of governance, Key Performance Indicators (KPI) and benchmarking. Financial agencies specifically and society generally, have become concerned with the quality of graduates and the quality of R&D products derived from IHE.9.3.5 The findings of the Committee on the benchmarking and best practice studies of universities in Europe, China and the USA reflect the current thinking and development in the global community vis-à-vis the quality of higher education. Even though the academic autonomy from the viewpoint of pursuing knowledge is prevalent, effective management, the quality of output and accountability of IHE, are Key KPI which society at large is concerned about. To be able to compete at international level, IHE should be prepared to subject themselves to full public audit.9.3.6 It is also important to document here that in a large of number IHE in many of the countries visited, the issue of autonomy is approached in a unique manner. According to this approach, the Government maintains its control over all the macro strategies of IHE in line with the needs of the socio-economic and socio-political strategies of the nation, while the micro operational management areas and academic issues are left to the IHE management. This situation is apparent in the presence of Government representation in IHE through the Board of Directors. Government representation in the Board of Directors is always in the majority. This composition is of particular importance as the Board of Directors has the power to appoint or dismiss IHE staff. Towards Excellence 63
  • 99. Part III Empowering Institutions of Higher Education9.3.7 It is to be noted that in Malaysia, while the Government funds and controls public IHE, the academics continue to demand for more autonomy. The Committee is of the opinion that most of the demands to reduce Government control over public IHE have merit since with a reduction in control, there will be accountability and flexibility in management operations. IHE can then focus their energies on achieving excellence based on the KPI set by the Government. RecommendationsBased on the above review, study and observations, the Committee makes thefollowing recommendations:3. The Committee recommends that the laws governing higher education be reviewed and suitable changes be made to formulate an integrated Act which will cover educational institutions, including polytechnics, community colleges and all agencies related to higher education, parallel with the establishment of the Ministry of Higher Education which is responsible for the supervision and governance of the national higher education and for specific recommendations in this Report to be legislated for the purpose of implementation.4. The Committee recommends that student discipline at polytechnics and community colleges be supervised through the same method which is used for university and university college students. The Education Institution Act (Discipline) 1976, First Schedule needs to be amended accordingly.5. The Committee recommends that the University Constitution be amended so that professors can elect twenty members from among themselves to represent the University Senate.6. The Committee recommends that the Minister of Higher Education delegate his power to the Board of Directors so that the latter can play its role as the guardian of autonomy, academic excellence and accountability.7. The Committee recommends that all policies and the governance of universities be the responsibility of the Board of Directors.8. The Committee recommends that the powers of the Board of Directors be widened to enable it to play its role as the guardian of autonomy.9. The Committee recommends that together with the Vice Chancellor, two others be appointed as members of the Board of Directors, one to represent the academic staff society and the other to represent the Senate. 64 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 100. Chapter 10 Funding, Financial Management and Control Chapter 10 FUNDING, FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL10.1 ROLE OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT10.1.1 According to the Ninth Schedule, List 1 (Federal List), Clause 13 (a), the Federal Constitution, the Federal Government is responsible for education including primary, secondary and higher education. This means that the Federal Government is wholly responsible for the establishment, development, funding and operation of an educational institution including IHE. This role of the Federal Government is clearly documented in AUKU 1971 and in the Private Higher Education Institutions Act 1996. In accordance with the provision in the Constitution and related Acts, the Federal Government, through the Ministry of Education, has established, operated and funded the development, implementation and the management as well as the administration of public universities and university colleges in the country except in the case of state religious colleges.10.1.2 The Federal Government allocated RM11.252 billion for the public IHE development programme in the Eighth Malaysia Plan and between the period 2001 and 2003, the sum of RM10.484 billion had been spent.15 In fact, the Malaysian Government is one of the few in the world which invest such large amount on education: the management and development expenditure for 2003 was RM29.9 billion or 7.8 per cent of GDP.16 As a consequence, in the academic year 2003/2004, public IHE were able to offer 318,439 places to students. The Federal Government also offered study grants, loans and bursaries to students in both public and private IHE.15 Mid-term Review of the Eighth Malaysia Plan 2001 -2005, EPU16 Economic Report 2003/2004 Ministry of Finance and Global Education Digest, Comparing Education StatisticsAcross the World. Towards Excellence 65
  • 101. Part III Empowering Institutions of Higher Education10.1.3 The table below shows the Federal Government’s ROI on human resource development since the Fifth Malaysia Plan as indicated by the success rate of certification including certificates, diplomas and degrees awarded by public IHE. Table 10.1: Number of Public IHE Graduates by Level of Certification Certification 5MP 6MP 7MP 8MP First Degree 52,840 82,790 136,003 292,378 Diploma 36,850 56,220 76,159 122,734 Certificate 14,380 33,790 9,949 17,874 Total 104,070 172,800 222,111 432,986 Source: Fifth, Sixth, Seventh and Eighth Malaysia Plans10.1.4 This Committee noted that the governments of all member countries of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD) fund higher education.Table 10.2 shows the expenditure by member countries and partner countries of OECD on IHE in 2001:Table 10.2: Expenditure on Higher Education by Member Countries and Partner Countries of OECD, 2001 and Malaysia, 2004 Percentage of Country total public expenditure Percentage of GDP Denmark 4.9 2.7 Sweden 3.6 2.0 Canada 4.6 1.9 USA 4.5 1.5 Australia 3.4 1.2 Germany 2.4 1.1 Thailand 6.1 1.1 United Kingdom 2.0 0.8 India 2.6 0.8 Malaysia * 4.4 2.1 * 2005 Budget Speech, Ministry of Finance, 10 September 200417 Source: Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators 2004, OECD 2004)17 The Ministry of Finance, Malaysia, http://www.treasury.gov.my/bajet05 (7 June 2005) 66 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 102. Chapter 10 Funding, Financial Management and Control10.1.5 Productivity is important for economic growth and is dependent on investment in the higher education sector. The Productivity Report 2000 of the National Productivity Corporation (NPC) indicates that education and training contributed 14.8 per cent of the Total Factor Productivity (TFP) in 2000 and 33.91 per cent towards the growth of TFP in the years 1990 – 2000.18 This shows that the education and training component, including higher education, is an important source and a major aspect in the growth of TFP.10.1.6 It is a fact that the country’s investment in education and training has successfully increased the number of professionals and trained human resources that are productive and knowledgeable, in line with the shift in economy from a production economy to k-economy. Table 10.3 below shows the contribution of higher education in the production of the professional resources of the country. Table 10.3: List of Registered Professionals for 1988 and 2004 Profession Year 198819 Year 200420 Accountant 4,980 21, 124 Architect 888 3,415 Doctor (year 2003) 6,393 13,869 Dentist 1,273 2,550 Veterinarian (year 2003) 610 1,232 Engineer 16,626 47, 875 Surveyor 864 2,204 Lawyer 2,562 11,692 21 22 Researcher 4,545 17,790 TOTAl 38,741 121,751 Source: Malaysian Statistical Information 2005, Malaysian Book of Statistics 2004, Mid-Term Review of the Fourth Malaysia Plan, and National Survey of Research & Development 2004 Report18 Productivity Report 2000, National Productivity Corporation 200119 Mid-term Review of the Fifth Malaysia Plan, EPU20 Malaysian Statistical Information 2005, Malaysian Book of Statistics 200421 National Survey of Research & Development 2004 Report, MASTIC22 Ibid. Year 1994 Towards Excellence 67
  • 103. Part III Empowering Institutions of Higher Education10.1.7 The 2004 UNDP Report confirms Malaysia’s Human Development Index (HDI) has increased from 0.614 in 1975 to 0.793 in 200223. The substantial investment in education and training including higher education has contributed to this increase. However, compared to the developed countries, the HDI and Education Index of Malaysia are still small. We therefore need to increase investment in the higher education sector. Table 10.4 shows the comparison of HDI and Education Index between Malaysia and selected developed countries:Table 10.4: HDI and Education Index of Selected Developed Countries and Malaysia for 2002 Ranking in the Country HDI Education Index HDI list 2002 1 Norway 0.956 0.99 2 Sweden 0.946 0.99 3 Australia 0.946 0.99 4 Canada 0.943 0.98 5 Netherlands 0.942 0.99 6 Belgium 0.942 0.99 7 Iceland 0.941 0.96 8 USA 0.939 0.97 9 Japan 0.938 0.94 10 Ireland 0.936 0.96 11 Switzerland 0.936 0.95 12 United Kingdom 0.936 0.99 13 Finland 0.935 0.99 14 Austria 0.934 0.96 15 Luxembourg 0.933 0.91 16 France 0.932 0.96 17 Denmark 0.932 0.98 18 New Zealand 0.926 0.99 19 Germany 0.925 0.95 20 Spain 0.922 0.97 21 Italy 0.920 0.93 22 Israel 0.908 0.94 23 Hong Kong 0.903 0.86 24 Greece 0.902 0.95 25 Singapore 0.902 0.91 59 Malaysia 0.793 0.83 Source: Human Development Report 2004: Human Development Index, UNDP 200423 Human Development Report 2004, UNDP 2004 68 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 104. Chapter 10 Funding, Financial Management and Control10.1.8 The Committee is of the opinion that educational funding, including that of higher education, is an important strategic investment towards increasing the people’s quality of life, the competitive capability of the nation, and for the purpose of integration and national prosperity. The socio-economic and socio-political prosperity which we enjoy today has been led and triggered by educated and trained human resources who are the result of the large investment in education in the early 60’s. A profile of the nation’s labour resource as shown in Table 10.5 below explains clearly the outcome of Malaysia’s substantial investment in higher education.Table 10.5: Percentage of MalaysianWorkforce Pursuing Degrees, Diplomas and Certificates for 1980 and 200324 Qualification Year 1980 Year 2003 (%) (%) Degree 1.4 6.3 Diploma/Certificate 0.7 6.6 Source: The Sixth, Seventh and Eighth Malaysia Plans10.1.9 When we compare the above percentage with Australia, South Korea and Singapore, the composition of our workforce possessing a degree, diploma or certificate is 12.9 per cent. The percentage for Australia (2004) is 39.2 per cent25 and for Singapore (2004), it is 31.3 per cent26. Chart 10.1 shows the comparison in greater detail.24 Malaysia’s Labour Resources 2003. Statistics Department Malaysia and Mid-Term Review Fourth Malaysia Plan,EPU.25 Human Capital Indicators, Australian Bureau of Statistics website, http:// www.abs.gov.au (17 June 2005)26 Labour Force Survey June 2004, Ministry of Manpower, Singapore we site: http:///www.singstat.gov.sg (17 June2005) Towards Excellence 69
  • 105. Part III Empowering Institutions of Higher EducationChart 10.1: Composition of Workforce with Certificate, Diploma and Degree for Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea and Australia.27 40 35 30 25 % 20 15 10 5 0 A A E IA RE LI OR RA S KO Y AP ST LA H NG AU UT A SI M SO10.1.10 It is imperative therefore that immediate attention be given to the national higher education sector because countries like Australia and South Korea better utilise the contributions of qualified human resources than Malaysia. In fact, South Korea, which at one time was at the same level of development as Malaysia, has moved ahead. It is the higher education sector in these countries which has contributed to the production of higher qualified human resources resulting in these countries making comparatively greater strides in development.27 Australian Bureau of Statistics, Korean National Statistical Office, Ministry of Manpower Singapore, and Departmentof Statistics, Malaysia. 70 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 106. Chapter 10 Funding, Financial Management and ControlAddendum 10.1: Comparison of Percentage of Students in Higher Education between South Korea and Malaysia28 In South Korea, in 2004 there were 2,113,567 students at universities, that is, 4.37 per cent of the total population. There were 276, 918 students at Masters and PhD level, which was 13.1 per cent of the total number of students enrolled at universities. In Malaysia, in 2004 a total of 2.4 per cent of the population were at institutions of higher education and 5.9 per cent of this were post-graduate students.Role of the State Government10.1.11 According to the Federal Constitution, education is not the responsibility of the state government except for the disbursement of study grants as stated in the Ninth Schedule, List III (Concurrent List), Clause 2. However, Article 12 of the Federal Constitution grants the authority and responsibility to state governments on all matters relating to Islam. In this regard, the state governments have taken the responsibility to implement Islamic education initially at the primary school level, and subsequently at the secondary and higher education levels. Higher education was first started by the Terengganu Government with the establishment of Kolej Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (KUSZA) in 1982, followed by the other state governments. Nearly all IHE that were set up and operated by the state governments used the name Kolej Islam followed by the names of the states, for example Kolej Islam Perak and Kolej Islam Pahang. Even though the name Kolej Islam is used by many IHE with Islamic studies as the core programme, courses in other areas of study are also offered; for instance, information technology and accountancy.10.1.12 Many state governments have also set up foundations, such as the Sabah Foundation, the Selangor Foundation and the Johor Education Foundation. In addition, these foundations operate public IHE, as in the case of the Johor Education Foundation which has set up a number of community colleges. The foundations have also set up educational facilities including study grants for the students in their respective states. Apart from this, there are state governments which have formed alliances with the private sector to set up and operate IHE.28 This analysis by the Committee is based on data obtained from the Annual Book of Statistics Malaysia 2004 and theMinistry of Higher Education. Towards Excellence 71
  • 107. Part III Empowering Institutions of Higher Education10.1.13 The Committee is of the opinion that state governments should benefit from one of the main functions of IHE, especially universities, which is to provide service to the local communities. Collaboration between state governments and IHE, namely universities, will enable these institutions to contribute towards the effective delivery and implementation of socio-economic development programmes at state level.10.2 ROLE OF GOVERNMENT-LINKED COMPANIES (GLC)10.2.1 There are many public bodies in Malaysia which are linked to the Government and perform both commercial and industrial activities in important economic sectors of the country such as agriculture, energy, investment, shipping, finance, retailing and transport. The Committee believes that GLC which have strong financial resources should be encouraged to create and finance Research Chairs in specific areas in IHE such as Research Chair in Energy by PETRONAS, Research Chair in Oceanography by MISC or a Research Chair in Communication by Telekom Malaysia. Such initiatives will certainly increase the R&D funding of local public IHE at the same time encouraging the local public IHE to take the lead in research programmes and projects.10.3 ROLE OF THE PRIVATE SECTOR10.3.1 The development of private IHE in Malaysia is comparable to the growth and development of privately funded and managed institutions in countries such as the USA, Japan, South Korea, the Netherlands, India, Indonesia, the Philippines and the Middle East. Private IHE have a strong role to play in serving not only the economic pursuits of the nation but also in fulfilling society’s aspiration for academic excellence. Private IHE in the USA are renowned for their success stories and diversity of programmes while the Japanese and Korean models have not only become economically successful but are also institutions of choice which have produced quality education and research. Malaysian private IHE are currently developing a viable model to contribute towards nation building. 72 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 108. Chapter 10 Funding, Financial Management and Control Table 10.6: The Number of Private and Public Universities in Japan 2003 Total Public Private Percentage Universities Universities of Private IHE All universities 702 176 526 74.9 Universities which award 507 159 348 68.6 Masters degrees Universities which award PhDs 392 128 264 67.3 Universities which offer distance learning programmes 31 1 30 96.8 (undergraduate) Universities which offer distance 15 1 14 93.3 learning programmes (post-graduate)Source: Statistics of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japanhttp: //www.mext.go.jp/English/statistic/ (30 August 2005)10.3.2 The contribution of the private sector in higher education has reduced the Government’s burden of providing education. The private sector has also accelerated the process of developing intellectual capital by entering into franchise agreements with foreign universities. Towards Excellence 73
  • 109. Part III Empowering Institutions of Higher Education10.3.3 In 2004, the private sector provided places for 322,891 students, in 559 private IHE: 11 universities, 10 university colleges, 11 branch campus universities, five foreign branch campus universities and 533 colleges and institutions. In 2004, 134,987 students successfully graduated from private IHE as shown in the chart below:29 Chart 10.2: Private IHE Graduates by Levels of Certification, 2004 Ph.D, 46 First Degree, 18,385 Masters, 423 Certificate, 60,073 Diploma, 56,060 Source: Basic Information on Private Higher Education 2004, Management Sector of the Private Higher Education Institution, Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia)10.3.4 It is pertinent to record here that the rapid development of private IHE has affected the quality of higher education offered in the country. Related to this are issues and weaknesses which have become challenges in the effort to enhance the reputation of higher education as stated by the Private Education Department in its book entitled Strategic Planning of Private Higher Education 2002-2010. The following are views which have been put forward in the Document:3029 Basic Information on Private Higher Education 2004, Management Sector of the Private Higher EducationInstitution, Ministry of Higher Education, 2005.30 Strategic Planning of the Private Higher Education 2001-2010 Ministry of Education , Pages 15 -21 74 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 110. Chapter 10 Funding, Financial Management and Control 10.3.4.1 There are private IHE which are in a dilemma between the responsibility of providing quality education and giving priority to profit consideration; 10.3.4.2 There are private IHE which only focus on soft courses and do not offer courses in science and technology which are essential for national development; 10.3.4.3 There are problems concerning the quality of teaching staff with only 4.5 per cent of lecturers possessing PhDs and 25.7 per cent Masters degrees; 10.3.4.4 There are private IHE which do not have staff development programmes resulting in lecturers lacking new knowledge and the latest developments in science and technology; 10.3.4.5 There are private IHE which have inadequate or no ICT facilities and infrastructure; 10.3.4.6 There are a large number of private IHE which do not give priority to research and development; 10.3.4.7 There are private IHE which do not provide facilities or support services to their students, especially those which operate in shop houses or office spaces in town centres; 10.3.4.8 There are only a small number of private IHE which have secured international recognition; 10.3.4.9 Most of the private IHE operate in the Klang Valley and in large towns. Thus students in the rural areas have limited access to higher education when compared to urban students; and 10.3.4.10 The relatively high fees imposed by private IHE, especially for courses in science, technology and medicine are deterrents to students from low-income families.10.3.5 Based on the information stated in paragraph 10.3.4, the Committee is of the opinion that the Government should give priority to the consolidation efforts of private IHE to ensure that the quality of higher education offered to Malaysian and international students is not compromised and the reputation of higher education in the country is protected. The Committee is also of the opinion that the time is opportune for private IHE to be fully audited to ensure that these institutions fully conform to recognised international best practices and quality standards set by the Government. In line with this, the Committee recommends that a moratorium be imposed on the establishment of new private IHE. Towards Excellence 75
  • 111. Part III Empowering Institutions of Higher Education10.3.6 The Government has played an important role vis-á-vis the IHE by making available funds for their management and development. Government financing makes up more than 90 per cent of the expenditure of universities. However, in the future, the burden of financing higher education should be shared between the Government and the private sector. The banking sector too can assist in the financing of higher education by granting loans to public IHE to undertake viable projects and offering loans to students at reasonable rates. RecommendationsBased on the review, study and observations, the Committee makes the followingrecommendations:10. The Committee recommends that the Government should view higher education as a strategic investment in the development of human capital and continue to finance it.11. The Committee recommends that education funding, especially the funding of higher education should be increased to strengthen and spur the growth of higher education so as to boost the quantity and quality of human capital that it is at par with that of developed countries.12. The Committee recommends that higher education financing should be focused on the core functions of IHE, namely: (a) to increase opportunities for Malaysians to participate in national higher education; (b) to enhance the quality of teaching and learning; (c) to upgrade the quality of research and development; (d) to increase collaboration with the local communities; (e) to diversify programmes and activities; (f) to increase national competitiveness at the global level; (g) to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of IHE governance.13. The Committee recommends that a State Government Chair be established in IHE to carry out research and development which will contribute towards enhancing the capabilities of state and local governments and the effective implementation of socio-economic and socio-cultural development programmes in the respective states. 76 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 112. Chapter 10 Funding, Financial Management and Control14. The Committee recommends that polytechnics and community colleges which have been established in the states be utilised to implement life-long learning and continuous education to train the workforce in various fields of specialisation.15. The Committee recommends that public bodies which have links with the Government (i.e.GLC) such as Petronas, Telekom Malaysia, Malaysian International Shipping Corporation (MISC), Tenaga Nasional and Maybank, be encouraged to set up state-of-the-art IHE if they have not already done so. These IHE are also encouraged to admit foreign students into their technical and commercial programmes.16. The Committee recommends that GLC should create Research Chairs in national universities and take the lead in research and the teaching of sectors which are of national importance such as energy, maritime, communication, banking, agriculture and plantation.17. The Committee recommends with immediate effect a moratorium on the awarding of new licences for the establishment of private IHE until a thorough evaluation of all existing private IHE has been carried out.18. The Committee recommends that private IHE be continually innovative and responsive towards k-economy, produce skilled human resources relevant to global markets, create links with the international community, generate new knowledge and diversify the curricula.19. The Committee recommends that private IHE be recognised as a sector that generates economic growth while playing a role in increasing access and equity. Therefore, a comprehensive incentive scheme should be established to enhance the effectiveness of private IHE, as has been done for other sectors.20. The Committee recommends that the burden of responsibility of higher education financing should also be borne by the private sector, including the banking sector, so that within a reasonable period of time, the financial strain on the Government can be reduced. This should include loans at a reasonable interest rate to public IHE as well as to students. Towards Excellence 77
  • 113. Chapter 11 Human Resources Chapter 11 HUMAN RESOURCES11.1 LEADERSHIP11.1.1 It is important to state that leadership at higher education level is not confined to mere position. Leadership in institutions of higher education is inextricably linked to intellect, scholarship, expertise and wisdom. Besides being in the forefront in the field of teaching, expert leadership also leads in the generation of ideas, research, and consultations with the industrial and commercial sectors as well as in providing community service. However, leadership in the nation’s IHE today is more focused on management and administration. Leadership in various knowledge domains is either still lacking or is not yet clearly discernible despite the fact that the main aim of IHE is to nurture, develop and invigorate various knowledge domains.11.1.2 There ought to be close cooperation between the Board of Directors, the Senate and the University Management to ensure that public IHE consistently meet the stipulations of the major stakeholders, especially the Government, in view of the fact that it is the Government that bears almost all the expenses of public IHE. The freedom that is given to public IHE refers to academic matters. In other matters, public IHE personnel have to comply with and implement the policies, procedures and other actions that are decided by the Government and adopted by university management bodies. Towards Excellence 79
  • 114. Part III Empowering Institutions of Higher Education11.1.3 If the view concerning leadership is taken into account, it is clear that the highest administrative post of Vice Chancellor or Rector, is not open to everyone. This Committee is of the opinion that it is only through the selection and appointment of the most capable person to the highest administrative post of a university would the university be able to rise to world class position and compete internationally. To realise this aspiration, the Committee is of the opinion that we need to create stringent recruitment procedures as well as a system consisting of a set of Key Performance Indicators to measure on a periodical or annual basis the performance of the leader who has been recruited. These positions therefore have to be advertised and the process of selection has to be transparent so that only candidates who fulfil all the prerequisites are appointed.11.2 SCHEMES AND CONDITIONS OF SERVICE IN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION11.2.1 Conditions of service in public and private institutions of higher education vary. Public IHE are Government agencies and are completely subject to the terms and conditions laid down by the Government while the schemes and conditions of the private IHE are laid down entirely by each institution subject to Labour Law and market forces.11.2.2 In 1992, under the New Remuneration System, the service scheme of public sector lecturers was classified under the Managerial and Professional Group in the Education Services. All lecturers, with the exception of those in the medical faculty, were placed under three categories: DS2 (Lecturers), DS1 (Associate Professors), and Special Grade (C, B, A) (Professors). Medical faculty lecturers too were placed under three categories i.e. DU2, DU1 and Special Grade. However, medical faculty lecturers under DU2 and DU1 received slightly higher salaries than lecturers under DS2 and DS1. There was however, no difference in salaries between the two groups at Special Grade level. Other matters contained in the Service Scheme were: conditions of appointment, direct appointment to the post of Associate Professor, appointment to the post of Professor (Grade C), starting salaries, period of probation, induction course examinations, confirmation in the service, annual increment of salaries, promotions and upgrading to higher special grades. The condition for approval of appointment as a lecturer in an IHE was a Masters Degree or a Doctorate (PhD). In certain fields such as medicine, veterinary medicine and architecture, basic degrees with follow-up diplomas or expertise in the relevant fields were accepted. 80 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 115. Chapter 11 Human Resources11.2.3 However, the service scheme for lecturers in ITM and KUSZA as well as language teachers at universities, was the same as those in the Graduate Education Services (Grade DG). In ITM, the grades included DG3, DG2 and DG1 while the grades for language teachers were confined to Grades DG3 and DG2. The condition for appointment as lecturer in ITM was a basic degree or Masters or Doctorate (PhD) in the relevant field. The starting salary differed in that those with higher qualifications received higher starting salaries. Besides this, there was also allocation for direct appointment to DG2 and DG1. In the case of language teachers, a first degree was the only requirement for appointment to the post.11.2.4 In polytechnics and community colleges, lecturers have to be Graduate Education Service Officers (Grade DG). The condition for appointment is a first degree in the subject that is to be taught. Other conditions relating to appointment, salaries and promotion are as laid out in the Education Service Scheme.11.2.5 In the year 2002, the New Remuneration System was replaced by the Malaysian Remuneration System. The salary grades of lecturers, including those in the medical field, were divided into six levels, i.e., DS/DU45, 51, 52, 53, 54 and Special Grade. The salary grade for lecturers in UiTM was adjusted to conform with the salary grades of other public universities (DM45 to Special Grade). In addition, UiTM continues to recruit lecturers with basic degrees in related fields (DM41). The salary grades of lecturers in KUSZA, polytechnics and community colleges comprise grades DG41, 44, 48, 52 and 54. Language teachers receive salary schemes in conformity with the Graduate Education Officers Services Scheme, i.e., DG41 to DG52.11.2.6 The conditions of service in the new scheme did not differ from those of the previous scheme. However, the direct appointment to the post of Associate Professor as well as Professor in the Service Scheme for University Lecturers and Medical Lecturers was dispensed with.11.2.7 In addition, it was decided that the basic academic qualification for lecturers of private IHE was to be at least one level higher than the course of study that they would teach. For instance, to teach a diploma level course, the lecturer should have a first degree in the related field of study and similarly for subsequent levels. The salary scheme, starting pay, promotion and confirmation in the post depend on the financial capacity of each institution. In contrast to the public institutions, lecturers in private IHE are not required to attend any induction course or competency examination and training. Towards Excellence 81
  • 116. Part III Empowering Institutions of Higher Education11.2.8 In the case of UiTM lecturers as well as medical lecturers and language teachers in IHE, the University Lecturers Service Scheme states that the appointing authorities31 can decide on a salary higher than P1 (starting salary) for all grades including Special Grade. This would be based on work experience or expertise in the relevant field, in addition to academic qualifications. Each lecturer – in the university, the medical faculty and UiTM – is entitled to sabbatical leave after having fulfilled the established service conditions and having worked for a specified time.11.2.9 Based on the above analysis, the Committee found that there is a lack of uniformity in the Lecturers Service Scheme, especially between public universities or university colleges and public IHE which are not universities or university colleges like KUSZA, the polytechnics and community colleges. Lecturers in the latter IHE as well as language teachers in universities and university colleges come under the Graduate Education Officers Service Scheme. Even though there are lecturers in this scheme who have qualifications equal to those of lecturers in the universities and university colleges, they do not have any opportunity to benefit from this in terms of salary, emoluments and promotions which university lecturers are entitled to.11.2.10 Besides taking steps to adjust and standardise the service scheme for lecturers, the Committee is also of the opinion that a separate higher education service scheme needs to be created. The current service scheme has been formulated in line with the public services scheme which is bureaucratic while the duties of lecturers require conditions that are flexible, open and afford maximum opportunities to increase their knowledge, skills and expertise.11.3 PROMOTIONS11.3.1 In keeping with the Malaysian Renumeration System (MRS), the Lecturers Service Scheme provides for two promotion posts, that is, the post of Associate Professor and Professor. Besides this, the highest administrative posts in the country are that of Deputy Vice Chancellor and Vice Chancellor. However, the Deputy Vice Chancellor is appointed on a rotation basis. This same arrangement holds for other important posts. The posts of deans and heads of school, heads of department and centres as well as heads of academic studies are rotated among the academic staff.31 Subject to AUKU 1971 and other Acts specific to each institution, the power of appointment is vested with theBoard of Directors of the university. 82 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 117. Chapter 11 Human Resources11.3.2 In principle, lecturers who possess the qualifications and meet all the conditions, can apply to be considered for promotion to the post of Associate Professor or Professor. These promotions are based on conditions of service as laid down in the University Lecturers Service Scheme. Among the important conditions for promotion are the requirement that lecturers present their research findings which have been published in local or international journals, and recommendations from their academic peers in other IHE. However, the academic considerations on which these promotions are based are not clear and the Committee has not been able to ascertain whether promotions to the post of Professor are based on stringent enough criteria to ensure that only those who are truly qualified are appointed.11.3.3 Besides the post of Professor, it is also necessary to consider increasing the number of promotions and other posts such as readers, senior lecturers, guest lecturers, fellows and researchers. Fellows and guest lecturers can assist IHE in knowledge creation, in the sharing of experience and expertise amongst lecturers, while students too will be able to draw on their experience and wisdom in the field.11.3.4 The Committee is of the opinion that the person appointed to the highly prestigious post of professor will be able to significantly contribute to the reputation of an IHE and boost the students’ level of confidence. It is therefore important that the appointee is a highly responsible and distinguished academician with excellent credentials in teaching, research, writing and publication. A professor is responsible for providing guidance and training to post-graduate scholars, implementing research training programmes, carrying out research projects and publishing the findings, assisting in the creation and enrichment of a corpus of indigenous knowledge and contributing towards the advancement of society, both locally and internationally. The Committee, therefore, is of the opinion that the performance indicators and academic criteria used for the appointment of professors and Vice Chancellors be truly rigorous.11.3.5 Furthermore, the Committee is of the opinion that, to attract the best candidates, the selection should be carried out openly and transparently, and candidates should be offered salaries that are competitive. In addition, they should be given joint rights to research findings and the income generated through the commercialisation of products patented out of this research. In benchmarking for best practices against the most prestigious universities in the world including those in China, the USA and Europe, the Committee found that the salaries paid to professors in these universities commensurate with their status and qualifications. Towards Excellence 83
  • 118. Part III Empowering Institutions of Higher Education11.3.6 The Committee also wishes to draw attention to the position of Professor Emeritus, which is awarded to retired professors of high calibre whose excellence has enabled them to contribute significantly to the development of knowledge as well as to the progress and well-being of society and the country. To date, only a small number have been awarded this title which is awarded to distinguished academicians in honour of and in recognition of their services. It is a finding of the Committee, however, that recipients do not receive any benefits or amenities when conferred this award. The Committee is of the opinion that recipients of this highly esteemed academic title be provided with appropriate facilities so that they may continue to make further contributions to society and the nation, in their pursuit of knowledge.11.4 STAFF RECRUITMENT CRITERIA11.4.1 In order that the teaching-learning process in IHE is nurtured and upgraded from time to time to meet established standards, the number of academic staff must be sufficient to fulfil the needs of the respective institution. However, the Committee has found that the rapid growth in student population and the increasing number of courses of study on offer has led to an increase in, the lecturer–student ratio, especially in the Social Sciences and the Humanities. If this situation is not satisfactorily addressed, the effectiveness, quality and performance level of teaching and learning will be adversely affected. Therefore, efforts to recruit academic staff need to be carried out continually so that the need for new staff is met, vacancies are filled, and personnel who are retiring or leaving are replaced. The MoHE, therefore, should make available sufficient funds to meet this need. The Committee is of the opinion that these funds be given directly to the IHE to facilitate action towards realising this objective.11.4.2 The Committee is of the opinion that the recruitment of academic staff should be based on specific criteria and conditions. In addition to basic qualifications and specialisations, other qualities, like personality and credibility in displaying keen interest and inclination towards knowledge and scholarship, need to be taken into account. Experience too should be one of the primary criteria for recruitment. Recruitment of new academic staff should be carried out diligently to ensure that IHE would secure the services of high calibre academic staff. 84 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 119. Chapter 11 Human Resources11.5 COOPERATION WITH INDUSTRY EXPERTS11.5.1 IHE are no longer regarded as ivory towers, separate and remote from reality and isolated in their own world. In fact, IHE are regarded by society as extremely important, not only as centres of knowledge but also as places that stimulate development and progress to the nation. To ensure that the role and contributions of IHE are relevant, up-to-date and effective, institutions of higher education need to establish links with the surrounding environment including the industrial and commercial sectors.11.5.2 In studying the benchmarking and international best practices in a number of countries, the Committee found that professionals from the industrial and commercial sectors are actively involved in teaching and learning in institutions of higher education in these countries. South Korea is the best example because of the extremely close links between its IHE and the industry. There, the practice of assisting the university through community service is considered a highly respected and honourable calling. Through cooperation, collaboration and strategic alliances between IHE and the industry, corporate figures and professionals are able to share their ideas and experiences with their academic counterparts in universities and also with the students. The lecturers are able to enrich and deepen their knowledge and the students too can equip themselves with value-added knowledge which would be very useful when they graduate.11.5.3 The Committee is of the view that the practice of close cooperation between IHE and experts in the industrial and commercial sectors should be promoted to accelerate the process of achieving world class status for higher education in the country. This means that procedures and incentives need to be put in place to encourage the involvement of experts and prominent figures from the industrial and commercial sectors in IHE so that their expertise can bring about progress in these institutions. Towards Excellence 85
  • 120. Part III Empowering Institutions of Higher Education RecommendationsBased on the above review, study and observations, the Committee hereby makesthe following recommendations:21. The Committee recommends that an obligatory condition for the recruitment of leaders at all levels in IHE is outstanding achievement, which is reviewed and evaluated annually based on Key Performance Indicators (KPI).22. The Committee recommends that a Higher Education Service Scheme be created for academic staff of IHE. Terms of service, promotion prospects and work ethics for academic staff are as shown in Addendum 11.1.23. The Committee recommends that in the evaluation of academic staff for promotion purposes, proper emphasis be given to the development of globally recognised corpora of indigenous knowledge and local expertise.24. The Committee recommends that the appointment of Vice Chancellors for post-graduate and undergraduate universities be carried out through advertising openly in order to obtain the best candidates. Vice Chancellors should be appointed on two-year terms and be given competitive salaries, with the proviso that their services can be renewed, extended or terminated at any time.25. The Committee recommends the creation of Key Performance Indicators as the instrument to gauge the performance of Vice Chancellors. This evaluation procedure should be included in their service contract.26. The Committee recommends that open, precise and stringent conditions be applied in the selection of professors who would be offered competitive salaries and grades.27. The Committee recommends that high calibre professors be given special gratuities based on academic excellence and that they should not hold executive positions.28. The Committee recommends that researchers be permitted to have joint ownership of research findings and be entitled to part of the royalties accrued through the commercialisation of patented products. 86 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 121. Chapter 11 Human Resources29. The Committee recommends that at least 15 articles published in international refereed journals be mandatory for the appointment to the position of professor. This condition for appointment, whether for promotion purposes or otherwise, should apply to all public and private universities.30. The Committee recommends that human resource development funds used for recruitment of staff for public IHE be handled by the institutions concerned. The principles applied for staff recruitment which should be open to all are: academic excellence, appropriate speciality, experience and positive disposition for scholarship.31. The Committee recommends that universities introduce a special Industrial Lecturer Programme to enable those in the industry to deliver lectures. Universities should award credit points to these industrial lecturers to encourage their involvement in the university and assist in the efforts to promote life-long learning.32. The Committee recommends that the post of Reader, with specific functions, as well as other senior posts, be created to increase promotion opportunities for academic staff.33. The Committee recommends that universities take full advantage of the posts of Writer/Researcher, Guest Lecturer and Fellow to create knowledge and experience as well as enable them to share their expertise.34. The Committee recommends that recipients of the title Professor Emeritus be given proper facilities to enable them to continue contributing their expertise including acting as mentors to younger staff members. Towards Excellence 87
  • 122. Part III Empowering Institutions of Higher EducationAddendum 11.1: Proposed Higher Education Service Scheme and Academic Staff Career Pathway 1. BASIC PRINCIPLES 1.1 Decide on the appointment procedures of senior academic staff such as professors, to increase their contribution in the academic field. 1.2 Prepare a promotion roadmap for academic staff who do not fulfil the KPI requirements for Professorship so that they have promotion opportunities based on their contributions to teaching and learning in higher education. 1.3 Allow some leeway in the conditions for compulsory retirement for academic staff in line with their job description which is closely based on experience and expertise as well as the responsibility to provide guidance to junior academic staff. 1.4 The proposed career path does not apply to the post of Vice Chancellor. 2. TERMS AND CONDITIONS 2.1 Academic staff may select either the pensionable scheme or the non-pensionable scheme with contributions to the Employees Provident Fund. 2.2 The retirement age of academic staff may exceed 60 years. 2.3 Create two pathways whereby academic staff who serve with distinction in research or through service to the community can be appointed as Professors. 2.4 Professors may be appointed under Premier Grades B, A and Staff Grade 3 in keeping with posts in the Public Services. 2.5 Academic staff who do not fulfil the KPI for Professorship may be given promotion opportunities commencing with Assistant Lecturer (Level 48), Senior Lecturer (Grade 52/ Grade 54) and Reader (Premier Grade C). 2.6 The highest grade for the post of Professor is Special Grade which is (higher than Staff Grade 3), created by the institution concerned or by various entities funding the post. The selection of such Special Grade professors should be conducted jointly by the University Board of Directors and the Ministry of Higher Education. 2.7 Professors may be appointed directly by the University Board of Directors. 2.8 Professors may be transferred to other IHE without loss of status and privileges. 2.9 Academic staff may have the benefit of sabbatical leave to upgrade their knowledge and familiarise themselves with the high culture and practices demonstrated by world renowned scholars. (continued to next page) 88 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 123. Chapter 11 Human Resources(continuation from previous page)3. QUALIFICATIONS3.1 Key Performance Indicators are criteria which are developed and endorsed by the University Board of Directors as the basis for a member of the academic staff to be considered for the post of Professor. Among the criteria is Recommendation 29, that is, the publication of at least 15 articles in international refereed journals.3.2 Only Senior Lecturers (Grade 52/Grade 54) and Readers (Premier Grade C) who meet the KPI criteria are eligible for the post of Professor.3.3 A professor who holds the post of Premier Grade B can be considered for promotion to Premier Grade A after distinguished performance and publication of a number of original articles in the pertinent field of scholarship.3.4 A professor who holds the post of Premier Grade A can be considered for promotion to Special Grade 3 after a distinguished performance, and significant and meaningful contribution in the pertinent field of scholarship.3.5 Academic staff who do not meet the KPI criteria for Professor, may be considered for the post of Lecturer (Grade 48), Senior Lecturer (Grade 52/Grade 54), or Reader, after obtaining relevant qualifications and meeting criteria decided on by the University Board of Directors.4. BASIS FOR PROMOTION4.1 A professor would have to undergo a rigorous evaluation procedure before being promoted to a higher level. A promotion committee, approved by the Board of Directors, needs to be appointed for this evaluation. This Committee should consist of representatives from the Board of Directors, the Senate and colleagues of the applicant.4.2 The primary criteria of evaluation include achieving excellence in carrying out the core functions of IHE, that is, teaching and research, writing and contributions to the nation.4.3 In cases of exceptional excellence, the grade of a Professor may be higher than that of the Vice Chancellor.5. ACADEMIC STAFF ETHICS5.1 The duty of the academic staff is to nurture a knowledge culture within the society and strive to develop knowledge through research, documentation, writing and teaching in an ethical and objective manner.5.2 The ethical principles that academic staff should acquire are: (i) Ensuring that intellectual honesty be the basis of all academic activities; (ii) Valuing a culture that prizes research, writing and teaching; (iii) Giving priority to ethics and objectivity in research; (iv) Creating a culture of excellence on a sustainable basis; (v) Assisting in the development of society, both at the local and global levels. (continued to next page) Towards Excellence 89
  • 124. Part III Empowering Institutions of Higher Education (continuation from previous page) 6. CHART 1: CAREER PATHWAY FOR ACADEMIC STAFF32 CHAIR (Special Grade) PROFESSOR (Staff Grade 3) PROFESSOR (Premier Grade A) PROFESSOR (Premier Grade B) EXCELLENCE BAR BASED ON KPI FOR PROFESSOR READER (Premier Grade C) SENIOR LECTURER (Grade 52/ Grade 54) Ph.D Holder LECTURER (Grade 48) Masters Degree ASSISTANT LECTURER (Grade 44) Basic Degree (1st Class) Masters32 The proposed career pathway in the above chart does not apply for the appointment of Vice Chancellors. 90 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 125. Chapter 12 Quality, Competitiveness and Internationalisation Chapter 12 QUALITY, COMPETITIVENESS AND INTERNATIONALISATION12.1 DEMAND FOR CHANGES12.1.1 With the phenomenon of globalisation, rapid improvement in technology, accelerating development in knowledge, and greater and widening opportunities in education, the higher education environment has experienced marked changes. This new environment has put pressure on the Government, government agencies and institutions to improve their strategy and approach to ensure quality.12.1.2 International organisations such as OECD, are working towards the setting up of a new approach to guarantee quality and accreditation. Countries like the USA, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Canada and Australia are all now focusing on the improvement of quality in the management of higher education.12.1.3 Various multilateral organisations and agreements such as ASEAN, APEC, NAFTA and GATTS are actively addressing issues related to mutual inter-country recognition of academic qualifications, student mobility and employment markets which are linked to the quality of higher education. Consequently, these initiatives have been adopted to create a benchmarking range with IHE being ranked according to various indicators of quality at the national, regional and international levels.12.1.4 The Government of Malaysia is aware of the importance of consolidating and prioritising the quality assurance and improvement initiatives to ensure that national IHE are capable of producing human capital of high calibre. At the same time, these IHE should endeavour to achieve world class standards whilst fulfilling the country’s desire to become the centre of educational excellence. Towards Excellence 91
  • 126. Part III Empowering Institutions of Higher Education12.1.5 The Government acknowledges the fact that each country has its own unique approach towards quality assurance and improvement initiatives. There is no one best or suitable model that can be prescribed for the entire education system. In this regard the approach taken by the Government is to place the responsibility of ensuring quality improvement measures on the respective IHE. Hence, IHE must shoulder the commission entrusted to them of ensuring that quality improvement measures are in place in order to achieve the objective of the Government, win public trust and fulfil the national vision.12.1.6 The commitment of the Government towards the upgrading of the quality of higher education led to the establishment of the National Quality Assurance Framework (NQAF). It is hoped that through the NQAF, the integrity of higher education in this country continues to be nurtured, maintained and further improved.12.2 THE PRONOUNCEMENT OF QUALITY IN THE EDUCATION ACTS12.2.1 The Education Act 1996 and the Private Higher Educational Institutions Act 1996 formally record the efforts to create quality education at all levels nationally. The Education Act 1996 states “… whereas, it is the mission to develop a world- class quality education system…” Whilst in the Private Higher Educational Institutions Act 1996 it is stated: “… it is important to provide the facilities and to supervise private higher education institutions so that there is healthy development and preparation for quality education…”12.3 PRONOUNCEMENT OF QUALITY IN HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE MINISTRY OF EDUCATION DOCUMENT ON EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT 2001 - 201012.3.1 The Government’s commitment towards upgrading quality assurance of higher education is clearly recorded in the document, “Development of Education 2001- 2010” (PP2010) prepared by the Ministry of Education (MoE) in 2001. This document states that one of the objectives of developing higher education is to produce quality graduates who are of high calibre and who have internalised a culture of quality in higher education.12.3.2 The PP2010 document makes attaining the highest internationally accepted quality in the field of study an area of concern and a challenge in higher education. It emphasises that quality programmes are an important aspect in ensuring excellence in education. IHE should therefore continually upgrade their current fields of study so that these remain relevant and competitive. 92 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 127. Chapter 12 Quality, Competitiveness and Internationalisation12.3.3 Besides this, the document PP2010 acknowledges that a review of these fields of studies takes into account the views of society, the industrial and commercial sectors, experts both within and outside of the country and a highly respected panel of academic advisors. The document also outlines the action plan towards improvement in the quality of higher education in the following ways: continuous quality monitoring, benchmarking, the establishment of a quality control body, inspection and the formulation of clear and detailed quality guidelines.12.4 QUALITY ASSURANCE FRAMEWORK12.4.1 In Malaysia, the move toward quality assurance and improvement of IHE is implemented centrally by the Government. This effort is undertaken through resolutions agreed to by the National Higher Education Council (MPTN) and implemented through the Higher Education Department (JPT), Quality Control Division (BJK), the Private Institutions of Higher Education Management Sector (SPIPTS) and the National Accreditation Board (LAN). The MPTN has also set up the National Higher Education Research Institute (IPPTN) which acts as the think-tank for the Ministry of Higher Education. The IPPTN also has the responsibility of assisting and developing IHE in the areas of teaching, research and publication.12.4.2 The responsibility of assuring and improving on quality has been vested on IHE by the Government. IHE therefore have the responsibility to plan and implement strategies and approaches to quality assurance initiatives internally as practised by IHE in the United Kingdom and Australia. Government agencies too can contribute by providing leaders, facilitators and supervisors in the initiative towards quality assurance and improvement. The role of BJK is to prepare the Malaysian Qualification Framework (MQF) as a quality guide and reference point and standard for public IHE. The BJK obtains the information from IHE and carefully studies the data before providing feedback to the respective IHE. Towards Excellence 93
  • 128. Part III Empowering Institutions of Higher Education12.5 THE QUALITY OF INSTITUTIONS12.5.1 BJK was established in December 2001 by the executive order of the Cabinet. Its main function is to manage and supervise the implementation of the quality assurance and improvement measures undertaken by public IHE. Its task also includes evaluating the performance of public IHE and preparing a report on the quality assurance and improvement measures undertaken by public IHE. This is to ensure that the quality of public IHE is maintained and continually improved on.The success of this mission is determined through the creation of higher education programmes at both the undergraduate and post-graduate levels, establishment of quality assurance procedures, re-evaluation of academic programmes, preparation of reports on review analysis, instilling best practices, monitoring of quality improvement activities, the implementation of programmes on quality assurance and the designing of the MQF.12.5.2 BJK, together with LAN, was successful in designing the MQF which was first adopted in 2004. The MQF is an instrument which guarantees the standard of all qualifications and awards of recognised institutions from the level of Certificate to that of Doctorate. The BJK has also developed the Malaysian Code of Public IHE Practices to Ensure Quality which represents the terms of reference for quality assurance work, and this contains: 12.5.2.1 Criteria and standard guidelines for graduate and post-graduate studies which take into account the special features of distance learning, e-learning and distributed learning; 12.5.2.2 Guidelines for data collection and the setting up of a database in public IHE; 12.5.2.3 Quality assurance procedures; 12.5.2.4 Code of ethics for quality assurance which encompasses work procedure and conduct of the evaluation panel. This code was initiated to ensure transparency and objectivity to the process of quality assurance while focusing primarily on the consolidation and the enculturation of quality in the institutions.12.5.3 Matters concerning quality assurance and improvement of private IHE are the responsibility of SPIPTS and LAN. The Private Higher Educational Institutions Act 1996, makes quality control one of the primary functions to be determined by an authority under a written law. By virtue of this provision, the Minister shall make his decision on applications of programme approval based on the recommendations of the said authority. The LAN Act 1996, states that the responsibility of LAN is to formulate policy regarding standards and quality control, and to ascertain, monitor, review and ensure that the quality of the courses offered by these institutions is maintained. 94 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 129. Chapter 12 Quality, Competitiveness and Internationalisation12.5.4 It is noted that out of the 10 functions of the Private Higher Educational Institutions Act 1996 only two of these functions deal with matters relating to quality. These two functions refer to suitability of arrangement relating to educational facilities and quality assurance of courses of study or training programmes based on recommendation of an appointed authority i.e. LAN. The quality assurance process covers the criteria and standards related to adequate infrastructure for teaching and learning, curriculum design and delivery, examinations and assessment and training programmes in private IHE. The functions also include the monitoring of private IHE to ensure strict compliance with quality assurance standards.12.5.5 LAN was established in 1996 by an Act of Parliament (Act 556). By virtue of its statutory mandate, LAN is responsible for quality assurance and improvement of higher education in private IHE. At this juncture there were a variety of qualifications such as certificates, diplomas, advanced standing/degree transfer courses that had not been subject to evaluation and determination of levels of study/programmes. Various guidelines were prepared with due process of consultation through the stakeholders for the following: The Guidelines on Criteria and Standards of Courses of Study in private IHE was prepared to be adhered to by all private IHE to ensure that programmes and courses of study offered would be of the right level with sufficient breadth and depth in content; Guidelines on the Standards and Criteria for Post-Graduate Courses, was also developed to be adhered to by private IHE which offer post-graduate and doctoral programmes so that these programmes would be of quality and on par with those offered by wellknown universities internationally; Guidelines on the Standards and Criteria for Distance Learning Programmes to guarantee the quality of distance learning programme by private IHE.12.5.6 The quality assurance process instituted by LAN as required under both statutes; i.e the Private Higher Educational Institution Act 1996 (Act 555) and LAN Act (Act 556) require private IHE to submit and obtain approval of the Minister to conduct/offer a programme or course of study based on the recommendation of LAN. Consequently, LAN is responsible for conducting a site audit visit to ascertain the compliance of minimum standards and where required, of accreditation as in the case of twinning (3+0) courses and programmes of private universities and university colleges. Towards Excellence 95
  • 130. Part III Empowering Institutions of Higher Education The minimum standard is valid until the approval lapses and accreditation is valid for five years of the course. When the programme of study has been granted the standard minimum/accreditation by LAN, the private institution of higher education may award a certificate, a diploma or a degree. The evaluation which is comprehensive covers programme/course content, learning resources, staff qualification, specialisation and experience, facilities and the management system. The evaluation panel is made up of experts in the specific fields from local private IHE, professional bodies and industry. In addition, the Code of Ethics for the conduct of the Panel of Assessors and LAN officers was also developed and came into force.12.5.7 Apart from the Guidelines and Code of Ethics, LAN has also built a database for private IHE applications and evaluation of their staff strength, facilities with analysis on student-staff ratio and student-computer ratio. LAN also has plans to progress from programme accreditation to the accreditation of institutions. 3312.5.8 Based on studies and reviews which have been scrutinised, the Committee has found that there are three different agencies under the MoHE which implement very related and similar functions of guaranteeing and upgrading of quality. These agencies are BJK for public IHE, LAN for private IHE, while SPIPTS also controls the quality of private IHE from the view point of suitability of the premises and programmes which are offered. Unlike BJK, SPIPTS and LAN have a direct relationship with these institutions.12.5.9 The Committee has found that the efforts to coordinate the overlapping of roles and functions between SPIPTS and LAN are underway, with the creation of a one-stop centre, but the roles of these two agencies need to be studied carefully. The same needs to be done with BJK and LAN as the Committee has found that both have prepared guidelines and ways to guarantee and upgrade the quality of higher education, even though the target groups are different. Besides, the MQF as a guide and reference for the quality and standard of higher education, has also been prepared. In this matter, the Committee believes that it is important for the MoHE to coordinate the functions of these two bodies.3433 This was to be in line with international quality assurance developments drawing on the lesson learnt from QAA UK,NAAC, India and AUQA34 The Cabinet had in 1996 decided that the functions of LAN also cover quality assurance of IHE in the future. 96 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 131. Chapter 12 Quality, Competitiveness and Internationalisation12.5.10 In relation to the above, the Committee believes that to enable IHE to achieve excellence and world class status, each institution of higher education should be subject to audit, and to strict and complete quality evaluation. This should be undertaken by a separate agency which will carry out the evaluation without fear or favour. This agency has to be given the power, right and responsibility to carry out its role and function freely and be responsible for sending its report to Parliament just as the British Inspectorate sends its report to the British Parliament. The international benchmarking and best practices study carried out by this Committee found that the United Kingdom, Australia and India, have long practised this in their efforts to uphold and increase the excellent reputations of their IHE respectively.3512.6 INTERNAL EVALUATION OF QUALITY AND RATING12.6.1 This study, as detailed above, focuses on the evaluation of standards and quality control of all IHE by specific agencies which provide an external quality assurance. Besides this, each insitution of higher education should conduct its own on going internal evaluation of standards and quality control as this process is a very important aspect of the quality assurance system. The Committee found that these agencies have encouraged all IHE to conduct their own continuous internal evaluation.12.6.2 Nevertheless, the Committee believes that the process of internal quality assurance should be consolidated and made adaptable. The Quality Indicator Instrument (IPK) or any other instrument used should be adapted to the needs of the institution of higher education. The IPK or any instrument used should encompass the experiences and the academic and professional qualifications of the lecturers, lecturer-student ratio, class size, curriculum content, teaching and learning, assessment system, research and publication, resources, technology and student support, co-curricular activities, professional staff development programmes, academic environment and academic discipline, vision and mission, and leadership. At the same time, attention should be given to the strengths of the institution of higher education, its niche and uniqueness.35 The quality control agency in Australia is the Australian Universities Quality Agency (AUQA), formed in 2000. In theUnited Kingdom, the Quality Assurance for Higher Education (QAA) was formed in 1997. The quality control agencyin India is the National Assessment and Accreditation (NAC) formed by the University Grants Commission in 1994. Towards Excellence 97
  • 132. Part III Empowering Institutions of Higher Education12.6.3 The Committee believes that a well-constructed IPK which is sustainably implemented, will enable an institution of higher education to instil and nurture quality culture and a high degree of responsibility not only among its academic staff but also among all its employees in general. Besides, the IPK will provide substantial information on the performance and quality of each aspect of an institution of higher education. This systemic and quality information can be pooled and utilised as a database. This information would also be very useful to interested parties, especially the university management to enable them to fully grasp and understand issues and problems, and make decisions which are reliable and accurate. Also, the IHE management can plan and organise detailed strategies which can remedy weaknesses and reinforce efforts to accelerate the respective institutions towards excellence and achieving world class status.12.6.4 The efforts to gather information and data, whether by national quality control agencies or by the institution of higher education itself, can be utilised to create an inter and intra IHE ranking and rating system. The Committee is of the opinion that this needs to be implemented so as to mould a competitive spirit among faculties, schools and departments within IHE, and also stimulate healthy competition amongst IHE at the national level.12.6.5 However, the Committee is aware that IHE differ in many aspects, for example, their history, location, environment, focus and strategic needs of the nation. As such, the proposed ranking and rating system must be flexible. Nevertherless, it is incumbent on each institution of higher education to always strive to achieve excellence through benchmarking with world renowned regional and international IHE.12.7 HIGHER EDUCATION STATISTICS12.7.1 Malaysia has become a model of success with regard to the preparation of a National Development Plan (Five-Year Plans), and for successfully implementing these plans, projects and activities. The Master Plan and other action plans for development can only succeed if the data which have been collected and analysed are relevant, accurate and up-to-date and will assist in the implementation of viable, strategic initiatives. Clearly, data collection for strategic planning purposes is of critical importance for the effective implementation of a plan and therefore cannot be done on an ad-hoc basis. 98 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 133. Chapter 12 Quality, Competitiveness and Internationalisation12.7.2 The higher education sector is in fact crucial for the socio-economic development plan of the nation. Hence, attention needs to be given to the process of collecting information and data in a comprehensive and professional manner, and which covers the demographic trend of the population, student cohort at upper secondary level and future cohorts which will be involved in higher education both in the long and short terms. Besides, there is a strong need to gather data relating to higher education and the employment sector and various social and economic issues in national development.12.7.3 Accordingly, the Committee has found that the United Kingdom has set up the Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) since 1993 which functions as the main resource for all higher education statistics. All data which are collected by HESA, that cover students, staff, finance, graduate destination and other matters, are strictly checked and now amount to about three billion items.This has resulted in the agency becoming an authoritative source of reference. In this matter, the Committee wishes to emphasise the importance of efforts to diligently gather all relevant and important data to assist the MoHE and other related bodies formulate strategic plans to ensure that national IHE in the country achieve the highest standard at regional and international levels.12.8 QUALITY OF GRADUATES: UNIVERSITY SCHOLARS PROGRAMME12.8.1 The Committee has found in its international best practices study of IHE that the USA and Singapore, for example, have implemented a scheme known as the University Scholars Programme36 which covers a multi disciplinary curriculum aimed at encouraging and stimulating creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship among the students. This programme is also aimed at providing opportunities for students to follow various educational disciplines, to develop leadership, critical thinking and effective writing skills. This programme is also intended to equip higher education students with the necessary skills to compete in the ever changing employment market and also enable them to pursue their careers in various fields.36 The University Scholars Programme, National University of Singapore, www.scholars.nus.edu.sg (14 August 2005) Towards Excellence 99
  • 134. Part III Empowering Institutions of Higher Education12.8.2 The Committee is of the opinion that the University Scholars Programme strives to increase the exchange value of higher education graduates while at the same time assist in overcoming unemployment among graduates. This conviction is based on the observation of the Committee on the implementation of the University Scholars Programme in the countries stated above. Through this programme, the problem of the lack of competitiveness, the lack of communication skills, the lack of problem-solving skills, the negative attitude towards work and its environment and the lack of leadership and entrepreneurial skills can be minimised and overcome. These are some of the problems which contribute to the phenomenon of unemployed graduates in the country.12.8.3 The Committee is of the opinion that all IHE should develop a University Scholars Programme which should be mandatory for both undergraduates and post-graduates. Addendum 12.1: A Study on the Status of Malaysian Public IHE Graduates37 A study on the status of public IHE graduates by the Economic Planning Unit of the Prime Minister’s Department found that six months after graduation, 51.1 per cent secured employment, 15.7 per cent undertook further studies, and 33.2 per cent remained unemployed. A study by the Higher Education Department, (2003) however, found that 57.4 per cent secured employment, 13.2 per cent undertook further studies, and 29.4 per cent were still unemployed Source: Competitiveness between Graduates of National IHE and Graduates of Overseas IHE, Department of Higher Education, Ministry of Higher Education (2005).37 Source: MoHE, Higher Education Department, Competitiveness between National IHE Graduates and Overseas’Graduates. JPT, January 2005 100 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 135. Chapter 12 Quality, Competitiveness and Internationalisation12.9 COMPETITIVENESS IN MALAYSIAN HIGHER EDUCATION12.9.1 Malaysian IHE still lag behind in competitiveness when compared to reputed universities in the Asia Pacific region, like Tokyo University, Kyoto University, Nagoya University, Osaka University, Australian National University, Melbourne University, Beijing University and the National University of Singapore.12.9.2 The international criteria for measuring the competitiveness of a university are: the reputation of the institution, the strength of its faculty, the quality of research produced, the alumni, the number of renowned researchers, research articles which have been published in international refereed journals and the citation index record.12.9.3 IHE the world over strive to improve their current position and standing, and the international rating and ranking system has become the reference point. Currently, there are various rating agencies such as the Shanghai Jiao Tong University and the Times Higher Education Supplement (UK), which carry out the rating and ranking of the universities concerned. The reports from both these sources are in Appendix VIII and Appendix IX.12.10 CENTRE OF EDUCATIONAL EXCELLENCE12.10.1 The demand for higher education in the region and internationally is rapidly rising. While fulfilling the national needs, Malaysian IHE need to focus their efforts on recruiting students from other countries, specifically students who are high achievers, for both undergraduate and post-graduate courses of study and not just for certificate and diploma programme. The Committee is of the opinion that the current number of foreign students at both certificate and diploma levels have not helped national IHE in achieving the goal of becoming centres of educational excellence. On the other hand, with the admission of large numbers of high achieving foreign students at both undergraduate and post-graduate levels, national IHE can become institutions of choice.12.10.2 Both regional and international IHE are now moving towards globalisation. This aspect of globalisation comprises the exchange of students and lecturers, shared curricula and the internationalisation of research and development. Thus for Malaysian IHE to succeed globally, there is a need for strategic alliances and networking with foreign IHE. Towards Excellence 101
  • 136. Part III Empowering Institutions of Higher Education12.10.3 In striving to increase competitiveness, regional and international IHE have implemented various initiatives to advance and consolidate the system of governance, the quality of academic staff, the quality of programmes of study, teaching and learning facilities as well as research and development projects. Consequently, regional and international IHE continually compete to secure the “best brains” by offering very attractive remunerations and incentives.12.10.4 A distinctive characteristic of a centre of educational excellence is its capability of attracting the best students regionally and internationally to undertake programmes of study. The Committee believes that Malaysian IHE need to offer unique and distinctive programmes, for example, a Bachelors degree in biotechnology and direct entry Masters, and a combination of programmes of study like double degrees. Malaysian IHE possess their own strengths and appeal, among which are residential living for students which allow for interaction and exchange of experiences between local and foreign students.12.11 HIGHER EDUCATION AS A REVENUE-GENERATING ENTERPRISE12.11.1 Economic diversification will stimulate the development of the service and other sectors including the financial industry, health, education and tourism. The service sector will become the source of employment for the local people and a source of foreign exchange. With regards to this, the Committee is of the opinion that our IHE can further succeed in becoming contributors to the economic sector and become strong export sources. This is because higher education in this country has reached a level of maturity and can be developed internationally to attract overseas students to undertake higher level study programmes (undergraduate, post-graduate and post-doctoral) at Malaysian IHE. Besides, Malaysian IHE can also establish branch campuses overseas as has already been done by Australian, Singapore and British IHE.12.11.2 More assertive actions need to be undertaken to export education and to promote Malaysian higher education overseas. However, the main success factor is the reputation and accreditation of Malaysian IHE as perceived by overseas institutions. Accordingly, the MoHE and IHE themselves should make more determined efforts to earn international accreditation for their various higher education programmes and also elevate the standing and quality of Malaysian scholars internationally. 102 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 137. Chapter 12 Quality, Competitiveness and Internationalisation12.11.3 It should be recorded here that at the international level, there are many professional bodies such as ABET (The Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology, USA) and IFAC (International Federation of Accountants, New York) which recognise the professional qualifications of their member countries. To ensure that the professional programmes of Malaysian IHE are recognised internationally, Malaysian professional bodies need to maintain and bring in line their current professional practices with those of international professional bodies.12.12 FINANCING OF GLOBAL INITIATIVES12.12.1 A substantial amount of financial resources is needed to promote, mobilise, and secure cooperation for obtaining international recognition. As the cost for successfully implementing the above initiatives can be exorbitant, the Committee is of the opinion that this should be shared between the Government, the industry and the private sector.12.12.2 With regards to globalisation initiatives, the Committee found that many developed countries like Japan, Germany, France and Canada, have set up special funds to encourage international student exchange. The Government should set aside financial aid to support the IHE in their quest to intensify these activities. Besides this, IHE should themselves create special funds for student exchange programmes by soliciting contributions from various parties like the alumni, as well as the industrial and commercial sectors.12.13 FOREIGN SCHOLARS SERVICE12.13.1 Developed countries like the USA and countries in Europe, not only boast of numerous home-grown scholars and researchers but also those who hail from foreign countries. Recognising the vital importance of strength of mind in generating knowledge for promoting economic wealth, these countries have been successful in attracting the best brains, particularly of talented foreigners, to serve their IHE. The Committee is of the opinion that the Government and IHE should encourage the employment and services of foreign scholars and researchers as their presence will not only enrich our intellectual heritage but also broaden the experiences of our students and lecturers. In this way, the problem of inbreeding at our Malaysian IHE can be both directly and indirectly resolved. Towards Excellence 103
  • 138. Part III Empowering Institutions of Higher Education RecommendationsBased on the above review, study and observations, the Committee makes thefollowing recommendations:35. The Committee recommends that a Quality Control, Audit and Accreditation Agency (QCAAA) be established under an Act of Parliament.36. The Committee recommends that the function of the QCAAA be as follows: (a) Audit the quality of IHE every five years; (b) Report the findings of the audit to Parliament; (c) Summarise, periodically review and update the accreditation criteria for IHE.37. The Committee recommends that the Board of Directors of the QCAAA comprise seven members as follows: (a) five members who are respected, have high integrity, possess in-depth knowledge of higher education and are willing to be devoted and committed to the development of scholarship and higher education as a whole;* (b) Two world renowned foreign scholars;* (c) The Chief Executive of the QCAAA to act as ex-officio. *The MoHE to set up a selection committee for this purpose.38. The Committee recommends that a Secretariat be set up by the MoHE for the QCAAA which is to be headed by the Chief Executive who possesses a Ph.D and will hold the position of Premier Grade ‘A’.39. The Committee recommends that every institution of higher education create and develop a Quality Indicator Instrument (IPK) to measure its own attainment of excellence.40. The Committee recommends that the MoHE develop an IPK to gather data to assess the progress of higher education.41. The Committee recommends that the MoHE encourage and support an academic ranking and rating system which is flexible, coherent and reliable in keeping with international criteria for excellence. 104 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 139. Chapter 12 Quality, Competitiveness and Internationalisation42. The Committee recommends that Higher Education Statistics Bureau be set up with the aim of collecting and analysing a comprehensive set of data regarding higher education and to initiate the setting up of various databases for strategic use by the Government and IHE.43. The Committee recommends that the University Scholars Programme be implemented as a mandatory course for all undergraduate and post-graduate students.44. The Committee recommends that IHE take the necessary action to benefit from the evaluation of international ranking and rating bodies to strengthen further their competitiveness in the country and also strengthen their ability to become global leaders in their niche areas.45. The Committee recommends that a mechanism be put in place: (a) To build inter-institutional partnership for research and partnership projects among institutions; (b) To increase networking in the areas of business, commerce and industry which are directed towards establishing research collaboration; (c) To build and strengthen relationships with various regional and international institutions; (d) To ensure that all IHE in the country benefit from the different professional bodies and groups in the region and internationally which have the skills and knowledge in the areas of their specialisation; (e) To contribute to the regional and international community by pooling the expertise of IHE so that the country can be recognised and respected by the global community; (f) To systematically implement strategies in the regional and international arena so as to enable national IHE to establish strategic alliances easily and effectively and contribute to the development of the local community.46. The Committee recommends that initiatives to promote our IHE internationally be stepped up by preparing comprehensive short and long term action plans.47. The Committee recommends that national professional bodies endeavour to be in accord with standard professional practices of international bodies so that the professional qualifications of Malaysian IHE are recognised worldwide.48. The Committee recommends that there be incentives to encourage IHE to implement activities for promoting and marketing their programmes to other countries. Towards Excellence 105
  • 140. Part III Empowering Institutions of Higher Education49. The Committee recommends that a special fund sourced from various sectors be set up for international student and staff exchange activities.50. The Committee recommends that every institution of higher education ensure that total student enrolment is made up of at least 10 to 15 per cent of high achieving foreign students. 106 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 141. Chapter 13 Information & Communication Technology Chapter 13 INFORMATION & COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY13.1 THE IT PHENOMENON13.1.1 It is undeniable that ICT is a powerful enabler in the achievement of development features because of its unique characteristics which dramatically improve communication and the exchange of information to strengthen and create new economic and social networks. The Asia Pacific and OIC markets are the fastest growing in the world. It is incumbent on us to take advantage and utilise ICT within a framework that is compatible with national and global requirements.13.1.2 Malaysians have witnessed the increasingly crucial role of ICT in commerce and industry. Especially noteworthy is how ICT has progressed to become a strategic enabler of critical new offerings and capabilities. The employment of ICT has made the playing field significantly bigger, enabling us to operate in a truly global and borderless world. It has also made it possible for the stakeholders to demand the highest standards of accountability.13.1.3 Current developments in ICT have motivated IHE to undertake a number of adaptive changes. These changes are important and critical not only to enable IHE to expand in tandem with the current developments of ICT, but more importantly to ensure that the progress and continuity of these institutions is sustained. The pressure to continue this transformation is clear when the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) is compared to other rival models like the Silicon Valley in the USA and the Dubai Internet City in the United Arab Emirates. It is encouraging to note that at the CeBIT Conference in Hanover, Germany in March 2004, Malaysia’s MSC was considered a strong brand among global ICT players. Towards Excellence 107
  • 142. Part III Empowering Institutions of Higher Education13.1.4 There is no doubt that our tertiary institutions have responded positively to the above-mentioned development. There have certainly been high Government investments in ICT in tertiary institutions especially public universities, polytechnics and community colleges. However, there has been disproportionate Return-on- Investment (ROI) and performance efficiency.13.1.5 In the development of ICT in IHE, the 2005 Educause Current ICT Issues Survey found that the top five issues are: 38 13.1.5.1 Funding; 13.1.5.2 Security and Identity Management; 13.1.5.3 Administration/Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)/Information Systems; 13.1.5.4 Strategic Planning; 13.1.5.5 Infrastructure Management.13.1.6 The Committee has found that several important initiatives are being undertaken by national IHE. For example, most universities have undertaken or are undertaking the setting up of web-based portals. The MoHE itself is considering web-based portal implementation to act as the main gateway for back-end enterprise ICT services. However, more mission critical capabilities need to be implemented to ensure better access, productivity, Quality of Service (QoS) and security.13.2 NATIONAL POLICY & LEGAL FRAMEWORK13.2.1 The Government of Malaysia has been actively supporting the use of ICT in the country. National level ICT councils and ICT policies and plans have been launched to ensure that national ICT programmes are in line with current developments and are strategically positioned.13.2.2 Malaysia has set strong imperatives and clear policies regarding ICT. The Ministry of Energy, Communication and Multimedia (MECM), the National Information Technology Council (NITC), Malaysian Administration, Modernisation and Management Planning Unit (MAMPU), Multimedia Development Corporation (MDC) and a number of other bodies play pivotal roles in overseeing the progress and development of ICT in the public and private sectors of the country.38 Source:Website Educause, http://w.w.w.educause.edu (10 June 2005) 108 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 143. Chapter 13 Information & Communication Technology13.2.3 In 1996, the NITC launched the National IT Agenda (NITA) which was recognised as the ICT development framework that would transform Malaysian society into an informed and knowledgeable society by 2020. This Agenda is proof of the importance of information technology in the development of the nation and in the achievement of the National Vision.13.2.4 Furthermore, the importance of ICT for the nation is also emphasised in the Knowledge based Economy Master Plan. The Strategic Thrust Number Four of The Master Plan focuses on dramatically increasing capacity for acquisition and application of science and technology and ICT in all areas.3913.2.5 At the same time, the Chief Secretary to the Government of Malaysia launched a Public Sector ICT Strategic Plan (ISP) in 2003 to ensure that these ICT initiatives are in tandem with the Government’s ICT vision, which is to provide efficient and quality service.4013.2.6 Malaysia is now better equipped in terms of institutional, legislative and regulatory frameworks following the establishment of the Ministry of Energy, Communication and Multimedia (MECM) and the restructuring of the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MOSTI). This has resulted in the transfer of responsibility from MECM to MOSTI to: 13.2.6.1 Formulate and implement the national policy on information and communication technology (ICT); 13.2.6.2 Formulate and implement the national information security policy; 13.2.6.3 Encourage research and development (R&D) and the commercialisation of ICT; 13.2.6.4 Develop and promote ICT industries. 13.2.7 Several changes in terms of institutional supervision and regulatory and legislative structure have shaped the new regulatory landscape for this industry. These changes are very necessary in the light of the convergence of technology in the fields of ICT which have resulted in the emergence of a new industry structure and a single value chain based on digitisation and networking.13.2.8 The Government’s objectives vis-á-vis the ICT industry are spelt out in the Communication and Multimedia Act 1998, which was introduced in 1999. This Act provides for the establishment of the Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission as the sole regulatory body for the national communications and multimedia industry.39 EPU, http://www.epu.jpm.my/new%20folder/publication/knoweco.htm (10 Jun 2005)40 MAMPU, http://mampu.gov.my/mampu/bm/program/ict/ISPlan/ispdoc (10 Jun 2005) Towards Excellence 109
  • 144. Part III Empowering Institutions of Higher Education13.3 ICT POLICY AND OBJECTIVES IN EDUCATION13.3.1 In the report Development of Education 2001-2010, three policy statements for ICT in education are outlined: 13.3.1.1 ICT literacy for all students, i.e., ensuring that all students obtain the skills to use ICT facilities; 13.3.1.2 Priority to the role and function of ICT in the school curriculum, and as a teaching and learning tool; 13.3.1.2 Use of ICT to raise productivity, efficiency and effectiveness of thea dministration.13.3.2 In addition, ICT development in education aims at: 13.3.2.1 Enhancing the development of ICT infrastructure; 13.3.2.2 Improving access and equity for ICT; 13.3.2.3 Improving ICT-based curriculum; 13.3.2.4 Enhancing the evaluation system through the use of ICT; 13.3.2.5 Emphasising the integration of ICT in teaching and learning; 13.3.2.6 Improving ICT knowledge and skills of students, lecturers and MoHE staff; 13.3.2.7 Enhancing the use of ICT in education management; 13.3.2.8 Improving the management and administration of ICT; 13.3.2.9 Enhancing R&D in ICT; and 13.3.2.10 Improving cooperation between institutions of higher learning and the community.13.3.3 This Committee found that ICT policies in developed countries emphasise strategic direction, management, governance, security, convergence, and expectations of parents, students, administrators, the community, business and industry. Furthermore, these developed countries have attained two primary capabilities by leveraging ICT as an enabling technology, that is, improving ICT capabilities and enhancing information management. As such, the objectives of ICT are as follows: 13.3.3.1 Student-centred, i.e., students benefit from access to information any time, anywhere; 13.3.3.2 Enhanced ICT system, infrastructure and support. 110 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 145. Chapter 13 Information & Communication Technology13.3.4 The Committee observed best practices of developed countries like Australia with regards to successful ICT policy in higher education.These best practices include the following: 13.3.4.1 The establishment of ICT Councils which spearhead the ICT strategy and implementation in higher education; 13.3.4.2 The setting up of Programme Management Office (PMO) which oversees activities including the overall management of planning, preparation of master plan and resource management; 13.3.4.3 The preparation of the Higher Education ICT Strategic Plan; 13.3.4.4 The implementation, upgrading and measurement of performance; 13.3.4.5 The establishment of a Higher Education ICT Management Framework which covers procurement, support service, maintenance, programme & project management, asset management, vendor and contract management; 13.3.4.6 Establishment of the Centralised Cybersecurity Committee to develop, implement, enforce and monitor all strategic elements of cybersecurity including authentication, access control, auditing and user administration; 13.3.4.7 The use of Open Source Solution (OSS) which benefits the users, especially in the current state of limited funding, by minimising costs through resource sharing.13.4 CYBERSECURITY13.4.1 Due to the importance and sensitivity of the information contained within the ICT environment of IHE, it is imperative that IHE prevent, detect and respond to external and internal unauthorised access, loss, disclosure and use or damage of information. However, it is necessary to balance the need for security with the creation of a collaborative networking environment.13.4.2 The cybersecurity realm includes implementing security principles, policies, controls, processes, standards and compliance matrix. In order to create an effective security programme for IHE, the following matters need to be considered: 13.4.2.1 Network and host assessment, and security implementation; 13.4.2.2 Security architecture; 13.4.2.3 Malice and intrusion detection; 13.4.2.4 Incidence response; 13.4.2.5 Encryption and authentication. Towards Excellence 111
  • 146. Part III Empowering Institutions of Higher Education13.4.3 This Committee observed best practices of developed countries with regards to successful higher education cybersecurity. One of the most notable is the establishment of a central body that oversees cybersecurity at the highest level. This body continuously develops, implements, enforces and monitors all elements and strategies of cybersecurity including governance, management, implementation, collaboration and technical matters.13.5 INFRASTRUCTURE AND HARDWARE13.5.1 Currently most IHE in Malaysia, including polytechnics and community colleges, have the following in terms of facilities: 13.5.1.1 In most universities, the administrative buildings, lecture rooms, laboratories and lecturers’ rooms are connected. These campuses mostly use a bandwidth of 155 mega bits per second (Mbps) broadband, 10Mbps desktop and 2Mbps Internet connectivity; 13.5.1.2 In polytechnics and community colleges, most networking connectivity is centred at laboratories, learning centres, academic centres and administrative blocks using Gigabit Ethernet backbone and Layer 3 End Switches. All polytechnics have network connections via leased lines; 13.5.1.3 IHE have network connections via a leased line WAN of at least 2Mbps utilising Gigabit Ethernet backbone and Layer 3 End Switches. However, given the traffic volume, the 2Mbps is too low for optimum productivity; 13.5.1.4 On average, our IHE have 13.6Mbps bandwidth compared to Hong Kong University which has 308Mbps and the National University of Singapore which has 155Mbps (Meteor Report, 2004).13.5.2 Some limitations in the implementation of ICT in our public universities, polytechnics and community colleges are discernible, as stated below: 13.5.2.1 Applications and platforms among public universities, polytechnics and community colleges are not standardised; 13.5.2.2 MoHE senior executives do not have access to real time, accurate and consolidated data either in their own departments or in public universities, polytechnics and community colleges; 13.5.2.3 Lack of integration and networking between the databases of MoHE, public universities, polytechnics and community colleges; 13.5.2.4 Although there have not been many highly critical security issues reported to date, public universities, polytechnics and community colleges are still potentially vulnerable to security breaches. 112 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 147. Chapter 13 Information & Communication Technology13.5.3 This Committee anticipates that the design, development, management and maintenance of ubiquitous computing and networking infrastructure in the Malaysian IHE sector remain a significant challenge in the next few years as the numbers and types of devices used by students, staff and researchers will escalate appreciably.13.5.4 With regards to successful infrastructure and hardware in higher education, the higher education network and connectivity are highly expanded, upgraded and stabilised to fulfil an acceptable level of security. Local Area Network (LAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN) technologies are highly standardised, and ubiquitous with the employment of wireless technology for computer laboratories, libraries, classes, administrative blocks, dormitories and cafes, and wireless connectivity solutions are robust and scalable to cater for convergence between WiFi, cellular wireless technologies (GPRS/EDGE, 3G), bluetooth and the Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WIMAX).13.6 SHARED SERVICES/OUTSOURCING13.6.1 There have been numerous examples of successful higher education outsourcing case studies around the world. For instance, New South Wales Department of Education and Training (DET) in Australia, Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education (PSSHE) in the USA and California State University (CSU) system of 23 campuses in the USA, have proven how outsourcing helped improve their efficiency and reduce cost tremendously. In the case of CSU, more than 20 data centres were consolidated into two large data centres to serve all of CSU’s 23 campuses.13.6.2 According to a survey in 2002 by Educause Centre for Applied Research (ECAR), the three primary reasons for outsourcing by higher education institutions in the USA and Canada are: 13.6.2.1 To compensate for inadequate in-house skills; 13.6.2.2 To improve efficiency; 13.6.2.3 To save costs. Towards Excellence 113
  • 148. Part III Empowering Institutions of Higher Education13.6.3 There are three major types of outsourcing that can be employed: 13.6.3.1 Business Process Outsourcing which delivers, manages and enhances business processes such as finance, accounting and training; 13.6.3.2 Business Application Outsourcing which involves deployment, management and enhancement of customised or packaged applications; 13.6.3.3 Technology Infrastructure Outsourcing which involves design, development and/or management of services and management of hosting, data centres, network, help desks/call centres, Data Recovery Centres (DRC).13.6.4 This Committee has identified that the three most outsourced services in world class higher education institutions, especially in Canada and the USA are: 13.6.4.1 Applications management and services 13.6.4.2 ICT infrastructure 13.6.4.3 e-Learning.13.6.5 The Committee realises that while outsourcing is not without problems, the risks can be better minimised by understanding the issues relating to outsourcing, and awarding contracts to organisations which are experienced and competent at executing them. What is important is a strategy to identify the best outsourcing offerings for higher education in our country. In this regard, it is useful to note that a study conducted by ECAR found that 66 per cent of IHE in the USA and Canada which use Application Service Provider (ASP) model have met or exceeded their expectations, and that it is less risky and less controversial than other types of outsourcing.13.7 DATA RECOVERY PLANNING AND DATA RECOVERY CENTRE13.7.2 A critical task for IHE is the operations of network, communications, processing and data storage. Researchers in R&D centres rely on high performance computers to conduct complex analysis and store large data while lecturers rely on learning management systems for teaching content, grading and student profiling. Catastrophes such as fires, earthquakes, floods, mass vandalism and terrorist activities have caused extensive damage to ICT capabilities. Therefore, serious attention should be given to a comprehensive data recovery plan.13.7.3 The Committee is aware that a data recovery mechanism in IHE needs detailed planning and expeditious implementation. This is critical to ensure that an organisation or an institution can act swiftly and resume processes and operations to an acceptable level after a catastrophic event. 114 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 149. Chapter 13 Information & Communication Technology13.8 e-LEARNING13.8.1 Over the last few years, there has been rapid development of e-learning as well as the creation of a variety of models. These models differ from one another in terms of pace and scheduling, time and synchronicity, and levels of interactivity. e-Learning is becoming mission critical for higher education. Increasingly, IHE must be prepared to provide services in a borderless world where technology-enhanced IHE reach an ever-growing number of students in both ‘click universities’ and ‘brick and click universities’.13.8.2 This Committee observed best practices in e-learning at IHE. Among the factors contributing to the success of e-learning are: 13.8.3.1 Adoption of a standard platform to facilitate the integration of e-learning applications; 13.8.3.2 Standardisation achieved at the architectural and components level; 13.8.3.3 Centralisation and standardisation of Learning Management Systems (LMS) to allow for ease of management, scalability and integrability; 13.8.3.4 Improvement of e-learning cybersecurity; 13.8.3.5 Achievement of stability for broadband access and network stability to further allow progress and increased volume of e-learning.13.9 e-LIBRARY13.9.1 Libraries have not only computerised their operations since the 1980’s, but also with the advent of the Internet, made available titles of book and journal collections to users on the Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC). The benefits are immediately apparent as they optimise access and value for the users. Publishers too have been using CD-ROMs to deliver better search capabilities for their bibliography databases which are made available through local or wide areas networks on campuses. Today, the library combines e-library and physical holdings.13.9.2 This Committee found that a number of world renowned IHE have integrated the computing services with the library services. Such action has resulted in positive outcomes, among which are: 13.9.2.1 Growing convergence between technology and information; 13.9.2.2 Increased ability to use information and technology to offer and deliver services; 13.9.2.3 Support strategic vision of IHE. Towards Excellence 115
  • 150. Part III Empowering Institutions of Higher Education13.9.3 This Committee observed best practices of developed countries with regards to successful implementation of e-library in higher education. Among the observed best practices are: 13.9.3.1 Collaboration and cross-transactions between e-libraries in private and public universities, colleges, polytechnics and community colleges; 13.9.3.2 Advanced search and retrieval capabilities; 13.9.3.3 Federated search portals and Open URL link resolves (which represent bibliographic information that Internet services can understand) to remain informative and competitive in library research and retrieval services. 13.9.3.4 Merger of e-library services, e-learning services and computing services to facilitate collaboration and learning.13.10 KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT13.10.1 As public and private higher education organisations alike respond to the phenomenal growth of online educational courses, cyber colleges and virtual universities, it is generally acknowledged that with Knowledge Management (KM), these institutions will be better able to enhance student learning. In this manner, the institutions can increase enrolment, improve student retention and graduation rates. It is clear that KM directly relates to the effectiveness with which knowledge management enables the stakeholders to deal with current situations, and plan and anticipate future scenarios.13.10.2 This Committee observed best practices of developed countries with regards to the successful implementation of KM in higher education. These include the following: 13.10.2.1 Development of a technical infrastructure that supports KM. This infrastructure should range from the provision of simple knowledge support tools to intranets and ultimately more sophisticated groupware and decision support systems; 13.10.2.2 Appointment of specialists in information management (librarians) to provide systematic knowledge processes in order to facilitate close partnerships between users and providers of information. 116 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 151. Chapter 13 Information & Communication Technology13.11 INTEGRATED DATA CONSOLIDATION AND REPORTING13.11.1 This Committee recognises that ICT education management is used fairly extensively in our higher education system. While there has been a general increase in the use of ICT in education management, the extent and level of usage differs among institutions. The current situation highlights some of the weaknesses: 13.11.1.1 Lack of integration and centralisation between the MoHE, public IHE and private IHE; 13.11.1.2 Lack of internal and external networks.13.11.2 This Committee understands that Data Warehouse (DW) is not adequately utilised in public IHE. This may be due to the insulation of higher education institutions from the competitive environment of commercial businesses. Another reason may be the perception amongst a number of high-level administrators that higher education institutions are excluded from the demands of business.13.11.3 As far as Enterprise Integration (EI) is concerned, public or private IHE may have many different systems and applications but these systems lack end-to-end integration. IHE, with the MoHE as a governing body, face a dire need to integrate their applications and systems.13.11.4 This Committee observed the best practices of developed countries with regards to achieving integrated data consolidation in higher education. These include the Executive Information System (EIS), DW and EI capabilities, which exist in an integrated and cohesive manner. EIS which allows executives to access and report on Key Performance Indicators (KPI) and critical information. Data Warehouse (DW) can be a significant component of strategic decision-making in higher education. The benefits include reduced costs, improved administration and improved customer service.13.12 CAMPUS MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (CMS)13.12.1 CMS has many benefits by virtue of its ability to streamline processes, reduce manual handling and consolidate information into a single database, eliminating or decreasing the need for departments to maintain overlapping systems. In short, CMS supports universities’ daily operations, connects campus communities and reflects the universities’ unique characters. Towards Excellence 117
  • 152. Part III Empowering Institutions of Higher Education13.13 CENTRALISED SMART CARD SYSTEM13.13.1 The use of smart card in IHE facilitates greater efficiency and the reduction of operational costs because various applications can be included in the smart card. Among the applications that can be integrated into the smart cards are access controls, inter-campus access, attendance, library self-checkout, student profiles, e-cash, medical information and specific university information. The benefits are a single card for multiple applications, cashless environment, improved access and security, reduced operational costs and improved student and staff management and administration.13.13.2 This Committee noted that the Government of Malaysia has successfully implemented a centralised National ID smart card (MyKad) incorporating both the Government and private sector applications onto a single card for all citizens of Malaysia. As such, MyKad is a good reference point to benchmark against to ensure successful planning, design, development and implementation of a centralised smart card system in Malaysian IHE. RecommendationsBased on the above review, study and observations, the Committee makes thefollowing recommendations:51. The Committee recommends that a policy be formulated for an integrated eHigher Education (eHiED) environment to ensure the achievement of improved ICT capabilities and enhanced information management. Diagram 13.1 shows the proposed simplified business architecture of eHiED. 118 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 153. Chapter 13 Information & Communication Technology eHiED Environment MoHE Public Institusi Departments IHE Private Pendidikan Tinggi IHE Swasta Polytechnic Community College The Orang Awam Public Government Agensi Kerajaan Agency Diagram 13.1: eHigher Education (eHiED) Simplified Business Architecture52. The Committee recommends that a centralised Higher Education ICT Council be formed to champion the overall strategy and implementation of eHiED environment. This Council shall be spearheaded by the Ministry of Higher Education and is to be the highest ICT strategic body for the nation’s higher education.53. The Committee recommends that applications for Open Source Solution (OSS) be adopted in the management and development efforts in MoHE, public universities, polytechnics and community colleges to realise the potential economic and practical benefits of open source models.54. The Committee recommends that secure networks be further developed using Gigabyte Ethernet and wireless technology for MoHE, public universities, polytechnics and community colleges in order to improve connectivity among students, faculty and administrators within eHiED.55. The Committee recommends that ICT Shared Service Centres be implemented for all public universities, polytechnics and community colleges. For example, it is proposed that MoHE implement single Shared Service Centre (SSC) for the northern region of Peninsular Malaysia to serve USM, UUM, polytechnics and community colleges.56. The Committee recommends that all public universities, polytechnics and community colleges within eHiED environment implement Data Recovery Centres by leveraging on the services from eHiED ICT Shared Service Centres. Towards Excellence 119
  • 154. Part III Empowering Institutions of Higher Education57. The Committee recommends that e-learning content development by experts be significantly increased. Incentive-based rewards be drawn up and implemented to promote interests in e-learning content development for public universities, polytechnics and community colleges.58. The Committee recommends that the National Library be the central digital repository for e-journals, e-periodicals, e-books, etc. for use by all stakeholders in private and public universities, private colleges, polytechnics and community colleges.59. The Committee recommends that an integrated Knowledge Management (KM) capability be developed for all public universities, polytechnics and community colleges paving the way for these institutions to implement efficient cross- institution sharing of knowledge and collaboration.60. The Committee recommends that the Ministry of Higher Education be given access to analyse and consolidate real time data from public universities, polytechnics and community colleges through the employment of integrated Executive Information System (EIS), Data Warehouse (DW) and Enterprise Integration (EI).61. The Committee recommends that each institution in eHiED employ an integrated Campus Management System (CMS) to manage student affairs, curricula, library, financials, assets, facilities and human resources.62. The Committee recommends that IHE adopt a standardised smart card system. In order to facilitate this, the MoHE should establish a central Smart Card Centre (SCC) to manage end-to-end process of personalisation and production of the smart cards for IHE. 120 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 155. Part IVEXCELLENCE IN TEACHINGAND LEARNINGThe fundamental pillar of world renowned institutions of highereducation is the practice of high quality teaching and learning.Excellence in teaching and learning produces outstanding students.These students would be able to make quality contributions to societywhile at the same time enhance the reputation of their alma mater.Therefore, high quality lecturers are a prerequisite to an excellentinstitution. In Part IV teaching and learning have been analysedand recommendations have been formulated so that action can betaken towards achieving excellence.
  • 156. Chapter 14 Curriculum Chapter 14 CURRICULUM14.1 THE NATURE OF CURRICULUM14.1.1 Curriculum is such an important part of education that it can be considered the heart of any educational institution. In this report, curriculum incorporates all programmes carried out by an educational institution to achieve its goals. These programmes include all forms of knowledge, skills, values and norms as well as other elements, but the priority concern is knowledge which can be considered the lifeblood of any educational enterprise. The role of curriculum in education is to achieve all-round self-development including spiritual, intellectual, emotional and physical development, as well as instil desirable moral values and convey knowledge and information. In short, if the curriculum that is developed is dynamic and of good quality, the institution concerned will be strong and stable. However, if the reverse is the case, then the institution will surely experience problems and will fail in achieving its vision and mission.14.1.2 In this connection, the Committee is of the opinion that creating a high quality curriculum is indeed a challenging task. Just as challenging is the effort to predict what skills will be needed in the future. Although anticipating future needs is important, this endeavour would not necessarily meet with success and would occasionally be unsuccessful. This is because the skills that are needed are not frozen in time but are dynamic and rapidly changing. However, knowledge and values that are enduring and universal will continue to be relevant under all conditions and worthy of inclusion in the curriculum. Towards Excellence 123
  • 157. Part IV Excellence in Teaching and Learning14.1.3 In the countries that were visited, the Committee found that the approach utilised to maintain the relevance of the curriculum is to provide a sound initial general education with basic skills which could be further developed. The graduates can then immediately continue to upgrade their skills and further develop their knowledge. In this context, Australia for instance, has put in place a system in which a graduate from an institution of higher education can return to the university to obtain a further degree. This arrangement meets the requirements of commerce and industry which are constantly changing and developing.14.2 A BALANCED CURRICULUM14.2.1 Higher education in the country is at the peak of the third wave in the industrial revolution as manifested through technological breakthroughs such as microelectronics, ICT, robotics, bioengineering, biotechnology and nanotechnology. The third wave of the industrial revolution has created new economic opportunities. Any nation that wishes to progress in this domain should have the courage to invest heavily in education and R&D. In this third wave, knowledge and brain power are the main resources for graduates to successfully compete in the world because through this combination, incomparable and inimitable know-how and ideas are created.14.2.2 To successfully compete, each member of society must receive an education that enables him to develop his potential to the maximum towards creativity and thinking as well as his capability for innovation. In addition, there is need at every level of the economy to develop a capacity to be adaptable and flexible.14.2.3 In this respect, the Committee is of the opinion that education in science and technology is still an important part of the effort to develop highly skilled human resources for the new economic endeavours. Therefore, the curriculum for higher education must be broad-based and capable of producing students who are innovative, flexible, business-minded, and creative, with a commitment to life-long learning. 124 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 158. Chapter 14 Curriculum14.2.4 The Federation of Malaysian Manufacturers (FMM) made a study and produced a report on upgrading the capability of graduates who are about to enter the workforce. The FMM report on the industrial sector’s requirements states that graduates should possess the following:41 14.2.4.1 Generic skills; 14.2.4.2 Skills for innovation; 14.2.4.3 Positive attitude towards work.14.2.5 Generic Skills Other than mastery of the 3Rs (Reading, Writing and Arithmetic) and computer skills, graduates need to possess good communication skills (that is, oral and written competency, especially in English). They also need to have the impetus to keep on learning in an environment that is knowledge-based. Such learning on an on going basis needs the following capabilities: 14.2.5.1 The ability to search for information and utilise it to make decisions; 14.2.5.2 The ability to use technology to obtain information; 14.2.5.3 The ability to make connections across various disciplines and share information; 14.2.5.4 The ability to comprehend social issues and their links to individuals, organisations and commerce.14.2.6 Skills for Innovation The ability to innovate is important because it can result in products of high economic value which can ultimately benefit society and the nation. In this regard, there needs to be close ties between innovation and values especially in the context of value innovation. As Chan W. Kim and Rene Mauborgne stress: “We call it value innovation because instead of focusing on beating the competition, you focus on making the competition irrelevant by creating a leap in value for buyers and your company, thereby opening up new and uncontested market space. Value innovation places equal emphasis on value and innovation. Value without innovation tends to focus on value creation on an incremental scale, ... (while) ... innovation without value tend to be technology-driven...”4241 FMM Paper on University Curriculum, FMM, 26 May 200542 Chan W. Kim and Rene Mauborgne, Blue Ocean Strategy, Harvard Business School Press: 2005 Towards Excellence 125
  • 159. Part IV Excellence in Teaching and Learning Reengineering, especially in the technical field, is not creativity in the true sense of the word. Reengineering has more to do with improving and repackaging an already existing product. In contrast to this, value innovation is creativity at its highest, disregarding the currently existing competition and exploring new fields with total control of the domain. Value innovation is critically important because of the necessity to shift from the aspiration to be the best by competing in conventional and outmoded ways and situations which usually end in failure to take the initiative to undertake new and original ventures and gain the monopoly in the pioneering enterprise. The country, therefore, very much needs human resources with this high level of creativity, people with the skills to carry out tasks without adhering to old procedures or imitating other people. This new group of people will always explore and find new methods and approaches because of their skill in value innovation. Therefore IHE in this country should develop curricula that would enable value innovation to be integrated across all disciplines.14.2.7 Positive Attitude Towards Work Graduates need to possess a positive attitude which forms the basis of strong and desirable values: integrity, industry, courage and sincerity. This positive attitude is displayed through having:42 14.2.7.1 Determination to create extraordinary products in the long term as well as strive to maintain standards already achieved; 14.2.7.2 Integrity displayed in modest demeanour, earnestness, high motivation and determination to ensure success of the organisation; 14.2.7.3 Commitment to quality and high performance standards; 14.2.7.4 Trustworthiness; 14.2.7.5 Clear thinking and continually making efforts to solve problems; 14.2.7.6 The desire to abandon negative traits and practices and re-learn through the process of self-evaluation; 14.2.7.7 Agility of mind and willingness to take calculated risks; 14.2.7.8 Priority for teamwork.4343 FMM Paper on University Curriculum, 26 May 2005 126 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 160. Chapter 14 Curriculum14.3 PRACTICAL TRAINING14.3.1 The high demand for skilled human resources, especially technicians, can be met by producing graduates who are equipped with knowledge of work processes and practical skills at every level. The Committee is of the opinion that graduates, who are currently experiencing difficulties in obtaining employment, are willing to accept blue-collar jobs. This is a positive attitude but such decisions should not be exhibited as a last choice when the job market is depressed. This positive attitude towards blue-collar jobs should be institutionalised in the higher education system. This means that higher education students should be required to undergo practical training in the private sector so that they would be able to acquire practical work experience.14.3.2 Practical training differs from industrial training in the following aspects: 14.3.2.1 Practical training requires at least one full year, not just three or four months; 14.3.2.2 Trainees would be considered as temporary employees or contract workers and subject to the rules and expectations of the actual work environment. Towards Excellence 127
  • 161. Part IV Excellence in Teaching and Learning14.4 NATIONAL NICHE14.4.1 The country’s strength lies in agriculture which includes palm oil, rubber, cocoa, black pepper and the timber industry. This is our niche market. Currently, 31 per cent of the world’s vegetable oil is palm oil and Malaysia exports 54 per cent of the world’s supply of palm oil. Table 14.1 tabulates significant figures concerning Malaysia’s palm oil industry in 2004: Table 14.1: Malaysia’s Palm Oil Industry, 2004 Land used for planting 3.9 million hectares Produce (Crude palm oil, palm kernel, crude palm kernel oil, 23 million tonnes palm kernel cake, oleochemical products) Export 17.3 million tonnes Income RM30.4 billion Percentage of world’s export 54 per cent Position among main exporters First Source: Malaysian Palm Oil Board < http://www.econ.mpob.gov.my > 8 June 200514.4.2 The stimulus to progress in the country’s palm oil industry is provided by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) which is responsible for providing technological and scientific support to the industry. MPOB has 20 years of experience in R&D, benefitting from research institutions like PORIM, Palm Oil Research and Development Board (PORDB) and Palm Oil Registration and Licencing Authority (PORLA), which have integrated with it. The research strength and experience include biological research (soils and fertilisers, entomology, pathology, physiology, farm mechanisation, gene expression, metabolics, genomics, breeding and genetics, tissue culture, crop and livestock integration and technology transfer), engineering and processing (milling, energy and environment, biomass), advanced oleochemical technology (cosmetics and detergents, surfactants and specialty chemicals), and technological products, validation methods, quality control methods, agrochemical practices, environmental control and food and nutrition studies.4444 MPOB <http://mpob.gov.my/html (17 August 2005) 128 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 162. Chapter 14 Curriculum14.4.3 MPOB also possesses the latest R&D facilities, among them the Advanced Oleochemical Technology Centre, Oil and Fats Technology Centre, Advanced Biotechnology and Breeding Centre, and Biomass Technology Centre. In addition, MPOB boasts of research stations throughout the country and consultative offices in countries which are the world’s main palm oil consumers.4514.4.4 Therefore, in order to maintain and promote the expertise and advantage in this niche market as well as achieve the aspiration to develop an educational institution that is world class which will serve as a benchmark for IHE worldwide, it is appropriate that a university or college university specifically designed for teaching and R&D in the agricultural industry is established and the necessary funds allocated immediately. MPOB and other relevant research agencies can be integrated to form the foundation for the formation and development of this institution of highere ducation. The Committee is also of the opinion that corporate entities which are directly involved in the pertinent industries be incorporated as equity holders and strategic partners.14.4.5 This is also applicable to the rubber industry which is a source of much scientific information about the planting and production of plantation rubber because this country has been involved in the industry for such a long time. In fact, it was once the country’s principal export. Even though rubber is no longer the main export commodity, rubber products can be promoted as composite and state-of-the-art merchandise. The Malaysian Rubber Board (MRB) has conducted a great deal of research and has acquired intellectual assets in this field. The Committee is of the opinion that MRB be relocated in an institute of higher education which focuses on research in agriculture.14.4.4 Besides the main agricultural products mentioned above, Malaysia is blessed with abundant territorial waters, comparatively more than its land area especially if this includes the 600km-wide South China Sea which separates Peninsular Malaysia from Sabah and Sarawak. This has resulted in Malaysian ports handling 90 per cent of the country’s exports and providing two per cent of the human resources employed in the fisheries industry. More important is the contribution of the territorial waters to the nation’s wealth in the form of petroleum and gas, the country’s largest export commodity.46 This makes the maritime sector one of the more important and sustainable activities in the country’s niche market. Malaysia certainly aspires to be a maritime nation.45 MPOB <http://mpob.gov.my/html./about/about04_j.html (17 August 2005)46 Website, Maritime Institute of Malaysia, http://www.mima.gov.my/mima (17 August 2005) Towards Excellence 129
  • 163. Part IV Excellence in Teaching and Learning14.4.5 Table 14.2 shows data concerning the maritime sector. Table 14.2: Malaysia’s Maritime Assets Information Quantum Length of coast line (km) 4,675 Percentage of population living within 100km of the coast (%) 98 Continental shelf (sq. km) 335,914 Territorial waters (sq. km) 152,367 Exclusive economic zone (sq. km) 450,000 Total annual fish catch (tonnes) 1,445,437.3 Total number of ships anchoring in all ports (2004) 456,171 Percentage of exports through sea (%) 90 Total cargo in all ports (2003) (million metric tonnes) 338.8Source: Maritime Institute of Malaysia, Maritime Department of Malaysia, Ministry of Transport, FisheriesDepartment, Statistics Department, Mid-Term Review of the Eighth Malaysia Plan, Economic Planning Unit (EPU)14.4.8 In the case of the maritime sector, the Government has established the Maritime Institute of Malaysia (MIMA) and the Malaysian Maritime Academy (ALAM). MIMA has been given the responsibility by the Government to study policy and oversee the country’s interests in maritime concerns at local, regional and international levels. Its role is advisory and consultative in nature.47 It also studies maritime-related concerns in the field of Diplomacy and Safety, Economics and Industry, Marine and Coastal Environment, and Policy and Statutes.4814.4.9 ALAM was established in 1981 (previously known as Maritime Training Centre, founded in 1977) and is administered by the Coordination and Implementation Unit in the Prime Minister’s Department. In 1997, ALAM was privatised under Malaysian Maritime Academy Sdn. Bhd., a consortium made up of Malaysian International Shipping Corporation Bhd. (MISC), Petroleum Nasional Berhad (PETRONAS), Penang Shipbuilding and Construction Sdn. Bhd., and Klang Port Management Sdn. Bhd.4747 Source: Maritime Institute of Malaysia website< http://www.mima.gov.my/mima (17 August 2005)48 Ibid49 Source: ALAM website http://www.alam.edu.my (17 August 2005) 130 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 164. Chapter 14 Curriculum14.4.10 ALAM is a maritime training and educational institute which offers certificate, diploma, degree and professional courses in nautical studies, marine technology and engineering, shipping administration and trade, and marine technical skills. ALAM has also been designated as the branch campus of the World Maritime University, Malmo, Sweden and has forged links with IHE and maritime training institutions in Australia, Canada, Norway, South Korea, Singapore, Indonesia and the United Kingdom. Currently, ALAM is developing shore-based programmes in shipping administration and trade, transportation and logistics, mechanical engineering and port management. ALAM is also developing a degree programme in maritime transportation using distance learning and an open entry system. The enrolment in ALAM for 2004 was 9,143 students.5014.4.11 In line with the Government’s aspiration to make Malaysia a centre of excellence in education, the Committee is of the opinion that the nation’s shoreline, together with the existence of institutions like MIMA and ALAM as well as shipping and ocean utilisation conglomerates like PETRONAS and MISC, constitutes a national niche which may be integrated to build a marine-based institution of higher education. Moreover, with current developments in maritime and related issues which require professional services, the Committee is of the opinion that this institution of higher education needs to be created without delay.14.5 TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL CURRICULUM14.5.1 The international benchmarking and best practices study by the Committee indicates that the success of industrial countries is a result of close alliances and integration between the IHE and the industrial communities in these countries. These communities not only provide ideas and material support but are also actively involved in the drafting of the technical and vocational curriculum. For instance, in South Korea, professionals in the industrial and commercial sectors form groups to draft curricula for the IHE. These industrial curricula are implemented after have been adjusted to take into account pedagogical aspects. If subsequently they are found lacking or unsuitable, the relevant industries themselves would take the responsibility to review and make the necessary amendments.14.5.2 This partnership arrangement between industry and IHE in industrialised countries has proven to be extremely effective in solving the problem of identifying the knowledge and skills that students need to master to meet the needs of the industry. This means that employability no longer poses a problem as conditions in both industry and higher education have improved.50 Source: Maritime Academy of Malaysia – website http://www.alam.edu.my (17 August 2005) Towards Excellence 131
  • 165. Part IV Excellence in Teaching and Learning14.6 CHARACTER AND NATION-BUILDING COMPONENT14.6.1 The Committee is of the opinion that focused and precise efforts need to be carried out through the higher education curriculum to strengthen the character of students and their level of understanding. In this matter, the Committee would like to direct attention to Islam Hadhari as well as the National Integrity Plan because both contain ideas and values to reflect on, personalise and translate into everyday living.14.6.2 In the 1980’s, efforts were made in the public service to inculcate and foster universal Islamic values which could be accepted by adherents of all religions in Malaysia. This was known as the Policy to Instil Islamic Values and was further strengthened through the Prime Minister’s Circular No. 1/98. In the context of public IHE, all students are required to take a course in Islamic Civilisation. Currently, this course has been integrated into a subject called Islamic and Asian Civilisation. However, this course does not cover all the principles advocated by Islam. The Government has therefore introduced in 2004, Islam Hadhari, which is intended to give a clearer picture of the principles of Islam. Islam Hadhari is also intended to stimulate the followers of Islam and the nation’s citizens to work towards developing strength of character and excellence in every aspect of life.14.6.3 The Government launched the National Integrity Plan (NIP) on 23 April 2004 with the intention of raising the level of integrity among Malaysians. This plan is in line with the fourth challenge of Vision 2020, that is to create Malaysian citizens who have spiritual and religious values supported by upright character and temperament. In the first five years, NIP will concentrate on important aspects such as reducing the incidence of bribery and corruption, improving corporate governance, and developing and strengthening ethics in business and commerce.14.6.4 In the preparation of the NIP, a study was conducted to understand public perception of bribery. It was found that 80 per cent of Malaysian citizens are not involved in bribery and are willing to cooperate by giving information to the authorities. From the sample that was studied, it was found that students of public IHE too were exposed to the problem of bribery and corruption and this might have an influence on them when they become part of the workforce. They need to be exposed to Moral Education and Ethics so that they would be deeply aware of and become sensitive enough to reject and avoid all forms of bribery and corruption. 132 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 166. Chapter 14 Curriculum14.7 MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION14.7.1 The Committee understands that the use of English as the main medium of instruction in all IHE does not violate the country’s Constitution. In fact, non-governmental organisations and professional bodies have informed the Committee, in meetings and discussions that were held, that the use of English is important not only in diplomacy and international commerce but also in the academic field.14.7.2 The Committee also found that English is widely used in many countries. Even in some countries which are not English-speaking, the language is used as the medium of instruction. In addition, the use of other international languages is encouraged besides the use of the mother tongue. The Committee has found that a number of countries in Europe, the Middle East and South Asia permit the use of English as the medium of instruction especially for the study of science and technology and also for professional writing. Although these countries use English as the medium of instruction, this practice does not infringe on the role and development of the mother tongue.14.7.3 The Committee has held discussions with the stakeholders and language experts in the country and it is clear that all are aware and accept the fact that in this era of globalisation, English plays a major role in the development and dissemination of knowledge and information. This group has no objections to the wider use of English as the medium of instruction in higher education. At the same time, they are very concerned about the position of the Malay language and insist that its role as the main language that shapes a united and cultured Malaysian society be protected.14.8 TEACHING OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES14.8.1 In order to be internationally competitive, IHE need to provide facilities for students to study foreign languages like English, Mandarin, Japanese and French. Programmes for the study of foreign languages will provide value-added benefits to students who will have to compete in an increasingly competitive global market.14.8.2 The Committee has found that entrepreneurs in developed countries are more interested in doing business with those who are conversant in the official language of their countries. This means that Malaysia will obtain more benefits and opportunities in international commerce if more of the resourceful and skilled people in the workforce are proficient in many international languages, especially the official languages of the developed countries. Towards Excellence 133
  • 167. Part IV Excellence in Teaching and Learning RecommendationsBased on the above review, study and observations, the Committee makes thefollowing recommendations:63. The Committee recommends that the higher education curriculum in the country be drafted and implemented in order to: (a) Develop human resources who can think critically, are able to present their ideas to society and translate and manage these ideas innovatively to benefit themselves as well as society; (b) Develop human resources who are able to comprehend issues in the context of societal realities; (c) Develop human resources who are literate not only in reading, writing and mathematics but also in IT. They should acquire the skills of organising, synthesising, analysing and using knowledge to solve newly emerging problems in society; (d) Develop human resources who are creative, innovative, risk takers, willing individuals and team players, and who have the zest for entrepreneurial commitment; (e) Develop professionals with managerial skills; (f) Develop professionals who are life-long learners.64. The Committee recommends that IHE continually review and update the curriculum and incorporate current developments.65. The Committee recommends that representatives from the corporate and industrial sectors be involved in the curriculum development process especially for the professional and science-based disciplines. They should also be involved in teaching and research.66. The Committee recommends that internships be made mandatory for a minimum period of six months for undergraduates in science and technology, students in pre-diploma, vocational and technical courses, and for other disciplines that require practicum.67. The Committee recommends that the Government and private sector jointly develop and administer a post-graduate institution of higher education based on the palm oil industry to cover all aspects of the industry including planting, agronomy, oil production and advanced palm oil products. This institution could function as a centre of excellence and could accept students from other countries who are interested to carry out research in palm oil-related fields. 134 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 168. Chapter 14 Curriculum68. The Committee recommends that the Government and private sector jointly work to raise the Malaysian Maritime Academy to the status of a university. It is proper that the Malaysian Maritime Institute be incorporated as part of the university.69. The Committee recommends that curriculum development in polytechnics and community colleges be carried out in partnership with professionals from the industrial and commercial sectors, with the professionals in the polytechnics and community colleges making adjustments in line with pedagogical principles. This approach may use the methods, Develop-A-Curriculum (DACUM) and Systematic Curriculum and Instructional Development (SCID), developed by Ohio University, USA.70. The Committee recommends that Islam Hadhari be included in Islamic and Asian Civilisation Course which should be a compulsory subject in the higher education curriculum.71. The Committee recommends that the curriculum in higher education include components on integrity and good character, as well as work and business ethics in corporate management so that the workforce can understand, act on and internalise noble life values and practise accountability as part of their work and business culture.72. The Committee recommends that Malay, as the national language, be used for all official purposes. English should be used as the medium of instruction for science, mathematics and professional subjects. Other subjects should be taught in the language that is most effective in the delivery of content. At the same time, students should be encouraged to master other international languages.73. The Committee recommends that IHE upgrade their capacity to offer the study of international languages.74. The Committee recommends that each student should master at least two international languages in addition to the Malay language. Towards Excellence 135
  • 169. Chapter 15 Teaching and Assessment Chapter 15 TEACHING AND ASSESSMENT15.1 THE TEACHING IMPERATIVE15.1.1 In Chapter 14, curriculum has been compared to the heart, knowledge to the lifeblood, and in this chapter teaching and learning are likened to the arteries that carry blood to other parts of the body. Regardless of the educational level – primary, secondary or tertiary – the effectiveness of education depends on the quality of teaching and learning which, in turn, depends on the calibre of the instructors or educationists. In other words, the primary role of educationists is to ensure that students are able to satisfactorily master knowledge, skills, values and other goals of education.15.1.2 Essentially, lecturers and scholars in IHE are educationists. However, their role is not confined to teaching only. In fact, their main functions are: to do research, publish their findings, give guidance to students, be consultants in their area of expertise, and contribute to the local and international community. This means that lecturers should continuously strive to improve their capability in all fields in order to be effective. Towards Excellence 137
  • 170. Part IV Excellence in Teaching and Learning15.2 TEACHING AND LEARNING15.2.1 The rapid growth of higher education in the last two decades has altered the profile of students in IHE in this country. In the past, when the higher education system was considered elitist, the academic background of students was more or less uniform because only a small number of the very best were accepted by the IHE. Therefore, in that period, there was no significant difference in intellectual and academic capability amongst the students. Today the situation has been transformed such that among students there is a wide range of profile in terms of background, academic ability, motivation and attitude. This range presents a challenge to lecturers especially those who have no training in dealing with the problem of teaching mixed- ability groups of students.15.2.2 With increases in intake of students in higher education in the last two decades, new academic posts have been created followed by speedy appointments in both private and public IHE. These new lecturers are obliged to handle larger groups of students in almost all fields of knowledge and study programmes. The tradition of having small group discussions in tutorials carried out in the 60s has been replaced by the one-way lecture directed at larger groups of students.15.2.3 In order to ensure effective learning and the optimum development of the intellectual potential of higher education students, lecturers need to be equipped with a variety of teaching-learning skills applicable to higher education. At the same time, it would be beneficial to the lecturers vis-à-vis their teaching if they have the skills and know- how to identify students’ background, especially their learning style profile.15.2.4 It must be noted, however, that at higher education level, it is not easy to handle and record competencies and learning outcomes such as higher order cognitive competencies and intellectual nuances that are complex, subtle, personal and individual. In fact, this set of mental operations is difficult to simplify or articulate in a table of competencies. There is therefore, an urgent need for lecturers to equip themselves with a wide range of skills and expertise as well as be regularly updated on assessment procedures. In this way, they will be able to acquire knowledge of pedagogy and andragogy and comprehend issues in teaching and learning that are the outcomes of the development of new knowledge in science, technology, management and other disciplines.15.2.5 Throughout various institutions and levels of education in the world and in Malaysia, many innovative teaching and learning methods have certainly been identified and scrutinised. However, innovations in lecturer-student relationships in IHE are lacking or are inadequately examined, piloted and carried out by the lecturers. As professionals, lecturers should be encouraged to find ways and means to assist their students learn more effectively. 138 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 171. Chapter 15 Teaching and Assessment15.2.6 Lecturers who are outstanding are not pedantic and dogmatic. In fact, good lecturers consistently provide opportunity and latitude for their students to display creativity. In this connection, many innovative approaches that are carried out at school level and in the training sector can be adapted and effectively used in IHE. The Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organisation (SEAMEO) training institutions, especially the Regional Centre for Science and Mathematics (RECSAM), the Regional English Language Centre (RELC) and Innovation and Technology (INNOTECH), have produced and compiled a good deal of findings and information on teaching-learning methods which lecturers can take full advantage of for use in their situations. Lecturers would then be able to display their skills in teaching and learning if they are willing to explore the possibilities of this new field and take advantage of already available knowledge and information.15.2.7 Lectures, seminars, tutorials and laboratory work are the methods most often used, depending on the type of course, subject, class size and lecturer-student ratio. For medical courses, for instance, the lecturer-student ratio is 1:4. This ratio is ideal and limited to certain courses of study which require close and detailed supervision. In other subjects or courses of study, especially the humanities and the social sciences, sometimes as many as 160 to 400 students are present for lectures and 30 to 40 or even more are involved in tutorials. However, at the post-graduate level, especially Masters and PhD courses, the lecturer-student ratio in local IHE is reasonable and adequate.15.2.8 The study by the Committee on international benchmarking and best practices found that quality and excellence in teaching, research and publication can only be achieved if every person in an institution adheres to the principles of best practices and quality culture. Quality culture can be realised only through full involvement, determination and commitment to unremitting improvement and an earnest desire to achieve high standards. Quality culture in the academic world can be evaluated in teaching and assessment activities such as lectures, tutorials, field work, laboratory work, tests and essay writing. The Committee has found that in world class IHE, it is standard practice to give importance to evaluating the quality of teaching so that it becomes the benchmark for excellence.15.2.9 The areas of accountability that are most important in education are relevant and dynamic curriculum, teaching as well as pedagogy. An equally important area is assessment. Therefore, in order to ensure academic and professional accountability in higher education, the performance evaluation system for lecturers needs to be revamped to include the assessment component as a means to gauge their competence. Towards Excellence 139
  • 172. Part IV Excellence in Teaching and Learning15.2.10 The revamping of the evaluation system for lecturers needs to take into account changes that have taken place in the field of knowledge as well as changing views about the nature of knowledge. Special attention should be paid to systematic ways of encouraging inter, multi and cross-disciplinary cooperation. Its aim is to produce sophisticated, in-depth knowledge and understanding, and foster wisdom in teaching and learning. From another perspective, this would reflect the far- sightedness and mental capability of scholars and highlight their capacity for logical and rational thinking.15.2.11 The proper function of the teaching-learning process is to create competent students by enabling them to be critical and rational, hold balanced opinions, and be mature and open-minded. The experience gained through learning activities and assessment should mould and stimulate their capacity to analyse, synthesise, be critical and creative and continually improve in every aspect of their lives.15.2.12 The international benchmarking and best practices study undertaken by the Committee has found that countries with world class higher education have comprehensive policies and programmes to control and raise the quality of teaching and learning in their IHE. The United Kingdom, for instance, has the Higher Education Academy, which is sponsored by the Government. Every institution of higher education in the country is a member of this Academy, which has the mandate to raise the quality of teaching-learning by providing training in pedagogy and andragogy as well as carry out research in innovative and effective teaching-learning methods.15.2.13 The Higher Education Academy also cooperates with Centres for Excellence in Teaching and Learning (CETL) throughout Britain and Northern Ireland to raise the quality of teaching and learning in higher education. The Academy has been given the responsibility by the Government to manage the National Teaching Fellowship Scheme (NTFS). Every year, this scheme gives out 50 awards worth £50,000 to lecturers for excellence in teaching. In addition, they are given study grants to carry out research on innovative activities in higher education teaching.51 This step clearly indicates that lecturers in IHE need support, through training and research, to increase their competence to carry out the basic function of education, i.e. teaching and learning.51 United Kingdom, The Higher Education Academy, Website: www.heacademy.ac.uk (28 June 2005) 140 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 173. Chapter 15 Teaching and Assessment15.3 ICT IN TEACHING AND LEARNING15.3.1 With the advent and development of ICT, learner-centred strategies are increasingly encouraged and more widely applied even though the lecturer-student ratio continues to rise. While there are still local universities in which traditional ways of teaching hold sway, distance learning centres run by universities such as Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) and Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) have, for sometime now, used ICT in their distance learning programmes. In the latest development, Universiti Tun Abdul Razak (UNITAR) has taken pioneering steps to become a virtual university employing digital software in the teaching-learning process. Universiti Terbuka Malaysia (Open University Malaysia) also has carried out virtual programmes by using multimedia technology to conduct various courses of study.15.3.2 In the last two decades, IHE in Malaysia have expressed a strong desire to use the new technology. However, Universiti Tun Abdul Razak, which since its inception focused on virtual teaching and learning, is now providing learning opportunities through face-to-face interaction. Lecturers have also begun to construct blended teaching models where traditional face-to-face lectures are delivered with the support of state-of-the-art technology. This ‘electronic’ approach is competent and can ensure excellent quality and effectiveness in teaching and learning.15.3.3 Besides traditional methods, various ICT approaches are being used in higher education teaching and learning. Nevertheless, a consolidated and systematic effort to take advantage of ICT in assessment, for example, online testing, is still minimal.15.4 ASSESSMENT15.4.1 Assessment, like teaching and learning, is an integral aspect of the curriculum. It is a process of obtaining information and making a judgment on the product of an educational process. The aim of assessment is to get an overall picture to ascertain how far a programme carried out by an educational institution has achieved its objectives. To obtain this picture and the effectiveness of the programme, various ways and methods have been created to get the necessary data. These assessment methods include formative and summative evaluation, examinations, tests, quizzes, practical exercises and presentations. In short, assessment includes all ways and methods to get an overall picture of the performance. Towards Excellence 141
  • 174. Part IV Excellence in Teaching and Learning15.4.2 Each term or semester, students carry out various tasks to fulfil part of the requirements of their academic course. They also take mid-semester tests and final examinations. All these products of their endeavours, either individually or in groups, can provide very useful information, especially of their mastery of subject content in terms of basic or procedural knowledge, thinking processes and thinking skills.15.4.3 Analysis of a student’s work or that of a group of students can produce systematic and useful data concerning their learning strengths and weaknesses. Explicit and empirical feedback obtained from the students’ work about their achievement through systematic error analysis can be utilised to improve teaching and learning. In addition, this information can be used to raise the academic achievement levels and intelligence of the students as well as boost their capability to continue their studies to a higher level.15.4.4 At present, there is no verifiable data about any innovation in the assessment system in higher education. This does not mean that there are no good, dedicated and innovative teachers, tutors and lecturers in higher education. Their commitment and dedication, however, need to be augmented with skills in the science of assessment suited for higher education through exposure to innovations in assessment procedures. At the same time, this aspect should be taken into account in the performance evaluation of these lecturers. Innovation in the system of assessment, together with quality of teaching, is among the most important variables in determining the quality and excellence of an institution of higher education.15.4.5 The Committee understands that Malaysia has a well-established examination infrastructure that is internationally recognised. The two bodies that are responsible for handling the public examination system are the Malaysian Examination Board and the Malaysian Examination Council. These two bodies have established, managed and maintained the quality and integrity of the national assessment system for primary and secondary school levels. This is because, for a long time now, many educationists have been trained in local and foreign universities to become experts in assessment including evaluation, measurement, examinations and testing.15.4.6 The IHE in this country conduct their own internal examinations using standard operating procedures (SOP). They also invite external examiners to validate, support and advise on the academic standards of a particular course or programme but not necessarily on the overall system of assessment of the university. At PhD level too, the contribution of external examiners is limited to validating the establishment, level of the academic institution and academic programme and to ensure international validation. The external examiners generally do not give systematic feedback concerning the whole system of assessment. 142 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 175. Chapter 15 Teaching and Assessment15.4.7 In many IHE, the hidden assumption is that each lecturer is an expert in the field of knowledge that he teaches. This is followed by the assumption that each lecturer is also an expert at assessment. This latter assumption is not necessarily accurate because assessment is not an integral part of the field of knowledge that a lecturer has mastered and is teaching.15.4.8 There are two significant and closely connected aspects concerning the assessment system in universities. Firstly, there are the regulations, procedures and administration of the system of assessment; secondly, there is the academic discipline involved. Lecturers have wide discretion in the method and content of tests and examinations. If teaching and learning is a science as well as an art, so too is assessment. The lecturers set the questions, mark the students’ answers, decide on the weightage allocated to basic knowledge and procedural knowledge and skills that have been taught. This aspect of assessment is very important and cannot be carried out arbitrarily or through trial and error or based on teaching experience only. Assessment should be based on procedures that are dependable, scientific and up- to-date.15.4.9 In fact, assessment methods are interdependent and cannot be separated from pedagogy and andragogy and the imperatives of the curriculum. Because of this interdependence, whatever innovations carried out in curriculum and pedagogy should be followed with changes in the assessment system. Similarly, whatever changes made in the system of assessment should be in line with the parameters of the curriculum and curriculum imperatives.15.4.10 This means that any innovation in the method of assessment can evoke a strong backwash in pedagogy and curriculum. For example, if the assessment system highlights the ability to make generalisations, connections and creativity, then teaching and learning too will focus on these imperatives. Thus innovations in the method of assessment can stimulate a new concept and theory of knowledge management and raise the level of teaching and learning.15.4.11 Every subject discipline, whether it is science, technology, social science or humanities has its own historical background, structure and thought process. A mature field of knowledge would have developed research designs and specific ways of producing, managing and applying the findings of research. In all disciplines, not only content can be assessed, but also methods, processes and modes of thinking and procedures.15.4.12 In short, innovation in assessment is very important to ensure the effectiveness of teaching and learning as well as the level of mastery in any field of knowledge. However, any initiative in innovative assessment can only take place when lecturers in higher education master the basics of epistemology, ontology, axiology, the history of the development of knowledge as well as pedagogy and andragogy. Towards Excellence 143
  • 176. Part IV Excellence in Teaching and Learning15.4.13 Generally, national IHE assess their students through formative evaluation procedures such as tests, quizzes, presentations and practicals as well as summative evaluation through formal examinations. Final examinations usually have greater weightage. In addition, students are required to write problem-solving studies or working papers. This encourages them to do independent research and, directly or indirectly, familiarises them to the culture of research.15.4.14 At present, many courses in universities have introduced continuous assessment procedures similar to those already in force in technical and vocational courses. This means that other than the normal course work, research and the consolidation of knowledge and skills are also evaluated. The standard criteria for research work include demonstrating a grasp of conceptual skills, and research methodology. Currently, there is growing interest in combining teaching and learning with research. RecommendationsBased on the above review, study and observations, the Committee makes the followingrecommendations:75. The Committee recommends newly recruited teaching personnel and lecturers take mandatory training programmes in pedagogy and andragogy. Even professors should be encouraged to be involved in post-doctoral studies.76. The Committee recommends that IHE create procedures which encourage new lecturers to refer to and have ongoing discussions with experienced lecturers and professors in order to upgrade their professionalism in teaching-learning activities.77. The Committee recommends that all IHE prepare long-term plans to raise the professionalism of their staff, create suitable awards and give appropriate salaries.78. The Committee recommends that a mentor-mentee system be created to provide opportunities for intellectual and socio-emotional counselling to students in the higher education system. The residential system in teaching and learning should be fully utilised for the attainment of authentic, individual, intellectual and scholarly personalities.79. The Committee recommends that a mechanism be devised for channelling funds to enable higher education lecturers to upgrade their competencies in teaching, research and service to society as well as sharpen their intellectual skills through cooperative interaction with their colleagues in the same discipline, both local and overseas. 144 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 177. Chapter 15 Teaching and Assessment80. The Committee recommends that without prejudice to the assumptions, approaches, methods and techniques already in use, higher education lecturers should be encouraged to explore approaches in teaching-learning that are based on constructivism.81. The Committee recommends that leaders in IHE be committed in bringing about innovations in philosophy, policy, teaching-learning practices and assessment as the pillars in creating excellent and prestigious IHE.82. The Committee recommends that all staff members of IHE be given ongoing training to acquire skills in ICT and that they utilise this in teaching-learning, assessment, research and administration.83. The Committee recommends that all IHE take steps to ensure that all students master ICT and other skills relevant to the digital era.84. The Committee recommends that all IHE give serious attention to academic assessment and ensure that all lecturers be given ongoing training to master assessment skills. Towards Excellence 145
  • 178. Part VEXCELLENCE IN RESEARCHAND DEVELOPMENTResearch is yet another pillar of excellence that qualitativelydifferentiates a world class institution of higher education from others.The research component in higher education will motivate andstimulate students to search for and discover knowledge, understandhuman conditions, and produce innovations and inventions which cancontribute towards the peace and prosperity of the nation. Thus, PartV deals specifically with research and development in higher educationso that immediate action can be planned by those responsible forhigher education and to spur these institutions towards achievingexcellence.
  • 179. Chapter 16 Research and Development Chapter 16 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENTAddendum 16.1: Basis for Research in Malaysia’s Human Resources Development One of the basic strategies for human resources development in the Vision 2001-2010 Development Policy is: “to encourage research in science and technology in Malaysian society in disciplines which are suitable to the country such as commercialisation and the marketing of the products of education in order to be highly competitive and become forerunners in certain fields.” Source: Vision 2001 – 2010 Development Policy, MAPEN II Report, 31 January 2001, Page 421 Towards Excellence 149
  • 180. Part V Excellence in Research and Development16.1 STATUS OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT IN MALAYSIA16.1.1 A study by the Malaysian Science and Technology Information Centre (MASTIC) in 2002 on R&D in Malaysia shows that:52 16.1.1.1 Malaysia’s Gross Expenditure on R&D (GERD) as a proportion of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is 0.69 per cent. This is considerably lower than the status achieved in developed countries and nations in the Asia- Pacific region. Chart 16.1 below highlights this situation: Chart 16.1: Research Intensity in Selected Countries (Percentage) SOUTH KOREA, 2.53 KOREA, 2.53 TAIWAN, 2.3 SINGAPORE, 2.15 AUSTRALIA, 1.53 CHINA, 1.09 INDIA, 0.78 MALAYSIA, 0.69 BRAZIL, 1.05 BELGIUM, 1.98 USA, 2.72 FINLAND, 3.42Source: National Survey of Research & Development, 2004 Report, MASTIC 16.1.1.2 The national R&D activity focuses on applied research and experimental development research which uses 68.6 per cent and 23 per cent respectively of the RM2,500.6 million Gross Domestic Expenditure on R&D (GERD). Basic research only utilises 8.4 per cent of GERD 2002. 16.1.1.3 The main fields for R&D are Engineering Science, ICT, Applied Science and Technology. These fields use 76.1 per cent of GERD 2002. 16.1.1.4 Malaysia has 17,790 researchers which is equivalent to a ratio of 18 researchers to every 10,000 labour force whereas when applied to the whole population, the ratio of researchers for every 10,000 Malaysians is 7.3. The measurement for comparison at the international level is based on the Full-time Equivalent (FTE) of researchers to 1000 labour force. Chart 16.2 highlights the international position of Malaysia.52 National Survey of R&D Report, MASTIC, 2004 150 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 181. Chapter 16 Research and Development Chart 16.2: FTE of Reseachers per 1000 Labour Force in Selected Countries 18 16 F 14 A S i r n 12 o g l P u e a 10 o G n t n r M r t h S d t T 8 T i J a u e K i a u e n a l g o K n i 6 T C C P a p a r a c r g w h S o a u h e o a y k l e a 4 r i i l p r n s e a p n k n l a a e i o 2 iy a e n i a a r d n e 0 Source: National Survey of Research & Development 2004 Report, MASTIC 16.1.1.5 The breakdown of researchers in Malaysia according to qualifications is shown in Table 16.1:53 Table 16.1 Breakdown of Researchers According to Qualification (Percentage) Qualification Breakdown (Percentage) Ph.D 32 Sarjana 27 First Degree 35 Non-Degree Holders 6 16.1.1.6 R&D in Malaysia is carried out by Government research institutes (GRI), IHE, and the private sector.53 Based on the analysis of Malaysian Science & Technology Indicators 2004 Report, MASTIC. Towards Excellence 151
  • 182. Part V Excellence in Research and Development16.1.2 The Malaysian Government encourages R&D activities through:54 16.1.2.1 R&D Promotion Agencies: Chief among the R&D promotion agencies being the Malaysian Technology Development Corporation (MTDC) and Malaysian Industry-Government Group for High Technology (MIGHT). These agencies make available financial resources, assistance in commercialising the products of R&D, technology transfer from foreign countries, and integration of R&D activities between the public and private sectors. 16.1.2.2 R&D Centres: The main centres are Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC), Technology Park Malaysia (TPM), Kulim High–Tech Park, and BioValley Malaysia. These zones have the infrastructure and facilities for the K-industry: ICT, biotechnology, assistance for Government-Private Sector Collaboration, and commercialisation of R&D products. 16.1.2.3 Funding and Grants: The Malaysian Government’s main Funds and Grants are listed in Table 16.2: Table 16.2: Grants, Funds and Schemes for Research Promotion Grant/Fund/Scheme Administered by Industry R&D Grant Scheme (IGS) MOSTI Multimedia Super Corridor Research and Development MSDC Sdn. Bhd Grant Scheme (MGS) Intensification of Research in Priority Areas (IRPA) MOSTI Commercialisation of R&D Fund (CRDF) MTDC Technology Acquisition Fund (TAF) MTDC Technology Acquisition Fund for Women (TAF-W) MTDC Demonstrator Application Grant Scheme (DAGS) MIMOS Bhd. Upgrading Engineering Design SMIDEC e-Manufacturing Grant SMIDEC Rosetta Net Standard Implementation for SMEs SMIDEC Industrial Technical Assistance Fund (ITAF) SMIDEC Source: Malaysian Science and Technology Indicators 2004 Report, MASTIC54 National Survey of R & D 2004 Report, MASTIC 152 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 183. Chapter 16 Research and Development 16.1.2.4 Investment and Capital Tax Allowance: Made up of Pioneer Status allowance, Investment Tax Allowance and Double Tax Deduction, are all controlled by the Internal Revenue Board.16.2 STATUS OF R&D IN IHE Addendum 16.2: Aspirations for R&D in the Vision Development Policy “Research and Development activities are limited in local universities. Although the latest equipment is available, without incentives to promote R&D, it would be difficult for Malaysia to compete internationally. It is therefore necessary to build a culture and environment that is suited for the growth of R&D in Malaysia. In keeping with the latest methods, fourth generation R&D needs to be carried out so that sharing between education centres and industry can focus on the production and marketing aspects of R&D. R&D activities can also attract foreign students who would consider Malaysia as a centre of excellence for education”. Source: Vision 2002 -2010 Development Policy, MAPEN II Report. 31 January 2001. Page 43816.2.1 The status of R&D in IHE in 2002 was as follows:55 16.2.1.1 Expenditure for R&D in IHE was RM360.4 million, i.e 14.4 per cent of GERD; 16.2.1.2 The focus of IHE on the type of R&D activities they carried out was balanced. The percentage of expenditure allocated to the types of R&D activities was distributed as follows: 37.5 per cent on Applied R&D, 31.6 per cent on Experimental Development R&D, and 30.9 per cent on Basic R&D; 16.2.1.3 The piority of IHE in the fields of research is Environmental Science, Applied Science, Technology, Engineering Science, Biology, Medicine, and Health Science. These fields utilise 67.2 per cent of the R&D expenditure; 16.2.1.4 Collaboration and integration between IHE and industry in research activity is on the increase;55 National Survey of R&D 2004 Report, MASTIC Towards Excellence 153
  • 184. Part V Excellence in Research and Development 16.2.1.5 Sources of funds for R&D in IHE are as shown in Table 16.3 below: Table 16.3: Sources of Funding for R&D in IHE Sources of Funding Proportion (Percentage) Intensification of Research in Priority Areas (IRPA) 59.1 Government 4.3 Other funds (Malaysian) 1.8 Other funds (Foreign) 0.7 Source : MASTIC (2004) 16.2.1.6 The number of researchers in IHE is 10,527, that is, 59.2 per cent out of 17,790 researchers in the country. 16.2.1.7 The breakdown of researchers in IHE based on qualification is as shown in Table 16.4 below:56 Table 16.4: Breakdown of Researchers in IHE Qualification Breakdown (Percentage) Ph.D 41.9 Masters 30.6 First Degree 25.7 Non-Degree Holder 1.7 Malaysian 93.3 Non-Malaysian 6.7 Source: MASTIC (2004)16.2.2 The Committee found that constraints in resources were the main obstacles to progress in R&D in IHE and these can be divided into seven aspects: 16.2.2.1 Lack of autonomy in the management of funds allotted for R&D; 16.2.2.2 Very limited funding; 16.2.2.3 Insufficiently trained human resources including researchers as well as technicians and supporting staff; 16.2.2.4 Limited state-of-the-art infrastructure including space and equipment; 16.2.2.5 Administrative obstacles caused by delay and tentativeness in decision making; 16.2.2.6 Lack of incentives for the lecturers and institutions; 16.2.2.7 Incomplete information about market demand due to paucity of market research.56 National Survey of R&D 2004 Report, MASTIC 154 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 185. Chapter 16 Research and Development16.2.3 Based on the above discussion concerning R&D, the Committee is of the opinion that: 16.2.3.1 Malaysia cannot disregard the ever demanding competitive global pressures as the capability to compete and to attract foreign investors and researchers increasingly depends on the ability to create knowledge. Therefore, research is the key to knowledge creation and is the backbone for success in a global knowledge-based economy; 16.2.3.2 The establishment of a knowledge society depends on the creation of new knowledge, its delivery through education and training, its distribution through information and communication technology, and its use through the process of creating products, services and new industries. Thus, universities play important roles in all these aspects and in the handling of research products; 16.2.3.3 The universities in this country possess enormous capability and potential to contribute towards the advancement of R&D activities so that they would be on par with countries in the Asia-Pacific region like Australia, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and Japan; 16.2.3.4 The combined strength of the researchers in IHE can be further utilised to carry out research and research training; 16.2.3.5 The Government needs to appreciate that return on investment in research is long-term. Among the benefits accrued from such investment are progress in the social and technological fields leading to the discovery and mastery of knowledge, sharing of expertise and the development of entrepreneurship culture. Industrious human capital researchers too can make significant contributions to a democratic and knowledgeable society as they are crucial to the economic development of the country. In addition, knowledge creation, a critical component for innovative practices can be translated into economic and social progress through the new ideas and techniques of these researches; 16.2.3.6 IHE should carry out concurrent changes to ensure that they become avenues for nurturing and encouraging creativity and inventions as well as create environments where ideas can be discussed freely, critically and openly, in a spirit of tolerance, accountability and responsibility; 16.2.3.7 Universities in the country should become incubators for local and international entrepreneurs to invest in R&D and at the same time attract overseas post-graduate scholars particularly those involved in post- doctoral studies; Towards Excellence 155
  • 186. Part V Excellence in Research and Development 16.2.3.8 Universities in the country should provide supportive environments to nurture talented young researchers into receiving relevant and high quality learning experiences to enable them to be innovative and creative. In this manner universities are able to produce graduates who are in demand both in the local and international job markets as they have the skills and ability to meet the standards of the best work practices in the world; manner universities are able to produce graduates who are in demand both in the local and international job markets as they have the skills and ability to meet the standards of the best work practices in the world; 16.2.3.9 Universities in this country ought to be given more opportunity and autonomy to maximise their efforts at basic research. In this way, the universities can establish themselves as places that nurture creativity and inventiveness where knowledge is valued and appreciated. If this aspiration is not realised, not only will our IHE deteriorate but also will produce graduate researchers without vision and without the resolve to achieve breakthroughs in knowledge. The need for Malaysia to have talented researchers who can become creators of new ideas cannot be overemphasised; 16.2.3.10 The universities in this country need to promote efforts to find a common median so that the findings of researchers and the products of manufacturers can be exchanged and shared. This practice should become a permanent feature in the higher education research initiatives. In other words, the manufacturers should be involved in deciding on priorities in the funding and research activities. These close ties will enable researchers to have greater leeway in carrying out their research activities without being hampered by procedures and red tape. Furthermore, they can benefit from the knowledge of experts be they from the IHE or from the other sectors. These connections need to be enhanced to include training in research so that students can imbibe knowledge and skills from a variety of sources, both academic and industrial; 16.2.3.11 It is very important to change the way research is currently financed and managed within and across sectors and institutions. In addition, the focus and fields where research is carried out have to be varied in order to achieve international recognition. There are universities which have a wide spectrum of research activities while there are those that restrict their research activities to certain fields only. Therefore, it is necessary to realign research activities to the socioeconomic and development goals and objectives of the country as well as give due consideration to the needs of the local communities; 156 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 187. Chapter 16 Research and Development 16.2.3.12 Universities in this country need to seize opportunities that arise, focus more on entrepreneurship, be more flexible and responsive to the requirements of business and thus attract more investment from the private sector. The capability of universities to develop new ideas and respond immediately to operationalise them can result in increasing avenues for opportunities, profits and remuneration that may be shared by individuals and the research teams. Through the strategic utilisation of intellectual property rights, IHE can ensure continued return, royalty benefits or equity shares for the institution and the researchers; 16.2.3.13 The Government, IHE and the private sector should cooperate in order to attract a larger capital share to ensure that research findings can be successfully marketed globally; 16.2.3.14 The critical role of the Government in supporting basic research and nurturing a culture of research is reflected in its public spending. Such spending can also encourage and support excellence in research especially in the awarding of competitive grants to universities based on performance. Grants may also be given to institutions which jointly work on research activities that involve the collaboration of industries; 16.2.3.15 A comprehensive national innovation system needs to be established to guide and direct R&D endeavours and also serve as an avenue for commercialising the results of these ventures.16.2.3 In this regard, the Committee is of the opinion that the time is opportune for research activities, especially research in IHE, to be upgraded and be in line with the nation’s strategic needs. Research should be carried out by way of collaboration between IHE, research institutions, commercial and industrial sectors, and Government economic agencies. The Committee is also of the opinion that in order to bring to fruition this enormous initiative, the establishment of a coordination and sponsorship body is necessary so that maximum benefits can be derived from the available resources and all efforts are consistent with the strategic requirements for national socioeconomic development.16.3 RESEARCH – INTENSIVE UNIVERSITIES16.3.1 The Government of Malaysia has committed itself to raise the standard of higher education in the country by creating research-intensive universities to meet the challenges of development in the knowledge-based industry. This commitment is clearly stated in the Mid-Term Review of the Eighth Malaysia Plan 2001 – 2005:5757 Mid-Term Review Eighth Malaysia Plan 2001-2005, EPU, 2003 pg 133-134 Towards Excellence 157
  • 188. Part V Excellence in Research and Development “4.106 Public institutions of higher learning will expand their post-graduate programmes to enhance their research capability and increase the pool of R&D human resource. The number of post-graduate students at masters level is expected to increase to 34,910 and level to 5,350 in 2005. Undergraduates with outstanding academic achievement and high research competency will be encouraged to take up post- graduate studies and join the academia of public or private institutions of higher learning. Post-doctoral programmes will also be increased in strategic fields of study. In this regard, financial assistance will be provided and existing research funds will be restructured and refocused in line with research in identified priority areas. Academic staff in public institutions of higher learning will be encouraged to drive the research activities by becoming supervisors to post-graduate students. 4.107 In order to encourage institutions of higher learning to increase their participation in fundamental and applied research, researchers will be encouraged to form research teams focusing on specific objectives in priority areas to be identified from the technology foresight study to be undertaken. Joint research between universities, public research institutes and the private sector will be intensified to ensure a synergistic link between fields of study and the needs of industry. 4.108 Efforts to establish Malaysia as a regional centre of educational excellence will be strengthened. In this regard, measures will be undertaken to encourage competition among local institutions of higher learning to become premier educational institutions. These institutions will also need to identify and develop individual areas of specialization into renowned centres of excellence. These efforts will attract more foreign students and researchers to study and undertake research at post-graduate as well as post-doctoral levels. In this regard, the Institute of Molecular Medicine at Universiti Sains Malaysia, the Borneo Institute of Marine Research at Universiti Malaysia Sabah and Institut Kajian Sains Fundamental Ibnu Sina at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia are among the centres that will be strengthened. 158 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 189. Chapter 16 Research and Development 4.109 The private institutions of higher learning will need to conduct high- end courses such as in the pure sciences, engineering and technology- related areas to produce more S&T human resource. These institutions will also be encouraged to embark on research in collaboration with public institutions of higher learning including through the exchange of teaching staff and sharing of laboratories, facilities and equipment.”16.3.2 The Committee is of the opinion that the commitment of the Malaysian Government, as evidenced above, is indeed appropriate. It is in line with the development of k-society which is closely related to the creation of new knowledge, rapid development in education and training, the explosion in the information and communication technology, and the expansion in innovation and invention in the industrial and service sectors. All of these are closely connected to the function and role of IHE, which need to carry out and bring to fruition this trust and responsibility.16.3.3 It is pertinent to note that the international benchmarking and best practices study by this Committee in countries in Europe found that these countries have jointly carried out a programme called “European Research Area of Knowledge for Growth (ERA of Knowledge for Growth)”. The awareness and commitment of these European nations is clearly reflected in the policy paper “Commission of The European Communities”. 16.3.3.1 On this basis, the Commission is proposing a new Research Framework Programme with four objectives, each supported by its own programme. These four programmes are: • Cooperation: To gain leadership in key scientific and technology areas by supporting cooperation between universities, industry research centres and public authorities across the European Union as well as with the rest of the world. • Ideas: To stimulate the creativity and excellence of European research through the funding of “frontier research” carried out by individual teams competing at European level. • People: To develop and strengthen the human potential of Europea research through support to training, mobility and the development of European research careers. Towards Excellence 159
  • 190. Part V Excellence in Research and Development • Capacities: To enhance research and innovation capacity throughout Europe ensuring optimal use and development of research infrastructure; supporting regional research- driven clusters, unleashing the full research potential existing in the EU’s convergent regions and outermost regions, supporting research for the benefit of SMEs; bringing science and society closer together; and developing and coordinating an international science and technology co-operation policy. Through their combined impact, these programmes will allow for the emergence and reinforcement of European poles of excellence in various fields.58 Addendum 16.3: The Korean Advanced Institute of Technology, South Korea The Korean Advanced Institute of Technology (KAIST) was established on 16th February 1971, then known as Korean Advanced Institute of Science (KAIS). One mission of KAIST is to participate in short and long term basic and applied research projects to enhance South Korean Competitiveness in Science and Technology. KAIST: Important Facts (2005) Total Academic Staff 394 Professors 287 (73%) Associate Professors 67 (17%) Assistant Professors 40 (10%) Researchers 4 Research Assistants 7,306 No. of undergraduates 2,978 (41%) No. of post-graduate students 4,328 (59%) Source: KAIST, General Information http://www.kaist.edu/main.html (30 August 2005)58 Extract from the Communication From The Commission: ‘Building the ERA of Knowledge for Growth’,Commission of the European Communities, Brussels, 6th April 2005. 160 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 191. Chapter 16 Research and Development Addendum 16.4: The Australian National University, Australia The Australian National University (ANU) is the most prestigious research and post-graduate university in Australia with a reputation that is internationally respected. Important facts concerning ANU are as follows: Total Academic Staff (2004) : 1,454 Researchers : 816 (60%) Teachers and Researchers : 538 (40%) Total Student Enrolment (2003-2004) : 11,023 Undergraduates : 7,615 (69%) Post-graduates : 3,377 (31%) Foreign Students (2004) : 2,744 (25%) (Students from New Zealand are considered domestic students) Source: ANU, Statistical Summary 2004 http://www.anu.edu (2 September 2005)16.3.4 Based on the seriousness and commitment shown by developed nations such as the European countries, to employ highly qualified researchers into IHE, the Committee is of the opinion that Malaysia needs to take immediate action and deploy initiatives to expedite R&D activities so as to usefully utilise the expertise of scholars who are already available in our IHE. The Committee is of the opinion that a number of renowned IHE, with a wealth of intellectual experience and reputation for academic excellence, can be elevated to research and post-graduate universities modelled on other such prestigious institutions in the world.16.4 INTEGRATION WITH THE INDUSTRY16.4.1 The role of the industry to upgrade R&D in IHE is very important for it is the principal factor in the commercialisation of R&D outputs. IHE should provide suitable opportunities to attract greater participation in R&D by the industry which in turn, can provide additional research funds to IHE to increase R&D activities. This cooperation involves the bringing together of expertise, equipment, fund and efficient planning to ensure that the process of integration is sustainable in the long term. Issues related to equity, royalty and patents should be agreed upon so that the R&D products can be commercialised to benefit all parties involved. Towards Excellence 161
  • 192. Part V Excellence in Research and Development16.4.2 The international benchmarking and best practices study by the Committee found that in Europe, the USA, Canada and South Korea, the collaboration between IHE and industry is close and dynamic. As a consequence, IHE in these countries obtain considerable sums of money through the commercialisation of research activities which are jointly done with the industrial and commercial sectors. Therefore, it is the Committee’s opinion that it is the IHE which should take the initiative to approach the industrial and commercial sectors to set up joint R&D projects and subsequently share the benefits of the returns from the intellectual property that they have together produced. It is strategic for the industry to work side by side with IHE to enhance their contribution to R&D activities.16.5 INTERNATIONAL CONNECTIONS IN R&D16.5.1 In the effort to be competitive in the global arena, R&D activities in Malaysia need the recognition of foreign researchers and industrialists. In order to achieve this, IHE should forge ties with research centres and renowned researchers worldwide. These ties can take the form of cooperation and collaboration among the parties involved. Through these joint R&D activities conducted in Malaysia, the products of the research can be showcased internationally. It is therefore appropriate that cooperation and joint research activities be carried out as part of the supervision process of post-graduate students in addition to the sharing of information on research findings between local IHE and internationally renowned universities. The Committee is confident that, through this cooperation in R&D, the capability of researchers in Malaysia can be enhanced especially in fields of knowledge that are most current. An added spin-off of these cooperative ventures is that the products of local research can be commercialised internationally. 162 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 193. Chapter 16 Research and Development16.5.2 The quality and flexibility shown in the production and acquisition of knowledge in this new millennium is affirmation that our society is ready and willing to face the challenges of scientific, technological and social changes. Besides, the transfer of knowledge can be more efficiently effected through the exchange of scholars and graduates who possess excellent qualifications. In this context, sustainable and systematic efforts need to be implemented to train and develop the potential of new graduates and scholars. It is obvious that the dissemination of cross border exchange of knowledge that is relevant for the future constitutes a significant contribution to Malaysia in addition to creating understanding between this nation and countries throughout the world. In the international benchmarking and best practices study by the Committee, it was found that countries in Europe, Canada and the USA have created agencies or foundations sponsored by governments to finance cooperation between local and foreign scholars to facilitate research in science, economics, politics and culture. Germany, for instance, has established and is sponsoring the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) which has been responsible for financing international academic cooperation since 1925. DAAD has 14 offices throughout the world and offers programmes and emoluments to post-graduate students, professors and researchers in IHE. DAAD sponsors more than 65,000 individuals per year as well as being the representative of German higher education for research and academic pursuits, and assists in creating links between advanced research institutions throughout the world.16.5.4 The Canadian Foundation for Innovation (CFI) is another example of an institution sponsored by the Government to promote R&D internationally as well as attract talent and expertise to Canada to initiate R&D activities which are world class.5916.5.5 In this regard, Malaysia could set up a Research Park close to an institution of higher education and this park could serve as a meeting ground for researchers. Silicon Valley in the USA is such an example of this. However, Malaysia has to identify a niche area and decide on her own approach.59 Canadian Foundation for Innovation, http://www.innovationcanada.ca (8 June 2005) Towards Excellence 163
  • 194. Part V Excellence in Research and Development16.6 DEVELOPMENT OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES16.6.1 Higher education can play a significant role in promoting the socio-economic development of the country by encouraging and pioneering research activities. Universities too can further stimulate the growth through a multi-disciplinary approach in collaboration with the industry and other informed members of society. Researchers and academicians can undertake to be consultants and advisors to business, commercial and industrial institutions. The leadership imperative in this regard cannot be over- emphasised to ensure the successful coordination, supervision, facilitation and support to research which is interdisciplinary and collaborative.16.6.2 Research is essential to foster the acquisition of new knowledge and understanding. A dynamic world class research sector is not only vital for higher education but equally crucial to economic growth and national integration. A critical mass of valued and well-motivated researchers will certainly enable the marketing of excellent research products and ensure the sustaining of our research base against global competition. Among the motivating factors that would heighten their continued passion for excellence in research would be the appropriate recognition accorded to them by the country.16.6.3 This Committee also recognises that a key feature of a world class research system is its dynamism, its openness and its ability to change. It is therefore imperative that we enable our researchers to respond to new trends and developments in their disciplines and to pursue new fields of inquiry.16.6.4 The Committee found that the European concern for quality of research has been demonstrated by instituting the Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme (CIP) with a budget of an estimated £4.21 million for the period 2007– 2013. CIP has set three targets:60 16.6.4.1 Industrial Innovation programmes for small and medium industries; 16.6.4.2 ICT support programmes for ICT users in business and in the public services; 16.6.4.3 The Intelligent Energy Europe Programmes.60 Innovation Policy in Europe, European Innovation Portal http://www.cordis.1u/innovation (19 June 2005) 164 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 195. Chapter 16 Research and Development16.7 INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY AND PATENTS16.7.1 Intellectual property is part of the nation’s wealth. The registration of intellectual property through patents is however extremely limited in Malaysia. Currently, most of the patents which are registered belong to citizens of the USA, the UK and Japan. IHE can increase the number of potential intellectual property through broadly-based and vigorous R&D activities. Local researchers should be given facilities and support to enable them to patent their products not only in Malaysia but also internationally. In this regard, achievement targets need to be set to ensure effective performance.16.7.2 There is thus an urgent need to develop intellectual property and to produce other assets. This can be realised through financial aid and expertise in managing intellectual property as is carried out by large corporations in developed countries. The implication for Malaysia is that there should be a restructuring of the current procedures and arrangements and the need to formulate a policy regarding intellectual property.16.7.3 Special licencing offices have been established by countries which have successfully and professionally managed intellectual property and there is an urgent need for such an arrangement to be emulated by Malaysia.16.8 ICT IN R&D16.8.1 Malaysia is still in its embryonic stage in research and development in ICT when compared to the more developed countries. Much of the work in this country concentrates on the development of infrastructure, hardware, software, information and curriculum. It is therefore critical that priority be given to the development of skills and human capital.16.8.2 The Committee found that in developed countries, R&D projects covere a wide range of fields of study involving the sharing of expertise with the private sector as well as with other research institutions. These fields of study include development of software, management system based on ICT, integrated systems, data management, development of applications, image processing, and e-commerce applications.16.8.3 Public IHE in developed countries can access R&D materials through the on-line library, and specialised research laboratories. Most of these laboratories are equipped with socialised applications such as Network Applications 2 (NS2), Lightware for development of 3D multimedia, and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) for image processing. Towards Excellence 165
  • 196. Part V Excellence in Research and Development16.8.4 This Committee noted that the best practices of IHE in developed countries with regard to their success in ICT in research and development, include strategic planning and putting in place relevant processes, technology, infrastructure and work force for computerised grid. In addition, the quality of R&D is enhanced through the computerisation of resources in the universities and local research institutions. This has resulted in the creation of a multiprocessing and multistorage network of high capability.16.8.5 Currently, R&D laboratories are being established in this country. For instance the System Integration Laboratory at the University of Malaya, which conducts research that is connected to systems integration under differing conditions; the Centre for Artificial Intelligence Computing in the Multimedia University which focuses on R&D and consultation services; iPV6 Excellence Centre at Universiti Sains Malaysia. In fact, a number of research projects carried out by local universities have received international recognition and awards such as e-Bario by Universiti Malaysia Sabah and Integrated Management System for Education by Kolej Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.16.8.6 The Committee proposes that in order to activate Fifth Generation R&D effectively, there is a need to develop new networks and upgrade existing ones like MYREN (Malaysian Research and Education Network). RecommendationsBased on the above study and observations concerning R&D that were discussed, theCommittee recommends the following to create a new paradigm in the R&D culturewhich accepts innovation with enthusiasm, based on a high performance culture andcapability of competing globally:85. The Committee recommends that the following principles for the funding of higher education research and research training be adopted: (a) The Principles of Excellence. The allocation of public funds should focus on the achievement of world class research and research training to ensure that Malaysian universities develop and maintain high quality and innovative research which is respected in a global context; (b) The Principles of Institutional Autonomy and Responsiveness. Institutions should have the autonomy to determine how they function and contribute to the generation, storage, dissemination, transmission, and application of knowledge; 166 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 197. Chapter 16 Research and Development (c) The Principles of Linkages and Collaboration. A policy should be formulated to encourage and reward the development of an entrepreneurial culture in which researchers and the various institutions collaborate among themselves and across the world with other players in the research and innovation system. Universities should have policies and structures in place to facilitate the commercialisation of discoveries and encourage the development of technopreneurs; (d) The Principles of Contestability, Simplicity and Accountability. The process for allocating funds for research and research training should be competitive in nature, simple to administer, and be readily intelligible to researchers, institutions, students and the wider community. All funding allocation decisions should be free from conflicts of interest.86. The Committee recommends the establishment of research and post-graduate universities by converting public universities, which meet the criteria set by the Ministry of Higher Education, into research, post-graduate and post- doctoral universities.87. The Committee recommends that each university concentrate on a different R&D focus and that each field selected be in a cutting edge area, for instance: (a) Biobased: biotechnology, biomedicine and bioengineering; (b) Microtechnology: nanotechnology, and precision engineering; (c) Natural Resources: water, wind, solar energy, oil and gas; (d) Social Science and Humanities: multicultural and intercultural studies.88. The Committee recommends that research and post-graduate universities be given responsibility and the means to implement Project MyBrain15.89. The Committee recommends that research and post-graduate universities be given the responsibility to take the lead in founding and activating the following Academies: Academy of Science and Technology, Academy of Engineering Science, and Academy of Social Science and Humanities. These Academies should be grouped under the National Scholars Academy Council which would focus on producing and advancing knowledge in all fields and bringing together these disciplines through research and the application of knowledge.90. The Committee recommends that IHE provide opportunities to enable industries to implement R&D activities in universities while ensuring that the industries provide the funds and market expertise to commercialise the products of the joint R&D projects. Towards Excellence 167
  • 198. Part V Excellence in Research and Development91. The Committee recommends that all IHE establish innovation centres, intellectual property management centres and technology licencing offices to increase links and cooperation with the industry while at the same time encouraging entrepreneurs to commercialise innovations from the intellectual property obtained through research.92. The Committee recommends that universities formalise efforts to involve the industry to participate in their research activities through collaborative research programmes.93. The Committee recommends that IHE initiate joint projects with internationally renowned research and industrial centres so as to enhance their R&D capability, make possible technology transfer, and provide publicity to their research products in international markets.94. The Committee recommends the formation of an International Higher Education Board to elevate R&D to world standard in the field of Science and Technology thereby promoting the country’s higher education internationally. This Board will be an autonomous body and will be made up of representatives of the Government and IHE. The Board’s mission will be to: (a) Enable post-graduate and post-doctoral students become scholars in relevant fields of knowledge and thus raise Malaysia’s competitive capability; (b) Enable post-graduates from all over the world to become scholars and partners with Malaysia in priority areas of knowledge; (c) Enable scholars in Malaysia to play the role of leaders and pioneers in the academic and research world by strengthening international and intercultural ties; (d) Promote efforts to internationalise higher education in the country by making IHE more attractive to post-graduates and researchers from all over the world.95. The Committee recommends the setting up of a Malaysian Research Board in which IHE, research institutions, commercial and industrial institutions, and government economic agencies are represented. The aim of this body is to cooperate with the National Research and Advancement of Science Council to develop and strengthen research activity as the basis of innovation in science, technology and humanities, and learning through collaboration with world class international researchers. This Malaysian Research Board will provide opportunities for renowned scientists and scholars throughout the world to undertake quality research in Malaysia together with their Malaysian counterparts. 168 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 199. Chapter 16 Research and Development96. The Committee further recommends that the Malaysian Research Board be given the responsibility to: (a) Act as secretariat to coordinate and organise research projects; (b) Stimulate multidisciplinary research between universities that contributes to the socio-economic development of the country; (c) Consolidate financial resources to sponsor autonomous and independent research work; (d) Act as consultant managers for research contracts, patent ownership, copyright licencing, publishing rights, and the commercialisation of intellectual property on behalf of institutions, industry and researchers.97. The Committee recommends that the following principles be the fundamental operational guidelines for the Malaysian Research Board: (a) Encourage excellent achievement; (b) Sponsor outstanding personalities in addition to projects; (c) Be autonomous and independent in management; (d) Be neutral and not be purely commercial; (e) Encourage innovation, freedom, truth, tolerance, flexibility and individuality; (f) Maintain cooperative links on a sustainable basis; (g) Identify new challenges and formulate innovative problem-solving strategies especially through cooperative initiatives.98. The Committee recommends a Malaysian Research Information Base be established to compile national research data to provide strong support and up-to-date information in the management of universal and indigenous knowledge in order to be an effective source of reference for academicians, researchers as well as for the local and international communities.99. The Committee recommends that IHE frame an intellectual property policy for themselves to encourage registration of patents of discoveries and inventions resulting from R&D and subsequent developments of innovative products.100. The Committee recommends R&D facilities in eHiED be linked to Malaysian Research and Education Network (MYREN). Towards Excellence 169
  • 200. Part VIEXCELLENCE IN CONTRIBUTINGTO MALAYSIAN SOCIETYInstitutions of higher education are not ivory towers isolated fromtheir surroundings. They have been established with the expectationthat they would meet specific needs of society and champion theaspirations of the nation. Part VI highlights pivotal matters thathigher education should focus on: national unity and access andequity in higher education. Since Malaysia is a multi-culturalsociety, national unity is the key to the continued peace andprosperity of the nation. Access and equity in higher education isone of the principal components for achieving social justice andharmony in the country. Against the backdrop of national unity,Part VI outlines strategic steps which should be undertaken byIHE to raise the level of excellence and contribute to the wellbeing of Malaysian society.
  • 201. Chapter 17 National Unity Chapter 17 NATIONAL UNITY17.1 NATIONAL OBJECTIVES17.1.1 Since achieving independence in 1957, the most important national objective has been to attain unity taking cognizance of the fact that Malaysia is multi-ethnic, multi- lingual, multi-religious, and multi-cultural. National unity was not a priority under the colonial rule. In fact, the ruling colonial power had bequeathed the nation with seeds of prejudice, disunity and discord. However, by independence the leaders of the major communities, mainly Malay, Chinese and Indian were able to come to a consensus when they adopted the Constitution of the Federation of Malaya despite the difficulties and challenges in its implementation.17.1.2 The country’s post-independence development and the success of its people and the nation depended on the preparedness of all members of society and leaders to be tolerant, cooperative and united. The foundations of this aspiration are included in the Constitution and reflected in the various national policies, for example, Articles 152 and 153 of the Constitution of the country pertaining to the National Language and allocation of quotas for the Malays.17.1.3 The 13 May 1969 incident prompted the Government to act in a more decisive and comprehensive manner to ensure that national unity would be realised. Apart from the Rukunegara, the Government launched the New Economic Policy (1971-1990), formulated the National Cultural Policy and implemented various educational reforms for both primary and secondary education. The objectives of national unity are further reinforced by the National Development Policy (1991-2000) and the National Vision Policy (2001-2010). Towards Excellence 173
  • 202. Part VI Excellence in Contributing to Malaysian Society17.1.4 The National Vision Policy underscores the efforts for successfully achieving national development and unity initiatives. Among these are:61 “National vision policy will emphasise the two-pronged strategy of the New Economic Policy which is eradicating poverty irrespective of race and restructuring of society in the context of intensive growth which shall be a permanent feature in the agenda of achieving national unity. More specifically the National Vision Policy represents the consolidation of all previous development initiatives with the goal of creating a Malaysian nation that is united, progressive and prosperous, living in a harmonious and equitable environment”.17.2 EDUCATION AND UNITY17.2.1 Since independence, the education system has been identified and utilised as the mechanism for successful national unification. This aim is recorded explicitly in the Razak Report, 1956 (Paragraph 12): “We believe further that the ultimate objective of the educational policy in this country is to bring together the children of all races under a national education system…” The main strategy which has been identified is a common school system, a common curriculum and the use of the national language as the medium of instruction.17.2.2 In 1974, the Committee to Review the Implementation of the National Education Policy was established to review, among others, the extent to which the current policy has succeeded in achieving national unity. The Report which was published in 1979, resulted in the implementation of the New Primary School Curriculum (KBSR) commencing in1982/83 and the Integrated Curriculum for Secondary Schools (KBSM) commencing 1987/88. A significant strategy of KBSR and KBSM is the inclusion of universal values not only in Islamic and moral education but also across the curriculum including co-curricular activities.17.2.3 A common education system and curriculum observed by students enables the creation of a common Malaysian outlook, the discovery of similarities in values and culture and lays the foundation for a truly Malaysian nation. A single school system at the secondary level provides opportunities for students of all races to interact with one another. It must be emphasised that forging unity among students is an on going effort and should not be limited to the school level only. There needs to be continued efforts at higher education level.61 Report of the National Economic Consultative Committee (MAPEN II :Vision Development Policy 200-2010)Putrajaya: MTEN 2001 174 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 203. Chapter 17 National Unity17.2.4 Apart from creating opportunities and an environment for communication and interaction and the absorption of values and a sense of unity, education has also the crucial role of ensuring equitable human resource development. The success of the objectives of the New Economic Policy is dependent largely on the education system’s ability to fulfil these aspirations. RecommendationsBased on the above observations, the Committee makes the followingrecommendations:101. The Committee recommends that the efforts to instil national unity be continued and extended to higher education.102. The Committee recommends that a course of study which focuses on inter- cultural and intra-cultural studies be introduced and undertaken by all students, the teaching-learning of which should be through discussion and participation.103. The Committee recommends that IHE students participate in compulsory community work and that these activities be given credit points. Towards Excellence 175
  • 204. Chapter 18 Access and Equity Chapter 18 ACCESS AND EQUITY18.1 DEMOCRATISATION OF EDUCATION AND LIFE-LONG LEARNING18.1.1 The democratisation of education means “…ensuring equality of educational opportunity in order to achieve universal education.” (UNESCO, Thesaurus). Two important concepts are embedded in the phrase ‘equality of educational opportunity’: firstly, ‘educational opportunities’ and secondly, ‘equality’. ‘Educational opportunity’ refers to access to education, while ‘equality’ refers to educational opportunities which are fair and education which does not discriminate. Equality of education also refers to equity in education (UNESCO, Thesaurus). ‘Universal education’ means education for all.18.1.2 The initial efforts towards the democratisation of education began with the Global Declaration of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the United Nations in 1948. Article 26 reads: “Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. … Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.” Towards Excellence 177
  • 205. Part VI Excellence in Contributing to Malaysian Society18.1.3 In the 1950s, UNESCO which was given the responsibility for education, proposed that universal education be offered to all at least up to primary school level. For the Asia Pacific region, emphasis on universal education at primary level is contained in the Karachi Declaration 1960.62 During the 1960s, UNESCO encouraged the development of education at all levels while in the 1970s the emphasis by UNESCO was on upgrading the quality of education. Further to this, beginning 1990, the focus of UNESCO has been on “Education for All”, as stated in the Jomtien Declaration (Thailand) 1990 and the Dakar Declaration (Senegal) 2000. Both these declarations re-emphasise the commitment towards basic education for all including those who are physically and mentally challenged. In addition, in 1972, UNESCO proposed the concept of ‘life-long learning’, as part of its efforts towards the realisation of the democratisation of education.18.1.4 Article 26 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948 relating to the right to education is supported by Malaysia and is articulated in the Constitution of Malaysia (Article 8: Equality and Article 12: Rights relating to education). In other words, Malaysia supports the concept of the democratisation of education and this is recorded in the Razak Report 1956 as follows:63 “The establishment of standard primary schools with the national language as the medium of instruction, and the development of schools of similar type but in which the language of instruction may be English, Tamil or Kuo-Yu (Chinese) … The result will be that by 1960 all children between 6 and 7 years of age, which will then be the normal age for entry to primary schools, will be able to find places in primary schools” . This aspiration was also supported by the Rahman Talib Report 1960 and was the basis for the National Education Policy contained in the Introduction to the Education Act 1961. 6418.1.5 The democratisation of the education policy began in 1962 with the provision of six years of free primary education for all students. This policy was further extended to nine years beginning 1965 and to eleven years beginning 1992. At higher education level, the opportunity to tertiary education began with the setting up of the branch of University of Malaya, Singapore, in Kuala Lumpur in 1958. The opportunities for access to higher education rapidly increased during the 1990’s.62 Refer attachment: UNESCO, World Declaration on Higher Education for the Twenty-First Century: Vision andAction.63 Report of the Education Committee 1956.64 Refer to details on National and Educational Policies in Part II of this Report. 178 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 206. Chapter 18 Access and Equity18.1.6 In the context of life-long learning, the Eighth Malaysia Plan (2001-2005) records its commitment as follows:65 “Efforts will be made to develop a knowledge-seeking culture among Malaysians in view of the rapid changes in technology and the increasing knowledge intensity of the economy.” In 2001, the commitment of the Government was realised with the setting up of community colleges throughout the country with the aim of:66 “… propagating the democratisation of education and the enculturation of life-long learning.” Life-long learning refers to the human propensity to continuously acquire knowledge throughout one’s life. In other words, education is not limited to a specific duration and is not terminal in nature. The concept and policy of life-long learning has major implications for education at IHE. With the implementation of this policy, the debate on whether the duration of a first degree programme should be three or four years becomes irrelevant.18.1.7 In relation to the above, the Committee is of the opinion that what is most important is the necessity to encourage people to pursue life-long learning as knowledge and skills which are acquired today quickly become obsolete and redundant. Everyone should be provided with the opportunity to pursue life-long learning. In other words a person should be able to gain multiple entry to IHE as the necessity to keep abreast with current knowledge and skills arises. The study by the Committee showed that this feature of multiple entry is prevalent in Australia, New Zealand, the USA, Canada and Europe. Thus the Committee believes that the policy of life- long learning has high strategic value and fulfils current needs and future demands of a k-society for the creation of k-workers to spur the development of k-economy.18.1.8 This could mean that the concept of terminal education which has been practised thus far may soon be replaced by the phenomenon of multiple entry to IHE. The people of Malaysia should therefore be willing to whole-heartedly prepare themselves for this new phenomenon and avail themselves to the many benefits of life-long learning.65 Eighth Malaysia Plan 2001-2005, paragraph 4.7466 Implementation Plan for Life-Long Education, Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia. Towards Excellence 179
  • 207. Part VI Excellence in Contributing to Malaysian Society18.2 THE DEMOCRATISATION OF HIGHER EDUCATION18.2.1 In the context of higher education, Article 26 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948 asserts the right to higher education to all who qualify after secondary education. In Malaysia, the opportunity to higher education was created with the establishment of the branch of University of Malaya, Singapore in Kuala Lumpur in 1958. In the 1960’s there were only three IHE. However opportunities to obtain higher education increased rapidly from the 1970’s as shown in the public IHE enrolment in Table 18.1: Table 18.1: Enrolment and Participation Rate by Cohort in Public IHE Year Enrolment Participation Rate (%) 1970 8,633 0.6 1980 26,410 1.6 1990 58,286 2.9 2000 211,584 8.1 Source: Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia These opportunities further increased in the 1990’s with the establishment of private IHE which obtained university status and those institutions which conducted the 3 + 0 degree programmes.18.2.2 Beginning 2001, the Government made a commitment to promote life-long learning with the establishment of community colleges. In 2004, there was a total of 34 community colleges. According to plans, these colleges are to be set up in every parliamentary constituency or every district to provide opportunities for everyone in the country. The Committee is of the opinion that community colleges should utilise the resources of the existing educational infrastructure in order to facilitate greater participation of the local community. 180 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 208. Chapter 18 Access and Equity18.3 ACCESS18.3.1 Access to higher education refers to educational opportunities made available to secondary school leavers to continue their education to tertiary level. The first determinant of access is the availability of places in higher education and this is closely related to the number of IHE. As the number of IHE grows, availability of places will increase correspondingly. From the clarification in Part II of this Report, clearly the number of IHE, both private and public, had increased rapidly especially during the 1990’s. Currently public and private IHE are situated throughout the country, even though a large number of them are found mainly in the Klang valley.18.3.2 In the year 2000, public IHE (universities and university colleges), excluding Tunku Abdul Rahman College, offered 60,766 seats for certificate/diploma programmes, 170,794 for first degree and 3,229 seats for post-graduate diplomas. Tunku Abdul Rahman College offered 15,166 seats. Private IHE with college status offered 183,937 seats, while private IHE with university status offered 25,652 seats. A total of 459,544 seats were offered. When totalled to the number of places in other institutions such as polytechnics, the grand total of places offered at tertiary level stood at 753,003. This figure represented 25 per cent of the population aged between 17 and 25 years of age. However, this participation rate is indeed small when compared to advanced countries. The MoHE targets to increase this enrolment to 1.6 million places in IHE by 2010 and thereby provide higher education opportunities to 40 per cent of the above-mentioned age group.18.3.3 This Committee is aware that the challenges to increase the availability of places are formidable, especially from the viewpoint of finance. With the increasing participation of the private sector in the field of education, the shared responsibility of providing more seats at higher education levels has distinctly increased the possibility of meeting the target set for 2010. However, the Committee urges that as the number of places offered increases, the quality of the courses should not be compromised. In fact, the emphasis on quality should be a priority for both the public and private IHE.18.3.4 In this study, the Committee also found that the steps undertaken by USM, ITM and UPM during the 1970’s to include Distance Learning (PJJ) also provided more opportunities for student access to higher education without the need to travel or leave their jobs. With the setting up of Universiti Tun Abdul Razak (1999) and the Open University of Malaysia (2000), students have access to higher education through e-learning. This development is in line with the Government’s desire to make Malaysians computer literate, own computers and benefit from life-long learning. Towards Excellence 181
  • 209. Part VI Excellence in Contributing to Malaysian Society18.3.5 Access is also related to entry to higher education. Until 1982, the entry to IHE was through the Higher School Certificate (STPM). From 1983, the other mode of entry was through the matriculation programme which was started by universities such as UKM and UM. This provided opportunities for bumiputera students to enter the science and technology courses. The matriculation programme both basic and pre-university, was soon extended to all universities. Apart from UIAM which offer matriculation programmes for all its courses, the other universities also offer matriculation programmes for their current courses, including law and medicine.18.3.6 The Committee is of the opinion that matriculation plays a very important role in affirmative action and is in line with the New Economic Policy.18.3.7 The third entry route to a university is through a aiploma. With the growth of private IHE many of which offer diploma courses, a large number of students aspire to continue their education at degree level. However, the Committee found that opportunities to continue their courses up to degree level at public IHE are limited, resulting in many students unwilling to continue their courses at IHE.The Committee supports the suggestion by the IHE Management Department, of the MoHE to provide opportunities for cooperation between public IHE and private IHE so as to increase opportunities for Distance Learning and e-Learning.18..3.8 Another issue that is related to entry but which has not been given sufficient consideration is the mechanism which enables a person with experience to continue his or her education. This aspect needs to be given due consideration so that access to higher education can be further opened and widened.18.3.9 The Committee found that IHE in those countries which were observed have made great efforts to guarantee that people who were challenged physically or mentally are given fair access to higher education. In Australia, for example, those who are challenged are put under a special grouping together with those from rural areas and from low socio-economic backgrounds who have not been receiving adequate attention at higher education level. A policy paper by the National Board of Employment, Education and Training, Higher Education Council, Australia (1996) entitled, “Equality, Diversity and Excellence: Advancing the National Higher Education Equity Framework” has outlined an action plan to guarantee access to those who are physically and socially challenged as follows:67 18.3.9.1 To mutually agree on the definition of people who are challenged physically and socially in higher education through data and information collection from the various agencies which are involved;67 Higher Education Council Australia, Equality, Diversity and Excellence: Advancing the National Higher EducationEquity Framework. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1996 182 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 210. Chapter 18 Access and Equity 18.3.9.2 To determine the various support factors which are necessary for those who are physically and socially challenged and to set aside adequate funds to prepare and provide the necessary support; 18.3.9.3 To increase access to higher education to all who are physically and socially challenged by providing a special quota for them and to have an ‘outreach’ programme; 18.3.9.4 To increase the rate and level of student success for this group through making the curriculum and study programmes more adaptable to their needs and to maximise the use of ICT to assist their learning.18.3.10 In relation to access and support for the students of this specific group, it needs to be recorded that in many of the countries where studies were conducted by the Committee, apart from policies and action plans of the Governments, providing the initial incentive has been the responsibility of IHE. The Committee is of the opinion that both IHE and the MoHE should together undertake initiatives to increase access and support for these students.18.4 EQUITY18.4.1 Equity refers to educational opportunities which are fair and non-discriminatory. UNESCO clarifies it thus: “Ensure opportunities without regard to race, colour, descent, gender, ability or background (Thesaurus). In this matter, the Malaysian Constitution guarantees ‘Equal Rights’ (Article 8) and ‘Right to Education’ (Article 12) for all Malaysians. In general, in the context of higher education, there is equity, as whoever fulfils the required merits is eligible to continue their education. This also includes those who are mentally, physically and socially challenged, women, minority groups and indigenous people.18.4.2 The Committee has given due consideration to equity in the context of quality programmes. Quality control of public IHE is done by the MoHE and in many aspects, specifically in matters relating to facilities and staff, the MoHE criteria have been coordinated and achieved. For private IHE, even though they are under the purview of SPIPTS and LAN, there are major differences, and these include, physical facilities, premise and staff. This means that students do not get facilities and services which are equal or similar. Private IHE which are more established and large, charge high fees and this is a deterrent to many students, especially the poor rural students who wish to pursue higher education at these institutions. Students from poor families therefore enter smaller private IHE which in fact have limited finances, and therefore offer only basic facilities and limited courses. In other words, these students do not get the same or similar education opportunities. Towards Excellence 183
  • 211. Part VI Excellence in Contributing to Malaysian Society18.4.3 It is also necessary to state here that the medium of instruction in many of these large and developed private IHE is English. As a consequence, students who are weak in mastering the English language, especially those from rural areas who do not have a good English language education, are edged out from higher education opportunities at private IHE where the medium of instruction is English.18.4.4 In relation to the above, the Committee is of the opinion that there is disparity in equity from the point of quality, for students from rural areas, from poor families and for those weak in the English language.18.5 FUNDING FOR STUDIES18.5.1 The financial sponsors for students of higher education include the National Higher Education Fund Corporation, the Federal Government, State Governments, Statutory Bodies, Federal Government-owned foundations, commercial and industrial entities of State Governments, non-government bodies, Government and privately owned companies, financial institutions, and private and public IHE.18.5.2 It has been found that the role and contribution of private commercial and industrial entities towards sponsorship of students is very small and is limited to the sponsorship of those who will become the workforce of the entities concerned. This situation has arisen because of the absence of any policy, mechanism or incentive concerning the role and contribution of these private commercial and industrial entities in sponsoring higher education students.18.5.3 The Committee found that the financial sponsors of students in higher education, like the PTPTN, has imposed a minimum prerequisite of three distinctions at SPM level before students become eligible for sponsorship. However, this prerequisite restricts students who have obtained a certificate (e.g. the Polytechnic and Community College Certificates), pre-diploma and diploma, but have not achieved three distinctions at SPM, from obtaining the said sponsorship.18.5.4 Financial sponsorship for higher education students gives priority to payment of tuition fees, examination fees, library fees and laboratory fees as well as living allowance. Sponsorships do not take into account the need for students to buy books, subscribe to periodicals and journals relevant to their studies, buy ICT and technology equipment, participate in extra-curricular activities, take part in activities like field trips, study tours and case studies, participate in seminars and workshops, undertake research and prepare papers for presentation at university, national, regional or international levels. In fact, these are very important components in the creation of graduates who are confident, competent and articulate. 184 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 212. Chapter 18 Access and Equity18.5.5 The Committee found that the structure of financial sponsorship for students of higher learning to be as follows: 18.5.5.1 Full scholarship which covers course fees and expenses related to it and living allowance which need not be repaid but having conditions of service determined by the sponsor; 18.5.5.2 Partial scholarship which covers course fees and expenses related to it which need not be repaid but having conditions of service determined by the sponsor; 18.5.5.3 Full study loan which covers course fees, expenses related to it and living expenses; 18.5.5.4 Partial study loan which covers course fees and expenses related to it; 18.5.5.5 Study loan to cover course fees only; 18.5.5.6 Awards or financial aid as a one-time payment based on specific criteria determined by the sponsor.18.5.6 The Committee also found that the terms of higher education loan repayment determined by the sponsors are as follows: 18.5.6.1 Repayment of loan is exempted in exchange for contribution of service to the institution as determined by the sponsor; 18.5.6.2 Repayment of loan is given a discounted rate based on academic achievement; 18.5.6.3 There are loans which have a service charge and there are those which do not have a service charge; 18.5.6.4 The repayment period and instalment sum imposed by the sponsor is flexible and is based on the ability of the borrower to repay. PTPTN, for example, has set the repayment period at ten years with a service charge of one per cent to 1.8 per cent which is calculated on completion of the study programme.18.5.7 There are also sponsors who determine the critical areas of study according to the needs of society as a pre-requisite to obtaining a scholarship. These areas are medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, engineering and biotechnology, whereas sponsors from the commercial and industrial sectors determine critical areas according to their respective needs. Telekom Malaysia Berhad, for example, gives priority to marketing, corporate management, law, engineering and practical technology.18.5.8 Sponsorship by public institutions at graduate level is focused on in-service staff development programmes to fulfil the demands of the human resources needs of the institution. Sponsorship by universities is also to fulfil the needs for the development of teaching resources at Masters and Doctoral levels in specific areas which are the focus of the university. Towards Excellence 185
  • 213. Part VI Excellence in Contributing to Malaysian Society18.5.9 In relation to research, the Committee found that there is no sponsorship at national level specifically for research-based graduate studies. To achieve world class status, the ratio of undergraduates to post-graduates should be 60:40. At the same time, students at graduate level are the foundation for research activity and innovation in a country. This criterion becomes even more significant when establishing a research and post-graduate university.18.5.10 The Committee also discovered that there is no sponsorship for students of higher education who do double degrees. This is despite the fact that double-degree holders, more so double-degree holders with a professional tag, are more easily absorbed in the employment market and are more competitive in k-economy.18.5.11 The Committee also found that there is no national sponsorship fund for distance- learning programmes. In fact, distance learning is critical for the development of highly educated citizens, development of a strong human resource in the public and private sectors and for the maximum use of ICT which is being created and rapidly expanding in the country.18.5.12 In relation to life-long learning, the Committee did not come across any sponsorship fund to encourage life-long learning. Experienced personnel from the public and private sectors should be given opportunities to continue higher education programmes. In this regard, their expertise and experience which they have obtained throughout their years of service can be given a fair value and credit. 186 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 214. Chapter 18 Access and Equity RecommendationsBased on the above review, study and observations, the Committee makes thefollowing recommendations:104. The Committee recommends that the Government create greater opportunities including proper infrastructure throughout the country so that every citizen will be given maximum opportunity to take advantage of the life-long learning facilities provided.105. The Committee recommends that community colleges utilise the facilities of the existing educational infrastructure and its resources.106. The Committee recommends that both the public and private sectors set up facilities to create a learning organisation so that their employees are able to upgrade their skills and be motivated to continue learning.107. The Committee recommends that no eligible student who has been offered a seat at an institution of higher education at diploma or undergraduate level be denied the opportunity to learn because of financial difficulties.108. The Committee recommends that efforts be made to upgrade the quality of private IHE through collaboration with public IHE so that facilities and expertise in teaching-learning can be shared.109. The Committee recommends that to achieve the target set by the Education Development Plan 2001-2010 especially for higher education, various strategies should be employed, for example increasing distance-learning and e-learning programmes, and upgrading the quality of private IHE.110. The Committee recommends that matriculation programmes be continued and expanded.111. The Committee recommends that there be more avenues for entry and access to degree courses, for example, by increasing the intake of diploma holders and by giving due recognition to work experience.112. The Committee recommends that the Government provide adequate financial allocation to those institutions which accept the democratisation of higher education policy and which have the mechanism to provide greater opportunities for indigenous students, rural students, students from low socio-economic backgrounds and students who are physically, socially and mentally challenged. Towards Excellence 187
  • 215. Part VI Excellence in Contributing to Malaysian Society113. The Committee recommends that the Government extend financial allocation to IHE for the purpose of providing the necessary support and infrastructure facilities to students who are physically, socially and mentally challenged.114. The Committee recommends that the Government provide opportunities for students who are physically challenged to obtain a second or post-graduate degree so as to enable them to have added advantages in the job market.115. The Committee recommends that students who are physically challenged and who are knowledgeable and possess the appropriate skills be given opportunities to be employed at IHE in areas like research and other suitable fields.116. The Committee recommends that affirmative action in education be maintained.117. The Committee recommends that the Government take initiatives to strengthen the less established private IHE.118. The Committee recommends that sponsorship should be multi-tiered so that those who are unsuccessful in fulfilling the minimum requirement for obtaining sponsorship at SPM level, may still have the opportunity to obtain sponsorship at post-SPM, professional certificate and diploma levels.119. The Committee recommends that the definition of study fees be extended to include fees and expenses for lectures, examinations, research activities, and other fees for case studies, field work, library, laboratory, publications, workshops, use of ICT, seminars, talks, intellectual discourse and sourcing for other intellectual resources.120. The Committee recommends that a reward mechanism in the form of a one-off payment be given to higher education students for discoveries, innovations and inventions through their inter-discipline or intra-discipline research. This should include articles published in professional national, regional or international journals.121. The Committee recommends that a fund be set up to sponsor graduates to undertake professional courses in their areas of study. 188 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 216. Chapter 18 Access and Equity122. The Committee recommends that there should be a concession in the repayment of loans based on achievement in fields of study, other than those stated in the sponsorship agreement, for research findings, discoveries, innovations, inventions, publications in national, regional or international professional journals, and for proficiency in a language other than the mother tongue, the National Language and English.123. The Committee recommends that sponsorship of post-graduate programmes be maintained with priority given to research-based post-graduate programmes which are related to the core business of the institution or which contribute to national development.124. The Committee recommends that sponsorship of post-graduate programmes focus on research which can be commercialised to generate revenue for the university, while at the same time enrich the knowledge treasure trough of the university concerned or research findings which produce inventions that can be marketed.125. The Committee recommends that a special fund be set up to sponsor graduates who undertake research-based post-graduate programmes.126. The Committee recommends that additional sponsorship be given to students who undergo a double-degree programme.127. The Committee recommends that sponsorship be given to students who embark on distance-learning programmes in higher education.128. The Committee recommends that a sponsorship mechanism be instituted to encourage life-long education.129. The Committee recommends that a special fund be set up to attract and sponsor excellent international students, especially at post-graduate level, to study and conduct research which is based on the strengths and needs of the country so that the benefits derived can be utilised by the university, Malaysian society and the international community. Towards Excellence 189
  • 217. Chapter 19 The Strategic Way Forward Chapter 19 THE STRATEGIC WAY FORWARD19.1 THE ASPIRATION19.1.1 To realise the Government’s aspiration of transforming the national institutions of higher education into world class institutions and making Malaysia the centre of educational excellence entails strong resolve, will and earnest focused efforts. Countries like Australia, the USA, Japan and the United Kingdom have undergone various challenges and difficulties to unite and focus their resolve and strength to achieve high educational standards and gain world recognition. Countries which are determined to join this ‘hall of fame’ – South Korea, China, Taiwan, India and Singapore – too have formulated many bold and brave action plans. Singapore, for instance, has chosen to develop a robust and vibrant university sector in the restructuring of its universities’.68 Indeed, this is a great challenge to Malaysia, especially in the 21st century which demands strategic planning and courageous actions.19.1.2 The world of the 21st century is a volatile one, one that is filled with unrest and instability. The source of this unrest and instability is the constant change which occurs in every aspect of our lives. In fact, the tempo of change itself has accelerated to an even quicker pace. What is obvious and certain is change. As a consequence, the world of today is vastly different from the world of our forefathers centuries ago.68 Singapore Government, Report of the Committee to Review The University Sector and Graduate Manpower Planning.Singapore: Ministry of Education, May 2003. Towards Excellence 191
  • 218. Part VI Excellence in Contributing to the Malaysian Society19.2 HIGH CULTURE19.2.1 This drama of human transformation that we are witnessing today is the result of the dramatic explosion of knowledge, the crescendo of which is unprecedented in human history. The knowledge explosion particularly in science and technology has enabled us to lead the good life undreamed of by our forefathers. This upsurge in knowledge has propelled various innovations and inventions which were the seabed of dreams and fiction of yesteryears, into a reality today.19.2.2 Research has always been the source of knowledge, innovation and invention. It is a noble initiative which beams its light on the world. Research as the never ending quest of intellectual inquiry for the advancement of knowledge has become a culture in the West, particularly in institutions of higher learning. The Committee believes in the principle that a culture of inquiry and knowledge development is high culture of the highest order; a culture that highly respects and values the development of knowledge; an initiative that is recognised and prized as an attribute of intellectual excellence.19.2.3 High culture however, did not just happen. It evolved over a period of time, through painstaking nurturing, underpinned by an unwavering focus and a fierce sense of commitment to all that is excellent. Cambridge University for example has a proud history of 800 years of building this high culture of intellectual excellence. It prides itself with a dignified superiority, and perhaps justifiably so, as it is the beacon of intellectual excellence against which many an aspiring institution has been benchmarked.19.2.4 Malaysia desires to achieve world class status and become the centre of educational excellence. These are desirable and legitimate aspirations. The Committee however, has found that at the present moment our deeds do not match our dreams. Our understanding of the sense of excellence needs to be honestly and critically examined. The Committee is of the opinion that we cannot pride ourselves when we occupy close to the bottom of the top 100 institutions when compared to South Korea, which also aspires to be the centre of regional excellence, but would only consider doing so when its institutions are placed among the top five in the world.19.2.5 The Committee is of the opinion that the time has come for us to take the first step to initiate a bold and new resolve. The priority must be to consolidate our efforts. While our universities are ‘young’ in comparison to the best in class, we have in place what it takes to position ourselves to kick-start our world class initiative. We have the structure, the organisation, the faculty, the infrastructure, to name but a few, which are already in place. These are our wherewithal. These are our strengths. We now need the will to match. 192 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 219. Chapter 19 The Strategic Way Forward19.2.6 The ‘will’ may be manifested at three levels, namely the leadership, the institution and the bureaucracy. At the leadership level, the Committee does not envisage any problem. After all, the goal of achieving world class status and to be the centre of excellence has been inspired by the leadership. The leadership cannot but be facilitative in this initiative.19.2.7 At the institutional level, the leader needs to be completely focused. The following attributes are a prerequisite of an institutional leader: be sensitive to and supportive of Government policies, goals and objectives; be committed to the culture of excellence and the pursuit of scholarship; be a facilitator and motivator of intellectual inquiry; and be an inspiration to all. An institutional leader is therefore excellence personified. These a-priori attributes are the fundamentals for high culture to evolve and develop.19.2.8 It is imperative that at the bureaucratic level, ‘will’ must be done and be seen to be done. If past records are any guide, the bureaucracy had inadvertently raised obstacles that tended to hinder the smooth flow of things at the institutional level. There have often been delays in the decision making process and in the necessary approval being given for institution officials to carry out their basic functions. Sometimes these approvals were either not forthcoming or given after the said event.19.2.9 During the Committee’s meeting with the Central Agencies, it noted that the officers did not regard or see themselves as the ones who raised obstacles to hinder the smooth flow of operations at the institutions. They were of the belief that it was the regulations which were the obstacles. The bureaucrats were of the opinion that if these regulations were relaxed and autonomy granted it would provide room for the institutional leader to function effectively. However, the question of granting autonomy is not theirs to decide. The power to grant autonomy is in the hands of the leadership. To what extent then is the leadership prepared to provide the academia the autonomy that it seeks?19.2.10 In order for high culture to thrive and develop there needs to be a supportive intellectual ambience. Institutional autonomy will further nurture a truly intellectual environment which is imperative for high culture to develop. It is the presence of high culture in institutions which will ensure returns on investment. The Committee believes that through determination and resolution there will be an amicable solution to the question of autonomy. Towards Excellence 193
  • 220. Part VI Excellence in Contributing to the Malaysian Society19.2.11 The Committee is of the opinion that through strategic collaboration, our national IHE can accelerate the achievement and development of high culture. This can be realised through collaboration between Malaysian IHE and best-in-class foreign institutions. These collaborative efforts can be implemented through a mentor- mentee relationship. In order for this to be realised, the Government should be prepared to make a substantial financial commitment. The Malaysian society too must accept the fact that the attainment of excellence requires considerable financial investment.6919.2.12 Furthermore, the Committee is of the opinion that the mentor-mentee relationship is necessary but not a sufficient condition to ensure the successful transfer of high culture from the mentor to the mentee. In fact, the responsibility to obtain maximum benefit from the mentor-mentee relationship rests largely with the mentee institution. The Commitee is aware of previous situations where the mentee institutions did not take advantage of the knowledge and expertise of the mentor institutions. In the future if this arrangement is to be implemented past mistakes need to be avoided. The Government is right fully wary of this matter lest precious public fund be wasted. Therefore, stringent KPIs must be designed and the onus of achieving these KPIs rests squarely on the shoulders of the institutional leader of the mentee institution. It is for this reason that the Committee is of the opinion that head- hunting for the best institutional leader be carried out to avoid the costly mistake of choosing the wrong person.19.3 PROJECT MYBRAIN15: TOWARDS 100,000 Ph.Ds19.3.1 Project MyBrain15 is an initiative to produce 100,000 graduates with Ph.D qualification within the next fifteen years. Project MyBrain15 is a development strategy to produce high quality human resources possessing PhDs in fields of knowledge determined by the needs of the nation.19.3.2 Project MyBrain15 should become the national agenda to fulfil the demand for k- workers in higher education, the industry, commerce and in socio-cultural development. Project MyBrain15 should take place concurrently with: 19.3.2.1 Recommendation 86 which suggests the transformation of some IHE to research and post-graduate universities; 19.3.2.2 Recommendation 138 which suggests that more graduate students be sent to overseas institutions of higher learning;69 To achieve their aspiration to be a centre of excellence, South Korea had spent US$1.2 billion from 1990 to 2005 froma special fund set up for this purpose. Source: Brain Korea 21 http://www.moe.gov.kr (14 August 2005) 194 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 221. Chapter 19 The Strategic Way Forward 19.3.2.3 Recommendation 29 which deals with the appointment of professors based on publications as a means of stimulating competition in conducting research and encouraging research training; 19.3.2.4 Recommendation 25 which makes the institution leader subject to stringent and detailed KPIs; 19.3.2.5 Recommendations 121 and 123 which suggest an increase in post-graduate and professional sponsorships; 19.3.2.6 Recommendation 132 which suggests a mentor-mentee strategy to nurture and attain high culture.19.4 NATIONAL GRADUATES19.4.1 The Committee is of the opinion that the outflow of the Ringgit to sponsor undergraduates overseas should be terminated, except in fields of study in critical areas and in world class institutions. This is a strategy to consolidate national resources towards the financing of initiatives which are critical to the needs of the country. The rationale, based on the observations of the Committee in their international benchmarking and best practices visits, is that undergraduates are often not sufficiently exposed to research methodology or receive training in research. In IHE, both local and overseas, research activity and training are mainly the domain of post-graduate studies. In addition, undergraduate students are usually not taught or guided by eminent professors, let alone by a Nobel Laureate, but are instead taught by post-graduate students, tutors, lecturers and associate professors. The money thus saved can be utilised to benefit more post-graduate students who can be sent to prestigious and world class universities where they will be taught by renowned professors. RecommendationsBased on the above review, study and observations, the Committee makes thefollowing recommendations:130. The Committee recommends that MyBrain15 be designed and implemented for the development of national human capital. It should be planned and implemented towards producing 100,000 Ph.D graduates within the next 15 years.131. The Committee recommends that the MoHE and the MoE jointly implement and ensure the success of MyBrain15. Towards Excellence 195
  • 222. Part VI Excellence in Contributing to the Malaysian Society132. The Committee recommends that a foreign world class reputed university with an outstanding team be identified to act as mentor to an institution of higher education in Malaysia.133. The Committee recommends that an institution of higher education which fulfils stringent quality conditions of a mentor institution be identified to undertake the responsibility of becoming an incubator of excellence in research.134. The Committee recommends that an eminent individual who epitomises high culture be identified and appointed to lead the mentee institution.135. The Committee recommends that policies and programmes to stimulate and encourage the development of high culture be formulated and implemented for national higher education.136. The Committee recommends that stringent Key Performance Indicators which are to be included in the contractual terms of employment, become the basis for the selection and appointment of leaders of mentee institutions.137. The Committee recommends that the practice of sending undergraduates overseas be reviewed. It is probable that only a small number need to be sent overseas to excellent and highly ranked universities to pursue courses in selected disciplines which are critical to national development.138. The Committee recommends that a programme be set up to deal with the process of sending post-graduates to well known international universities and research institutions. 196 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 223. Part VIICONCLUSION
  • 224. Chapter 20 Conclusion Chapter 20 CONCLUSION20.1 In the preparation of this Report, the Committee took into consideration the views of national higher education leaders and leaders from academic institutions worldwide. Various findings of seminars were also referred to and recommendations from many committees and conventions were adopted to reinforce ideas and identify the disconnect between the national aspirations for higher education and the current situation in IHE. The Committee is also aware of the importance that this study and the recommendations made, take into consideration the historical context, as well as the reality of existing challenges in order to progress towards a better future.20.2 In its efforts to identify best practices, the Committee reviewed the best practices in the academic tradition of Malaysia. Leaders of well-known international universities as well as ministries of education from many countries gave invaluable assistance to the Committee in the preparation of this Report. The Committee also took into consideration the life experiences of eminent persons, current and former leaders of higher education, leaders from grassroots level, NGO leaders, religious leaders, leaders of professional bodies, women leaders, student leaders, leaders of workers’ unions, the media and individuals who have an interest in education. In fact, the Committee has obtained invaluable benefits and insights from the thoughts and expertise of members of the Committee itself who represent a wide spectrum of professions.20.3 This Report, based on a conceptual framework of internal and external imperatives embraces unexpected and gradual changes which are taking place in society and in education. In writing this Report, the Committee has endeavoured to adhere to the following principles: Towards Excellence 199
  • 225. Part VII Conclusion20.3.1 The conceptualisation of national challenges with the aim of moving towards a better future;20.3.2 To formulate recommendations which reflect the aspirations and vision of an excellent future that is consistent with the ongoing nation building initiatives, national development and the development of the Malaysian society;20.3.3 To accept the fact that the potential of individuals can be continually improved and developed to their optimum capability to become human resources of high quality.20.4 The Committee is aware that no assignment can be exhaustive, more so one which covers a wide and complex area and which has to be executed within a short period of six months. Thus, the Committee hopes that the ideas expressed will become material for continued discussion, and the issues raised will evolve and stimulate further discourse.20.5 The Committee has found that there is a scarcity of in-depth data and information regarding: 20.5.1 Work specification and professional training for non-academic university administrators and support staff as well as the required components to instil and nurture academic values and traditions that can be shared collectively between academic and non-academic staff; 20.5.2 Issues of co-curricular activities and the involvement of staff and students for its implementation; 20.5.3 Issues of absolute and relative autonomy in decision making, based on a specific model or ideology; 20.5.4 Gender, race and minority group issues in higher education; 20.5.5 Significant matters regarding ideas for change in the universities and their implications on life-long learning; 20.5.6 Worldwide data on the logistics of the development of world class universities; 20.5.7 Information relating to the idea of renewing and revolutionising higher education. 200 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 226. Chapter 20 Conclusion20.6 The mandate of the Committee is inextricably linked to innovation, change and restructuring of higher education in the country. In the light of this, the Committee has taken into consideration the inevitable trials and tribulations that those involved would undergo in implementing the complex phases of transformation. Among these phases are the Adoption and Internalisation Phase, the Creative Implementation Phase, the Problem Solving Phase, the Phase of Ensuring Success in Various Innovations and the Phase of Institutionalising the Reform Initiatives which are seen as systemic and synergistic.20.7 The Committee has tried to put forward a comprehensive perspective vis-a-vis to the directions that higher education should take, but at the same time recognising the fact that there will be some gaps and disparities in regard to the analysis presented.20.8 The Committee agrees that the ideas expressed in this Report need to be analysed and refined further by a team which will be responsible for implementing these ideas.20.9 Finally, the Committee is of the opinion that it is necessary to record the inhibiting factors to the recommendations put forward in this Report. These factors are: 20.9.1 The disparity between deed and aspiration; 20.9.2 The mismatch between the capabilities of the institution and the demands of society and the global challenges which are increasingly becoming more complex; 20.9.3 The deterioration in teaching and research standards and quality because of the failure of institutions of higher learning to recruit and retain good academic staff or to have good teaching and research resources; 20.9.4 The low standard of research and research findings of IHE have resulted in the reluctance of the Government and industry to provide funding; 20.9.5 Vision and Mission statements of institutions which have no objectives and which are not based on the strengths of the institutions; 20.9.6 The failure to administer change effectively; 20.9.7 The resources of the institutions are neither consolidated nor focused towards the achievement of excellence in niche areas or selected sectors. Towards Excellence 201
  • 227. Part VII Conclusion20.10 This Report began with a clarion call for change by none other than the Prime Minister himself. He was not advocating merely tinkering with the status quo. His call was for nothing less than an ‘education revolution’. In responding to this call, we, the members of this Committee, feel deeply honoured and privileged by the opportunity afforded us to contribute to this noble endeavour. At the same time we were cognizant that if the Government’s sincere intention of creating excellence in higher education is to be realised, uncompromising and hard-nosed honesty in the analysis of the current situation, and the formulation of recommendations that directly confront the social, attitudinal, cultural and traditional norms that upheld the status quo and prevented change, had to be the order of the day. We acknowledge that as we examined the current situation in the country, compared it with the findings of our benchmarking visits to outstanding higher education institutions in other parts of the world, listened to comments and opinions of various local experts, academicians, top political figures, and the ordinary man-in-the- street, our appreciation of the enormity of the task ahead deepened. This Report therefore, is the result of deliberations made in the light of input and feedback from numerous quarters. We are confident therefore, that if the recommendations which we have made are given serious consideration by all concerned bodies, and swift action taken to implement them, albeit with judicious adjustments, the revolution in education so much desired by the Prime Minister, will become reality in the foreseeable future. 202 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 228. Appendix ICOMMITTEEMEMBERS
  • 229. Committee Members APPENDIX I: COMMITTEE MEMBERS MAIN COMMITTEETAN SRI DATO’ DR. WAN MOHD. ZAHID BIN MOHD. NOORDINChairmanTAN SRI DATO’ SERI DR. HAJI ZAINUL ARIFF BIN HAJI HUSSAINChairman, Bank Pembangunan Malaysia BerhadPROF. DATO’ DR. HASSAN SAIDDirector General, Department of Management IHE, Ministry of Higher EducationPROF. DATO’ DZULKIFLI BIN ABDUL RAZAKVice Chancellor, Universiti Sains MalaysiaDATUK DR. SULAIMAN BIN MAHBOBPresident, Institute of Integrity MalaysiaDATUK DR. ABDUL MONIR BIN YAACOBDirector General, Malaysian Institute of Islamic Understanding (Until 31st March 2005)PROF. EMERITUS DATO’ DR. KHOO KAY KIMProfessor, Department of History, University of MalayaDATUK MUSTAFA BIN MANSURPresident, Federation of Malaysian ManufacturersDATO’ DR. T. MARIMUTHUVice President, International Graduate Studies CollegePROF. DATO’ MOHD. SHUKRI BIN AB. YAJIDPresident, University College of Technology and Management of MalaysiaPROF. DATO’ DR. IBRAHIM BIN AHMAD BAJUNIDDean, Faculty of Humanities and Social Science, University Tun Abdul RazakPROF. DR. SHAIK MD. NOOR ALAM BIN SHAIK MOHD HUSSAINProfessor, Faculty of Economics and Management, Universiti Putra Malaysia Towards Excellence 203
  • 230. Appendix I WORKING COMMITTEEDZULHIJAH SOKARNOHeadAHMAD MOHD SAIDABDUL RAHMAN BIN MATXAVIER ANTHONY GOMEZMARY LAZARUS GILLMEGAT SHAHRUL AZMIR NORDIN EDITORSUMMINAJAH SALLEHUniversiti Teknologi MARAMD ARRIS ABU YAMINUniversiti Teknologi MARA 204 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 231. Committee Members SECRETARIATMOHAMED RASHID NAVI BAXOfficer, Ministry of Higher EducationHeadMOHAMAD RASHAHIDI MOHAMMODOfficer, Ministry of Higher EducationGUAN ENG CHANOfficer, Ministry of Higher EducationMOHD. NASIR ABU HASSANOfficer, Ministry of Higher EducationABDUL RAHIM AHMADOfficer, Ministry of Higher EducationHAPIDAH MOHAMEDOfficer, Ministry of Higher EducationISMAIL JAMALUDDINOfficer, Ministry of Higher EducationIBRAHIM ALIOfficer, Ministry of Higher EducationSITI ZALEHA ABD AZIZOfficer, Universiti Teknologi MARA Towards Excellence 205
  • 232. Appendix IIBIODATA OF MAINCOMMITTEE MEMBERS
  • 233. Biodata of Main Committee Members APPENDIX II: BIODATA OF MAIN COMMITTEE MEMBERS TAN SRI DATO’ DR. WAN MOHD ZAHID BIN MOHD NOORDINTan Sri Dato’ Wan Mohd Zahid bin Mohd Noordin is an educationist. He obtained his firstdegree from the University of Malaya, his Master’s degree from Stanford University, PaloAlto, California and his Ph.D from the University of California, Berkeley. Throughout hiscareer, he undertook a number of management courses, the most notable being the AdvancedManagement Programme at the Harvard Business School, USA.Tan Sri Dato’ Wan Mohd Zahid bin Mohd Noordin began his career as a teacher and eventuallybecame a member of the senior education management team in the Ministry of Education.His last position in the education service was as the Director General of the Education,Ministry of Education Malaysia.Being a senior administrator of the Education Ministry, he had been a member of manyinternational committees undertaking a variety of responsibilities, among which were Advisorto the Pre-School Funding Project under UNICEF, Consultant to the Institute of Technologyand Innovation in Manila, Committee Member for the International Education Bureau in Genevaand Committee Member of the Islamic Culture, Social and Education Association in Rabat.He is still very active in the education arena. Recently, he was appointed by UNESCO as anAdvisor to the Ministry of Education in Saudi Arabia. In recognition of his many contributionsto the progress of education at the international level, he has been awarded a Doctorate inLaw, Honoris Causa, by the University of Lancaster, United Kingdom.Tan Sri Dato’ Wan Mohd Zahid bin Mohd Noordin is a member of various boards of directorsamong which are the Board of Directors Universiti Teknologi MARA, Permodalan NasionalBerhad, Perbadanan Usahawan Nasional Berhad, Kumpulan Guthrie Berhad and YayasanFelcra Berhad.In recognition of his services to the country, he has been awarded various federal and statehonours. Towards Excellence 207
  • 234. Appendix II TAN SRI DATO’ SERI DR. HAJI ZAINUL ARIFF BIN HAJI HUSSAINTan Sri Dato’ Seri Dr. Haji Zainul Ariff bin Haji Hussain’s qualifications range from a Doctorateof Philosophy (Ph.D) in Public Policy University of Southern California, USA, Masters inBusiness Administration Ohio University, USA, Bachelor of Arts (Hons) University of Malaya,Post Graduate Diploma in Public Administration University of Malaya and a Post GraduateCertificate in Administrative Management Royal Institute of Public Administration, UK.He has also attended courses in International Business Management at Catholic University ofLeuven (Belgium) and the Central Officers Training Institute (COTI), South Korea.Tan Sri Dato’ Seri Dr. Haji Zainul Ariff served 35 years in the Malaysian Civil Service invarious capacities, among which were as Under-Secretary (Head) Higher Education Division,Ministry of Education, Director General of Socioeconomic Research in the Prime Minister’sDepartment, Deputy Secretary General in the Prime Minister’s Department and SecretaryGeneral of the Ministry of National Unity and Community Development. He retired from theCivil Service as the Director General of the Implementation Co-ordination Unit in the PrimeMinister’s Department.He was a former University Council Member of Universiti Malaya, Universiti KebangsaanMalaysia, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Universiti Utara Malaysia,International Islamic University Malaysia, Institut Teknologi MARA and Tuanku Abdul RahmanCollege. He was also a former Council Member of the MARA Education Foundation, CouncilMember of the Board of the Malaysian Islamic Economic Development Foundation, BoardMember of the Maybank Group Welfare Fund, Board Member and member of the AuditCommittee of Petroleum Nasional Bhd (PETRONAS).Currently he is a Board Member and Distinguished Fellow of the Institute of Strategy andInternational Studies (ISIS) Malaysia, a Board Member and the Chairman of the AuditCommittee of the Malaysian International Shipping (MISC) and a Board member ofGAMUDA. He is also the Chairman of Bank Pembangunan Malaysia Bhd. and the Chairmanof the Board of Universiti Putra Malaysia. 208 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 235. Biodata of Main Committee Members DATO’ PROFESSOR DR. HASSAN SAIDDato’ Professor Dr. Hassan Said is the Director General of the Management Department ofthe Higher Education Institute. He was born on 1st January 1955 and obtained his secondaryeducation at Sekolah Tuanku Abdul Rahman, Ipoh, Perak. He furthered his higher educationin the United Kingdom. His first degree was in the field of Mathematics from ManchesterUniversity, England in 1979 while both his Masters and Doctorate degrees were awarded byBrunel University, England.He began his career as a lecturer at Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) in 1984 and progressedto becoming an Associate Professor and Professor at the same university. He obtained hismanagement expertise and was appointed Dean in 1990. His highest position at USM was asthe Deputy Vice Chancellor of academic affairs in 1995. As a professional in the field ofmathematics, his inclination is in the discipline of “computer-aided geometric design” (CAGD).Dato’ Professor Dr. Hassan is a member of the administrative and management team of theHigher Education Ministry. Throughout his years of service he has presented various workingand seminar papers at the national, regional and international academic councils and successfullysupervised graduates and post-graduates at Masters and Doctorate levels.Dato’ Professor Hassan has contributed to many professional publications. His research findingshave been published as articles and books and often discussed at seminars, forums andworkshops. He has been appointed as a Fellow of Various institutions both in Malaysia andoverseas and is also a Member of the LPU at many public institutions of higher education. Towards Excellence 209
  • 236. Appendix II PROFESSOR DATO’ DZULKIFLI ABDUL RAZAKProfessor Dato’ Dzulkifli Abdul Razak has been associated with Universiti Sains Malaysia(USM) since 1980 and has served as the Deputy Dean of the School of PharmaceuticalSciences, Director and Founder of the National Poisons Centre (1995-2000) and Head ofthe World Health Organisation Drug Information Collaboration Centre (since 1998). In July2000, he was appointed as the Deputy Vice Chancellor of USM, and the Vice Chancellor inDecember 2000.He also serves as a panel member of the World Health Organisation (WHO) Expert AdvisoryPanel for Drug Policy and Management since 1995, and as a consultant to WHO Geneva andWestern Pacific Regional Office. He had also been appointed as a member to the ScientificAdvisory Committee of Tobacco Products Regulation under WHO (2000 – 2002).Throughout his long service at the WHO, Professor Dato’ Dzulkifli Abdul Razak has led morethan 10 teams to Asia, East Africa and the South Pacific.At the national level, he chairs the Malaysian Examination Council, the Malaysian ViceChancellors/Rectors Committee, a member of the National Tertiary Education Council andBoard of Directors of the Open University Malaysia. He is also a board member of theInternational Association of Universities, a UNESCO-affliated organisation based in Paris.Throughout the last 10 years, Professor Dato’ Dzulkifli Abdul Razak has contributed articlesfor the weekly column in the New Straits Times and has also written over 500 articles onhealth, science and current issues. A number of these articles have become part of a 3-seriescompilation entitled ‘Voicing Concern’. He has also written more than twenty books with onewinning a special prize in Malaysia’s 1996 Book Fair.In recognition of his many contributions and services rendered, Professor Dato’ Dzulkifli hasbeen awarded the 1999 Olle Hanson International Award, 2000 Global Leadership ScholarAward by the Robert Wood Foundation of USA, 2002 Rotary Research Foundation GoldMedal for the Medical Sciences and the Inaugural (2004) South East Asia Tobacco ControlAlliance Award. He has also been awarded the honorary titles Dato’ Paduka Mahkota Selangor(2001), Darjah Yang Mulia Pangkuan Negeri, Pulau Pinang (2003) and Dato’ Paduka MakhotaPerlis (2004). 210 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 237. Biodata of Main Committee Members DATUK DR. SULAIMAN MAHBOBDatuk Dr. Sulaiman Mahbob is currently the President of the Malaysian Institute of IntegrityMalysia (IIM), an agency established to coordinate the implementation of the National IntegrityPlan (PIN). Dr. Sulaiman took this appointment in July 2004, after having served the Government(Malaysian Civil Service) for over 33 years.Prior to this, he was the Secretary-General of the Ministry of Domestic Trade and ConsumerAffairs, a post he held beginning February in 2001. While at the Ministry, he was also the Chairmanof the Companies Commission of Malaysia, and a Board Member of Malaysian IntellectualProperty Corporation.His working career includes his experience in the Economic Planning Unit of the Prime Minister’sDepartment (1972-1982), and the Ministry of Finance (1986-1994). He was seconded asExecutive Director of the Malaysian Institute of Economic Research (MIER) (1994-1997). Heserved as Deputy Vice-Chancellor of Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM) (1997/1998) until heheaded the Secretariat of the National Economic Action Council (NEAC) during the financialcrisis of 1998. Where he helped plan and carry out recovery measures such as the currency pegand capital controls.Datuk Sulaiman is an economist by training. He has a Bachelors degree in economics (withhonours) from the University of Malaya, Master of Science degree from the University of London(1977) and a Ph.D from Syracuse University, USA.While in MIER, he led several consulting assignments, which included drafting the Second IndustrialMaster Plan (1996-2005). Datuk Dr. Sulaiman has also served in the commissions, including theCommission for Communication and Multimedia, and for Energy. He had also served in theBoard of Directors of MISC Bernas, and Pengurusan Amanah Saham Nasional. He was recentlyappointed board Member of the Malaysia Deposit Insurance Corporation.He is currently Adjunct Professor (Economics) at the University of Malaya and at Universiti UtaraMalaysia (public management and law). He is also Vice-President of the Malaysian EconomicAssociation and often contributes articles on Malaysian economy in the local press.He has been awarded several decorations from the Federal Government (PJN, JSM, KMN) andthe State Governments of Sarawak (DJBS), Johor (SMJ) and Perak (PMP). Towards Excellence 211
  • 238. Appendix II DATUK DR. ABDUL MONIR BIN YAACOBDatuk Dr. Abdul Monir was the Director General of the Institute of Islamic UnderstandingMalaysia (IKIM) till 31 March 2005 which is now the SUHAKAM Commission. Datuk Dr.Abdul Monir obtained his Ph.D from the International Islamic University of Malaysia (IIUM),his Masters in Philosophy and Diploma in Law from the University of London, A’-Aliyahfrom the Al-Azhar University and Diploma in Education from Kolej Islam Malaysia.Datuk Dr. Abdul Monir’s experience in the field of education is as an External Examiner forPh.D and Masters thesis at UKM, UM, IIUM and University Brunei Darussalam. He lecturedon syariah law at UKM and was the coordinator of the Centre for General Studies.Datuk Dr. Abdul Monir has served and contributed in various committees including being aMember of the Council of Islam and Malay Customs Pahang, Islamic Council of Selangorand the Fatwa Council of Pahang. He heads the Advisory Board of Takaful NasionalBerhad, the Securities Commission, Amanah Saham MARA, Unit Trust Management Berhad,Bank Negara Malaysia and Maybank Takaful Berhad.Datuk Dr. Abdul Monir has been bestowed with the following honours: Panglima Jasa Negara(PJN), Kesatria Mangku Negara (KMN) and Darjah Indera Mahkota Pahang (DIPM). 212 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 239. Biodata of Main Committee Members PROFESSOR EMERITUS DATO’ DR. KHOO KAY KIMProfessor Emeritus Dato’ Dr. Khoo Kay Kim is Professor Emeritus at the Department ofHistory, University of Malaya (UM). He obtained his Bachelors degree from the Universityof Malaya (Singapore), Masters degree and Doctorate (Ph.D) from the University of Malaya.Professor Khoo is an academic specialising in the study of history. His years of service andexperience include four and a half years as a graduate teacher in Telok Anson, Perak, AssociateProfessor in the Department of History, University of Malaya while holding the position ofthe Malaysian History Chair at the University of Malaya and Head of Department, Universityof Malaya, and Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. After his retirement, heheld the position of Professor in the Department of History, University of Malaya andDirector of the Sports Centre, University of Malaya.Professor Khoo was an Education Fellow of the Institute of Degree and Strategic Studies,Nanyang Technological University in Singapore, apart from holding various important positionsnamely, as President or Editor of the Royal Asiatic Editors Society Malaysia Branch, Memberof the Advisory Board of Editors for “The American Asian Review” Journal, President ofthe Historical Society of Malaysia and the Muzium Society of Malaysia, External Evaluator(History) University Science, Malaysia and University Brunei Darussalam, External ExaminerHistory Department, National University of Singapore, Council Member of Dewan Bahasadan Pustaka, Committee Member of the Advisory Committee for National Unity of theHuman Rights Commission, Council Member of the Malaysian and International StrategicStudies and Council Member of the Institute of Integrity Malaysia.Professor Emeritus Dato’ Dr. Khoo Kay Kim has written more than 16 monographs and 90articles, while contributing as a sports columnist and commentator for the national dailies formore than 30 years. Towards Excellence 213
  • 240. Appendix II DATUK MUSTAFA MANSURDatuk Mustafa Mansur received his early education at Clifford Secondary School, KualaKangsar and also St. Michael Secondary School at Ipoh, Perak. He furthered his educationin the field of Political Science at the Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM).He has held several high positions in Dunlop Malaysia Industry Ltd and as a Director ofOperations at H&R Johnson Ltd (which is now known as Johan Ceramics Ltd).Currently, he is the President of the Malaysian Manufacturers Association, Deputy Presidentof Malaysia’s Hall of Business and Industry, Chairman of Applied Chemical (Malaysia),Chairman of Metal Industry (MMC), Chairman of Kwang Construction, Chairman ofManewtech Belle Group, Chairman of Agni Energy and Chairman of HK Comp.He is a Member of the Board of Directors of Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), NationalProductivity Council (NPC), Malaysian Industrial Development Authority (MIDA), EmployeeProvident Fund and Johor Investment Board.He is also involved with the Government at committee levels as a Panel Member of the PrimeMinisters’ Quality Award for the Private Sector Selection Committee, Council Member forExcellence in Industry Award, Council Member for the Standards and Accreditation BoardMalaysia, Council Member of the Industrial Implementation Board, Council Member ofSmall Debts Reconciliation Central Bank of Malaysia, and Committee Member of the 3rdNational Industrial Master Plan (IMP3).He was also a representative of the Government of Malaysia at the World Trade OrganisationMinisterial Conference at Doha, Qatar and Cancun, Mexico. 214 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 241. Biodata of Main Committee Members PROFESSOR DATO’ DR. T. MARIMUTHUProfessor Dato’ Dr. T. Marimuthu has been a Member of the Central Working Committee ofthe Malaysian Indian Congress (MIC) since 1991. Throughout his political career, he hasheld positions as Senator, Member of Parliament for Teluk Kemang and Deputy Minister ofAgriculture.Professor Dato’ Dr. T. Marimuthu is also an academician. He received his post-graduateMasters and Ph.D education at the University of Manchester, England. He is now the Vice-President of Academics at the International Graduate Studies College, Kuala Lumpur. Priorto this, he served as the Executive Director of Institute Wira, Academic Advisor AMSET,Director of Vanto Academy, Professor of Social Psychology at the University of Malaya,Visiting Professor at the Education Department (Developing Nations) of the University ofLondon, University of Chicago and Stanford University.Professor Dato’ Dr. T. Marimuthu also actively contributes to educational and socialorganisations. He is a Member of the National Unity Council in the Prime Minister’sDepartment, Committee Member of the National Tertiary Education Council, Director ofMaju Institute of Educational Development, member of the Editorial Advisor Board ofEncyclopedia Malaysia, President of the International Association of Tamil Studies, Presidentof the Educational Research and Welfare Foundation and Vice-President of the EducationSociety of Malaysia. At the international level, he has served as a consultant to the WorldBank, UNESCO, INICEF, UNDP, ESCAP, RIHED, IRDC and IIEP.He has written 10 books and monographs in addition to more than 40 articles in local andinternational journals. One of his books entitled “An Introduction to Sociology of Education”(1990) is used as a reference text in tertiary institutions.In recognition of his services, Professor Dato’ Dr. T. Marimuthu has been awarded varioushonours, among which are the Darjah Setia Di Raja Kedah (D.S.D.K), Kesatri MangkuNegara (K.M.N), MIC President’s Gold Medal and National Union of Plantation WorkersGold Medal. Towards Excellence 215
  • 242. Appendix II PROFESSOR DATO’ MOHD SHUKRI AB. YAJIDProfessor Dato’ Mohd Shukri’s involvement in private education began some twenty yearsago. He is the Founder and President of the University College Technology and Management,Malaysia (KUTPM) and the Founder and President of the Advanced Management andTechnology Centre Group of Colleges. Since 1993, Professor Dato’ Mohd Shukri has beenthe President of Institute Perkim-Goon, the oldest, largest and most well-known institute ofhigher education in the northern states of Malaysia.Professor Dato’ Mohd Shukri has served and contributed in many organisations, boards andcommittees involved in educational policy making and development. Among these are theCommittee to Review Higher Education Policy, Malaysia, the National Society of the BumiputraPrivate Higher Education Institute; the Private Higher Education Coalition Body, Kelantan;the MARA Society Fund Programme, Centre for the Promotion of the Intellect andTechnological Progress (CIPTA), the MARA Education foundation, the Malaysian NuclearSociety (MNS), and an Associate Member of the Malay Business Chamber, Selangor.The first 10 years of Professor Dato’ Mohd Shukri’s professional life was spent establishinghis own private consultancy where he was involved in international mergers and acquisitions.He headed many successful business ventures during this time, including internationalnegotiations with organisations like Daiwa Europe, Total, Emille Woolfe (UK) and others.Whilst playing a prominent role in the world of academia, Dato’ Shukri is also active in the ITindustry and is the President of Integrated Technology Haus (ITH). 216 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 243. Biodata of Main Committee Members PROFESSOR DATO’ DR. IBRAHIM BIN AHMAD BAJUNIDProfessor Dato’ Dr. Ibrahim Bajunid is the Dean of the Faculty of Humanities and SocialSciences at Universiti Tun Abdul Razak (UNITAR). He teaches management, leadershipand education at UNITAR. He is the President of the Malaysian Educational ResearchAssociation (MERA), President of the Malaysian Management Education and LeadershipSociety (MCEA), President of the Malaysian Institute of Human Resource Management(MIHRM), Secretary of the Malaysian Education Society (PERPEMA) and CommitteeMember of the Malaysian Cognitive Science Association (COSMA).Professor Dato’ Dr. Ibrahim served for more than 32 years in the Ministry of Education,Malaysia before entering the private academic domain. Prior to his retirement from publicservice, Professor Dato’ Dr. Ibrahim was the Director of the National Institute of EducationManagement (NIEM) and as a Committee Member of the Section Committee in 1979, wasinstrumental in the setting up of NIEM.He is also a distinguished Fellow of the Institute of Strategy and International Studies,Malaysia (ISIS), Fellow Emeritus of the National Institute of Management and EducationalLeadership, and Fellow of the Institute of Research on Youth. He is also a regular columnistof the ‘As I Wonder’ weekly column in the New Sunday Times.Professor Dato’ Dr. Ibrahim also serves as an Advisor and Negotiator in the Regional Centrefor Educational Planning at al-Sarjah, United Arab Emirates. Towards Excellence 217
  • 244. Appendix II PROFESSOR DR. SHAIK MD. NOOR ALAM BIN SHAIK MOHD HUSSAINProfessor Dr. Shaik Md. Noor Alam is a Professor at the Faculty of Economics andManagement, Universiti Putra Malaysia. Prior to this he was a lecturer in the Department ofNatural Economic Resources, Head of the Department of Natural Economic Resources,Deputy Dean of the Faculty of Economics and Management, Associate Professor of theDepartment of Natural Economics Resources, and Dean of the Faculty of Modern Languagesand Communication and Lecturer at the Division of Law Affairs.Professor Dr. Shaik Md. Noor Alam has conducted numerous research. Among these are,Padi Land Ownership System in MADA (Muda Agricultural Develoment Authorities),Undertakings (Traditional Business Guaranties) - a Problem which has been Recognized, theASEAN/CANADA on Law and anti-Trust Policy and a study of the Melaka Strategic Plan.As a result of his expert knowledge of Law, he was appointed the External ExaminerDissertations of the Masters in Law Programme, University of Malaya (1994), Member ofthe Selection Panel for Associate Professors, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Member ofthe Committee of the Legal Terminology of Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, and Member ofthe Technical IRPA Committee related to Legal Research Projects.Professor Dr. Shaik Md. Noor Alam obtained his Ph.D from the International Islamic UniversityMalaysia, his LL.M from University of Malaya and LL.B from University of London. 218 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 245. Appendix IIILIST OF PARTICIPANTSIN DIALOGUE SESSIONSON NATIONAL HIGHEREDUCATION
  • 246. List of Participants in Dialogue Sessions on National Higher Education APPENDIX III: LIST OF PARTICIPANTS IN DIALOGUE SESSIONS ON NATIONAL HIGHER EDUCATIONDIALOGUE I: 3 FEBRUARY 2005, HOTEL MARRIOTT PUTRAJAYA No. Name/Organisation 1. Che Nyam Husain KLIUC, Serdang 2. Amir Hashim Mohd Kassim KUiTTHO, Johor 3. Sohaimi Zakaria UiTM, Shah Alam 4. Mohd Adanan Isman Kolej Universiti Islam Antarabangsa, Bangi 5. Abdullah Muhamad Majlis Latihan Vokasional Kebangsaan, Putrajaya 6. Stephen Lee MUST, Petaling Jaya 7. Ismail Jamaluddin Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi Malaysia 8. Abdul Rahim Rusly Kolej ITS, Kuala Lumpur 9. Mohd Najib Hj. Abdullah Kolej Insaniah, Kedah 10. Badhrulhisham Abdul Aziz KUKTEM, Pahang 11. Abdul Shukor Husin KUIM, Kuala Lumpur Towards Excellence 219
  • 247. Appendix III 12. Nik Zaleha Nik Manap Kolej Komuniti Selayang, Gombak 13. Sulaiman Hassan Kolej Universiti Teknologi Tun Hussein Onn, Johor 14. Jamaludin Yahya Kementerian Pelancongan 15. Maria Chee Institut Latihan & Pembangunan (ITD), Kuala Lumpur 16. Katheleen Ong Institut Latihan & Pembangunan (ITD), Pulau Pinang 17. Gan Eng Hong Nilai International College, Nilai 18. Nam b. Marthinin Majlis Amanah Rakyat 19. Khairuddin Hashim Tun Abdul Razak University, Kelana Jaya 20. Ismail Hassan KUTKM, Melaka 21. Hasbullah Mustafa Majlis Latihan Pertanian Kebangsaan (NATC), Kuala Lumpur 22. Azman Abdullah Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang 23. Ahmad Najib Abdullah Kolej Islam Antarabangsa Sultan Ismail Petra, Kelantan 24. Norliza Ismail MMU, Cyberjaya 25. Halym Yeo The One Academy, Petaling Jaya 26. G. Irshad Hussain Kuala Lumpur Infrastructure University College, Kajang 220 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 248. List of Participants in Dialogue Sessions on National Higher Education27. Rusley Taib Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Perak28. Helaladin M. Dahalan Universiti Malaysia Sabah29. Patricia Ong INTI College Malaysia, Negeri Sembilan30. Teo Boon Khee TPM Academy, Petaling Jaya31. Hamdan Suhaimi KUSTEM, Terengganu32. Zainal Abidin Uidan UPM33. Dang Zaidah Ibrahim UNITAR34. Mohamed b. Suleiman Lembaga Akreditasi Negara35. Sahol Hamid Abu Bakar UiTM, Shah Alam36. Valentina Ho The One Academy37. Tan Yew Sing INTI College Malaysia38. Andrew Choo Stamford College39. Mohd Yusri Md Yaasin NIIM40. Muhamad Awang UPM41. Roziah Mohd Janor UiTM, Shah Alam Towards Excellence 221
  • 249. Appendix III 42. Barbara Stamble Curtin University of Technology Sarawak 43. Chin Kit Chin UCSI 44. Khadijah Rohani UPSI 45. Thor Meng Tat Informatics College 46. Mohd Faisal Ishak Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi Malaysia 47. Sulaiman Yassin KUSTEM 48. Prudence Goh UTAR 49. Abdul Razak Habib Open University Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur 50. Syed Ahmad Hussein Universiti Sains Malaysia 51. Abd Halim Ahmad Universiti Utara Malaysia 52. Mohamad Jayus Politeknik Sabak Bernam 53. U.K. Menon Stamford College 54. Asbi Ali KUTPM 55. Yusof @ Saad Md. Yasin Open University Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur 56. Anthony Gomez Education Consultant 222 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 250. List of Participants in Dialogue Sessions on National Higher Education57. Abd. Aziz Tajuddin USM58. Peter Ng UCSI, Kuala Lumpur59. Joseph Metropolitan College, Subang Jaya60. Elizabeth Lee Sunway University College61. Mohd Ghani Salleh Kolej Universiti Kejuruteraan & Teknologi Malaysia62. Roswati Rahmat SEG (i), Subang Jaya63. Zaiton Mohd Yusof SEG (i), Subang Jaya64. Prang Koon Tueh Monash University Malaysia65. Mohabattul Zaman Bukhari Kolej Universiti Kejuruteraan Utara Malaysia66. Mohamad Ali Sekak Universiti Industri Selangor67. Abu Bakar Hashim Kolej Perubatan DiRaja Perak68. Ahmad Adam Universiti Malaysia Sabah69. Abu Bakar Mohamad Diah Kolej Universiti Teknikal Kebangsaan Malaysia70. Normaziah Abdullah MIMOS71. Ibrahim Hussein UNITEN Towards Excellence 223
  • 251. Appendix III 72. Zainal Ahmad Kolej Komuniti Hulu Langat, Selangor 73. Adnenan Abd. Rahman Kolej Universiti Islam Malaysia 74. Zulkiply Omar INTI College, Subang Jaya 75. Enn Ong Swinburne University of Techonogy (Sarawak Campus) 76. Mawar Noraini Ismail Universiti Sains Malaysia 77. Abdul Karim Jaafar Poleteknik Shah Alam 78. Mohd Zainul Fitri KUTPM 79. Merilyn Hiddel Monash University Malaysia 80. Hamsawi Abdullah UNIMAS 81. Abdul Ghafar Abdullah PTPTN 82. Mohd Amin Mohd Sura Kolej Aman 83. Ismail Md. Salleh IUCTT 84. Zakaria Salleh IUCTT 85. Aminah Ab. Rahim Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi Malaysia 86. Rabiah Latif UiTM, Shah Alam 224 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 252. List of Participants in Dialogue Sessions on National Higher Education87. Latifah Hassan UUM, Kedah88. Mokhlis Jaafar Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi Malaysia89. Mei Ling Young International Medical University90. Kamal Hassan International Islamic University Malaysia91. Mohd Rosli UNITAR92. Khairul Faiz Morat Cybernetic International College of Technology93. Fatimah Mohd Nasir Jabatan Pertanian Malaysia94. Mohd Azib Salleh UNIMAS, Sarawak95. Zulhaimi Alias Kolej ITJ, Kuala Lumpur96. Rosli Hamir Open University Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur97. Muhammad Rais Abdul Karim UPSI98. Yusry UPSI99. Mohd Rahimi Yusoff MMU100. Sufean Hussin UUM101. Shahwati Umar Binary University College of Management Towards Excellence 225
  • 253. Appendix III 102. Mohd Noor Saleh UPSI 103. Md Saaid UNITEN 104. Zubaidah Aman Ministry of Higher Education 105. Kamarul Aripin Musa UPM 106. Liew Wai Fan KUB International College 107. Ismail Mohamed Yusof MOSTI 108. Mohamed Asin Dollah Kolej Universiti Islam Malaysia 109. Mohamed Salleh Mohamed Yasin UKM 110. Lee Fah Onn INTI College Malaysia 111. Junainah Mohd Mahdee MMU 112. Noordin Sopiee ISIS Malaysia 113. Nik Mustapha Raja Abdullah UPM 114. Chow Yee Choon Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman 115. Mortaza Mohamed University College of Engineering & Technology 116. Paul Boardman University of Nottingham in Malaysia 226 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 254. List of Participants in Dialogue Sessions on National Higher Education117. Mohd Anwar Majlis Amanah Rakyat118. Gail Phung University College LimKokWing119. Azah Subari Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi Malaysia120. Azlina Ismail Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi Malaysia121. Murali Kandasamy Kemayan ATC, Kuala Lumpur122. Kamarulzaman Mohd Zin APIIT/SAPURA Group, Seri Kembangan123. Laily Din UKM124. Hassan Sirun KUTKM, Melaka125. Wazir Haron Unit Perancang Ekonomi, Jabatan Perdana Menteri Malaysia126. Rohani Abdullah Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi Malaysia127. Che Ibrahim Mohamad Kolej Islam Antarabangsa128. Mohd Noor KUKUM129. Mohamed Rehan Karim University of Malaya130. Wan Izni Rashiddi Kolej Komuniti Kuala Langat131. Sazali Yaacob KUKUM Towards Excellence 227
  • 255. Appendix III 132. Amat Taap Manshor KUTPM 133. Che Pee Saad KLIUC 134. Zainal Mohamed KUiTTHO 135. Ramli Basri Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia 136. David Booth Swinburne University Sarawak Campus 137. Abdul Razak Chik UUM, Kedah 138. K. Narayanasamy Stamford College, Melaka 139. Mohamed Said Mat Lela KUKTEM, Pahang 140. Mohd Khairi Hussin KUIS 141. Amir Salleh Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia 142. Che Zaipah Abd. Muttalib Informatics Group Malaysia 143. Mohamad Alias KUIM 144. Syed Othman Al Habshi UNITAR 145. Sukaiman Sarmani UKM 146. Yusof Abdullah KLC, Kuala Lumpur 228 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 256. List of Participants in Dialogue Sessions on National Higher Education147. Sia Ka Ngan Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi Malaysia148. A.V. Ramani Kolej Multimedia Antarabangsa149. Abd. Majid Abdullah KUSTEM150. Humam Mohamed IUCTT151. Chua Yee Yen KBU International College152. Mohamed Ali Abdul Rahman Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia153. Nasuddin Othman UiTM, Shah Alam154. Mahadzer Mahmud KLiUC155. Jamaludin Mohercalin USM, Pulau Pinang156. Mohd Noh Dalimin UMS, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah157. Khong Kim Hont HELP University College158. Sajilal Divakaran FTMS-De Montfort University Campus Malaysia159. Joyce Yuen INTI College, Subang Jaya160. Syed Haron Ahmad Universiti Malaya161. Parmjit Singh Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology Towards Excellence 229
  • 257. Appendix III 162. Mohd Gaus Ab. Kadir Politeknik Port Dickson 163. Kamaruzaman Ampon Universiti Malaysia Sabah 164. Jarlath Ronayne Sunway University College 165. Ahmad Abdullah FTMS-De Montfort University Malaysia Campus 166. Zainul Abidin Md. Sharif Universiti Tenaga Nasional 167. Azhari Saleh KUTKM 168. Wan Mohd Hilmi W. Kamal UIAM 169. Victor Lim IMU 170. Ahmad Zuber Ismail PTPTN 171. Ismawi Zen UIAM 172. T. Shamsul Bahrin Nilai International College 173. Rusnah Hussin Kementerian Kesihatan Malaysia 174. Mohd Wahid Samsudin UKM 175. Zita Mohd Fahmi LAN 176. Peter Pook International Medical University 230 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 258. List of Participants in Dialogue Sessions on National Higher Education177. Khairuddin Abd. Hamid UNIMAS178. A. Hamid A. Hadi Universiti Malaya179. Alias Atan Stamford College180. Siti Fauzeyah Syed Salim Kolej Universiti Teknologi Tun Hussein Onn181. Raja Khairil Edd Raja Ruslan TPM Academy, Kuala Lumpur Towards Excellence 231
  • 259. Appendix III DIALOGUE II: 14 MARCH 2005, HOTEL MARRIOTT PUTRAJAYA No. Name/Organisation 1. Mustafa Kamal Kolej Islam, Pahang 2. Abd Ghafar Yusof Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi Malaysia 3. Idris Md. Aron Kolej Komuniti, Bayan Baru 4. Mohd Jalil Che Yusof Politeknik Sultan Hj. Ahmad Shah 5. Ghazali Abd Manaf Universiti Kuala Lumpur 6. Saravanan Swalingam Kolej TAFE, Seremban 7. Mohd Mansor Salleh UniKL -MFI 8. Aida Daud PNB 9. Umi Salmah Zaini Institut Teknologi Perak 10. Shamsuddin Tukacil Kolej Komuniti Telok Intan 11. Kamis Awang Kumpulan Kolej Lagenda, Negeri Sembilan 12. Md. Nor Yusof Politeknik Perlis 13. Abd. Halim Muhamad Kolej Teknologi Pulau, Pulau Pinang 232 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 260. List of Participants in Dialogue Sessions on National Higher Education14. Rosdi Md. Nor Kolej Latihan Telekom, Terengganu15. Shahrizan Zainal Abidin Kolej Latihan Telekom, Kuala Lumpur16. Carlos Mikon Misin Kolej Komuniti Kuching, Sarawak17. Daliah Khalid Kementerian Belia dan Sukan Malaysia18. Ishak Tambi Kechik Allianze College of Medical Sciences, Pulau Pinang19. Shafwan Ismail Politeknik Dungun, Terengganu20. Mustafa Kamal Alif College21. Ahmad Rashidi KOPEDA22. Mohd Faisal Kamaruddin German Malaysian Institute23. Wee Keng Hong PIKOM24. Shamsul Kahar Kolej Islam Antarabangsa25. Abu Bakar Ahmad Kolej Komuniti Kuantan, Pahang26. Chia Chee Fen KDU, Petaling Jaya27. Choong Kam Kow Malaysian Institute of Art28. Idrus Mohd Sattar Cosmopoint, Kuala Lumpur Towards Excellence 233
  • 261. Appendix III 29. Hasmaryanti Kamaruzzaman Institut Astin, Puchong, Selangor 30. Che Ku Amran Che Ku Ali Kolej Komuniti Segamat, Johor 31. Ghazlan Ghazali Pusat Latihan Teknologi Tinggi (ADTEC) Kuala Lumpur 32. Vasu Subrahmanyam Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology, Kuala Lumpur 33. Rani Arumugam Sunway College, Perak 34. Norazian Ismail Politeknik Kuching, Sarawak 35. Dzulkifli Ismail Kolej Komuniti Tawau, Sabah 36. Abdullah Ali Jabatan Tenaga Manusia 37. Barbara Tey MIM 38. Roziah Ismail Kolej Komuniti Chenderoh 39. Mohd Nuzi Yaacob ADTEC, Batu Pahat 40. Balram Menon Megatech, Klang 41. Abd. Rashid Mohd Sharif Cosmopoint College of Technology, Kuala Lumpur 42. Mustafa Omar Politeknik Kota Kinabalu, Sabah 43. Nor Azman Yaakub Kolej Pendidikan Perdana, Shah Alam 234 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 262. List of Participants in Dialogue Sessions on National Higher Education44. Wan Izni Rashidi Kolej Komuniti Kuala Langat45. Zakaria Yahya Kolej Anjung, Perak46. P. Sailanathan Inst. Megatech47. Ahmad Rizal Omar Kolej Komuniti Gerik, Perak48. Au Chan Chong Sunway College, Ipoh, Perak49. Mariam Md. Salleh Kolej Professional MARA50. Sindhu Sarachandran Kolej KASTURI51. Mohd Shahar Md. Som Kolej Latihan Telekom Utara, Perak52. Ravinthiran College MCS53. Wan Zainun Wan Ahmad MARDI54. Wan Mohd Afifi Wan Abdullah Kolej Komuniti Arau, Perlis55. Zolkarnain Jobshi Politeknik Ungku Omar, Perak56. Noel Robert Kolej YPC57. Chan Soon Kew Kolej Kejuruteraan Adventist, Pulau Pinang58. Raisyan Auni Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi Malaysia Towards Excellence 235
  • 263. Appendix III 59. Ronald Ho Kolej Hillcity, Perak 60. Hasna Abdullah Kolej Teknologi Timur, Selangor 61. Balakrishnan Vassu LAN 62. S.L. Foo MIM 63. Ahmad Rani Politeknik Kulim, Kedah 64. Mohd Faisal Haroon Kolej Komuniti Kuala Terengganu 65. Zulkifli Ariffin Kolej Komuniti Darul Aman, Kedah 66. Myzatul Akman Sapaat Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi Malaysia 67. Hasline Sheliza Abd Hamid Institut Bahasa Teikyo 68. Ilyasak Ahmad Institut Teknologi Darul Naim, Kelantan 69. Mohd Nazar Hamzah German Malaysia Institute, Kuala Lumpur 70. Lim Boon Hong Institut Astin, Puchong 71. Hasmawi Khalid Kolej Komuniti Mentakab, Pahang 72. Farishatul ‘Asharah Abdullah Kolej Kejururawatan Murni, Bangi 73. Tan Hock Meng UTAR 236 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 264. List of Participants in Dialogue Sessions on National Higher Education74. Asmara Sulong Politeknik Merlimau, Jasin, Melaka75. Kamaludin Md. Kassim Kolej Komuniti Ledang, Tangkak, Johor76. Mohd Zabidin Abd Samad Pusat Latihan Teknologi Tinggi (ADTEC), Melaka77. Suzana J. Rice Oxley Institut Teknologi SARA, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah78. Yusop Paal Kolej Komuniti Sabak Bernam, Selangor79. Norhisyam Ab. Rahman Kolej Shahputra, Pahang80. Mohd Ghaus Politeknik Port Dickson, Negeri Sembilan81. Mohd Rusli Ab. Wahab Kolej Poly-Tech MARA, Kuala Lumpur82. Noor Jeffri Abdul Wahab Kolej Teknologi Islam, Melaka83. Wazir Haron Unit Perancang Ekonomi, Jabatan Perdana Menteri84. Zaihan Shukri Institut Teknikal Jepun Malaysia, Pulau Pinang85. Nor Hayati Takiman Kolej Kejururawatan Pusrawi, Kuala Lumpur86. Kim Jung Pyung College Travex, Kajang87. Nik Zaleha Nik Manap Kolej Komuniti Selayang, Selangor88. Shamsudin Jamil Jabatan Tenaga Manusia, Putrajaya Towards Excellence 237
  • 265. Appendix III 89. Chiu Hong Choy Kojadi Institute, Kuala Lumpur 90. Mohd Nazri Zahari Kolej Komuniti Pasir Salak, Perak 91. Elan NAPEI 92. Syed Abd Halim Syed Yusof Kolej Komuniti Jasin, Melaka 93. Hazari Mohd Zain Politeknik Kota Bahru, Kelantan 94. Mohd Nazri Mohd Nasir Kolej Latihan Telekom, Kuala Lumpur 95. Grace Wong Institut Putra, Melaka 96. Irene Teo Kolej Metrowealth, Johor 97. Zarul Akmar Kolej Komuniti Sg. Siput, Perak 98. Mohd Syukri Muhd Sabri Kolej SAFA, Petaling Jaya 99. Thock Kiah Wah Southern College, Johor 100. Osman M. Zain Pujangga Management Institute 101. Zainon Nor Ahmad Lembaga Akreditasi Negara 102. Lim Tou Boon Taylor’s College, Subang Jaya 103. Martin Teo Guek Hong Metrowealth College 238 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 266. List of Participants in Dialogue Sessions on National Higher Education104. A.V. Rao Vugneswaran Olympia College105. Woon Tai Hai PIKOM106. Low Lian Chai Tutorial Institute Group107. Ramlan Ramli Ranaco Education & Training Institute108. Halimah Mat Desa Politeknik Kota Melaka, Melaka109. Wong Shin Voon Reliance College, Kuala Lumpur110. Abu Bakar Mohd Ali Majlis Latihan Pertanian Kebangsaan (NATC), Kuala Lumpur111. Keriun Ong Kolej Travex, Kajang112. Siti Mazenah Saat Kolej Teknologi Pulau, Pulau Pinang113. Tay Bih Leng MTDC Multimedia Academy114. Ahmad Fadzil Arif Kolej Komuniti Hulu Selangor115. Zuleah Darsong Majlis Latihan Vokasional Kebangsaan, Putrajaya116. Suraiya H. Hussein Kementerian Kesihatan Malaysia117. Ismail M. Yusof MOSTI118. Zainab Othman Kolej Komuniti Alor Gajah, Melaka Towards Excellence 239
  • 267. Appendix III 119. Jainudin Jabidin Kolej Yayasan Sabah 120. Tan Chik Heok UTAR 121. Helena Chin Kolej INTEC 122. Wan Nooriha Wan Zin Institut ASTIN 123. Yau Chow Lum Kolej Kasturi 124. Wan Shaari Wan Ismail Kolej Seri Iman 125. Razali Mat Ajid Kolej Komuniti Mas Gading, Sarawak 126. Rosminah Mohd Hussin UniKL-MSI, Kulim, Kedah 127. Sulong Yahya Politeknik Johor Bharu 128. Lee Giok Chui Politeknik Muadzam Shah, Pahang 129. Malina Mamat Institut Astin, Puchong 130. Joyce Yuen INTI College, Subang Jaya 131. Norlida Abd Razak Kolej Komuniti Paya Besar 132. Michael Chee ELS Language Centres 133. Dana Raj K. Arumugam RIMA College 240 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 268. List of Participants in Dialogue Sessions on National Higher Education134. Jailani bin Salimon Kolej Brindley, Kuala Lumpur135. Muhammad Ikmal Mohd Said Kolej Yayasan, Lembah Beringin136. Henry Wong Alif College137. Wan Ayub Wan Ahmad Politeknik Kota, K. Terengganu138. Lee Giok Chu Politeknik Muadzam Shah, Pahang139. Jega Karan Malaysian Institute of Management140. Mohd Fadil Talib Kolej Komuniti Rompin, Pahang141. Wan Zahidi Wan Teh Kolej Islam Darul Ridzuan, Perak142. Seritheren Subramaniam RIMA College, Kuala Lumpur143. Tham Keang Fatt Institut Kompas, Ipoh, Perak144. Ramlah Md Isa MARDI145. Mat Rajab IPTURA, Kedah146. Cynthia Teoh Language Centre, Petaling Jaya147. Parimaninam. K Institut Teknologi Maklumat, Ipoh, Perak148. Thomas Matthew Goon Institute, Kuala Lumpur Towards Excellence 241
  • 269. Appendix III 149. Mohd Yayue Politeknik Sabak Bernam 150. Zita Mohd Fahmi LAN 151. Siti Alwati Osman Kolej Latihan Telekom, Sarawak 152. Zainab Ahmad Kolej Komuniti, Hulu Langat 153. Tengku Nikman Tengku Mahmud International City Inst. of Technology 154. Ghazale Baharin Majlis Amanah Rakyat 155. Mohd Saidy Ismail Kolej Jaiputra 156. Mad Noh Lajim Kolej Komuniti, Kuching, Sarawak 157. Mohamad Abu Hassan Politeknik Sultan Salahudin Abdul Aziz Shah, Shah Alam 158. Ahmad Roslan Johari Kolej Poly-Tech MARA 159. Ismail Md. Yusof Kolej Chermai Jaya 160. Zainuddin Yahya Kementerian Belia dan Sukan Malaysia 242 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 270. Appendix IVLIST OF PARTICIPANTS INROUND TABLE DISCUSSIONS ONNATIONAL HIGHER EDUCATION
  • 271. List of Participants in Round Table Discussions on National Higher Education APPENDIX IV: LIST OF PARTICIPANTS IN ROUND TABLE DISCUSSIONS ON NATIONAL HIGHER EDUCATIONGROUP A : EMINENT PERSONSDate: 8 March 2005Venue: Institute of Integrity Malaysia1. Tan Sri Dr. Sulaiman Hj. Daud Former Minister of Education Malaysia2. Royal Professor Ungku A. Aziz Chairman, Angkasa3. The Honourable Dr. Toh Kin Woon Executive Councillor, Pulau Pinang State Government4. Tan Sri Dato’ Azman Hashim Executive Chairman, A.M. Merchant Bank Bhd.5. Tan Sri Datuk Dr. Haji Arshad Bin Ayub Chairman, Persekutuan Badan Pendidikan dan Pembangunan Melayu6. Tan Sri Dato’ (Dr.) Haji Ani Bin Arope Chairman, Board of Directors Universiti Sains Malaysia7. Tan Sri Dr. Noordin Sopiee Director General, ISIS Malaysia8. Prof. Emeritus Dato’ K.j. Ratnam Universiti Sains Malaysia9. Prof. Dato’ Dr. Ir. Mohd. Nor Bin Haji Salleh Vice- President, Open University of Malaysia10. Dato’ Dr. P. Manogran Ministry of Human Resources Towards Excellence 243
  • 272. Appendix IV11. Dr. Rosti Saruwono Vice-President PETRONAS12. En. Abdul Razak Ahmad National Economic Action CouncilGROUP B: ACADEMIC OFFICERS IHEDate: 1 April 2004Venue: Ministry of Higher Education, Putrajaya1. Encik Mohamad Sahari Nordin Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia2. Encik Mokhtar Saad Kolej Komuniti Bukit Beruang, Melaka3. Prof. Mohd. Azib Salleh Universiti Malaysia Sarawak4. Encik Che Nyam Husain Kolej Universiti Infrastruktur Kuala Lumpur5. Encik Mohamad Ibrahim Universiti Perguruan Sultan Idris6. Prof. Madya Dr. Abd. Latif Haji Gapor Universiti Perguruan Sultan Idris7. Prof. Dr. Chuah Hean Teik Multimedia University8. Puan Fajura Juffa Mustafa Kolej Universiti Limkokwing9. Encik Abdul Hamid Husain Kolej Komuniti Jempol10. Prof. Dr. Rustam Abas Universiti Industri Selangor 244 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 273. List of Participants in Round Table Discussions on National Higher Education11. Encik Abdul Aziz Abu Bakar Politeknik Merlimau12. Encik Wan Azam Wan Hamid Politeknik Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah13. Encik Mohd. Jalil Jusof Politeknik Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah14. Prof. Muhamad Awang Universiti Putra Malaysia15. Encik Zolkarnain Jobshi Politeknik Ungku Omar16. Tuan Haji Mohlis Jaafar Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi Malaysia17. Prof. Datuk Dr. Abdul Hamid Abdul Hadi Universiti Malaya18. Encik Abdul Razak Chik Universiti Utara Malaysia19. Dr. Mohamed Rashid Navi Bax Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi Malaysia20. Tuan Haji Abdul Jalil Limat Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi Malaysia Towards Excellence 245
  • 274. Appendix IVGROUP C: NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONSDate: 23 April 2005Venue: Institute of Integrity Malaysia1. Encik Sobri Ahmad Majlis Belia Malaysia2. Tuan Haji Ahmad Azam Abd Rahman Angkatan Belia Malaysia3. Datuk Paduka Nadim Johan Persatuan Pengguna Islam Malaysia4. Dato’ Suhaimi Ibrahim Gabungan Pelajar Melayu Semenanjung5. Encik Azwiral Bukhairi Persatuan Kebangsaan Pelajar Islam Malaysia6. Encik Mohd Hafezi Abd Hamid Persatuan Kebangsaan Pelajar Islam Malaysia7. Encik Mohd Shakirin Mispan Persatuan Mahasiswa Universiti Malaya8. Encik Nur Hafizan Idris Persatuan Mahasiswa Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia9. Cik Safinah Dzulkifli Persatuan Mahasiswa Universiti Putra Malaysia10. Prof. Emeritus Dato’ Dr. Nik Safiah Karim Pertubuhan Tindakan Wanita Islam11. Puan Mariamah Jaafar Yayasan Pendidikan dan Vokasional Wanita Malaysia12. Dr. Halimah Awang Yayasan Pendidikan dan Vokasional Wanita Malaysia 246 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 275. List of Participants in Round Table Discussions on National Higher Education13. Prof. Dr. Rahimah Abdul Kadir Persatuan Wanita Universiti Malaya14. Dr. Bien Mei Nien Persatuan Kebangsaan Usahawan Wanita Malaysia15. Dr. Lisa Tan Women’s Institute of ManagementGROUP D: PROFESSIONALS AND MEDIA REPRESENTATIVESDate: 24 April 2005Venue: Institute of Integrity Malaysia1. Ir. Prof. Madya Megat Johari Megat Mohd Noor Institute of Engineers Malaysia2. C. Kim Peow Pertubuhan Arkitek Malaysia3. Prof. Madya Dr. Abas Haji Hussin Malaysia Pharmaceutical Society4. Prof. Madya Dr. Ahmad Ramly Institute of Surveyors Malaysia5. Tuan Haji Sulaiman Abdullah Bar Council Malaysia6. Mrs. Lok Yim Pheng National Union of Teaching Profession7. Prof.Madya Dr. Abdul Rahman Haji Daud Kesatuan Guru Melayu Malaysia Barat8. Dato’ Mat Dahan Abdul Latif Yayasan Kajian dan Strategi Melayu9. Tuan Syed Barkat Ali Syed Ali Agriculture Institute of Malaysia Towards Excellence 247
  • 276. Appendix IV10. Encik Ibrahim Saad The New Straits Times Press11. Dato’ Azman Ujang Berita Nasional Malaysia12. Dr Mohd Kamal Khir Malaysian Institute of Human Resource Management13. Dr. Ranjit Singh Malhi TQM Consultants14. Dato’ Johan JaafarGROUP E: STUDENT AFFAIRS OFFICERS AND REPRESENTATIVES OF FINANCIAL SPONSORSDate: 29 April 2005Venue: Ministry of Higher Education, Putrajaya1. Encik Ali Azizan Mohammad Yayasan Telekom Malaysia2. Encik Ishak Sarip Politeknik Port Dickson3. Encik Mohamad Abdul Majid Universiti Malaya4. Encik Mohd. Zaliridzal Zakaria Universiti Putra Malaysia5. Encik Sarani Abdullah Jabatan Perkhidmatan Awam Malaysia6. Encik Shamsanirul Nizam Kolej Komuniti Kuala Langat7. Puan Hamisah Omar Majlis Amanah Rakyat 248 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 277. List of Participants in Round Table Discussions on National Higher Education8. Puan Nik Noraizah Hassan Majlis Amanah Rakyat9. Puan Nik Zaiton Nik Salleh Universiti Multimedia10. Puan Rogayah Abu Bakar Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia11. Puan Ros Azizi Ismail Universiti Putra Malaysia12. Puan Salina Samsuddin Yayasan Tenaga Malaysia13. Puan Sharifah Salleh Yayasan Telekom Malaysia14. Puan Siti Asada Mohd Saad Yayasan Tenaga Malaysia15. Puan Sofia Abdul Rahman Kolej Komuniti Kuala Langat16. Puan Surati Abdul Rahman Universiti Multimedia17. Puan Wan Shukriah Wan Mohammad Kolej Komuniti Selayang18. Tuan Din Tuan Mat Perbadanan Tabung Pendidikan Tinggi Negara19. Tuan Haji Mohd. Ismail Ridzuan Yayasan Tunku Abdul Rahman Towards Excellence 249
  • 278. Appendix IVGROUP F: OFFICERS OF THE CENTRAL AGENCIES, THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENTDate: 9 June 2005Venue: Hotel UiTM Shah Alam1. Datuk Haji Ab Khalil Ab Hamid Perbendaharaan Malaysia2. Puan Zanifa Md. Zain Unit Perancang Ekonomi, Jabatan Perdana Menteri3. Encik Ahmad Nadzri Embong Jabatan Perkhidmatan Awam4. Haji Wahid Md Don Jabatan Perkhidmatan Awam5. Encik Wazir Haji Haron Unit Perancang EkonomiGROUP G: ACADEMIC STAFFDate: 10 June 2005Venue: Intekma Resort, Shah Alam1. Encik Mansor Ahmad Presiden Persatuan Pegawai Akademik Universiti Putra Malaysia2. Prof. Madya Haji Mohd. Ariffin Ibrahim Kesatuan Kakitangan Akademik Universiti Teknologi MARA3. Prof. Dr. Abdul Rahman Embong Persatuan Sains Sosial Malaysia4. Dr. Wan Manan Wan Muda Presiden Persatuan Kakitangan Akademik dan Pentadbiran Universiti Sains Malaysia5. Haji Abdul Ghani A Karim, Setiausaha UTIMAS, Universiti Teknologi MARA 250 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 279. List of Participants in Round Table Discussions on National Higher Education6. Prof. Dr. Rahmat Mohamad Presiden UTIMAS7. Prof. Dr. Mohamad Awang Timbalan Presiden UTIMAS8. Encik Saharun Ibrahim UTIMAS9. Encik Lin Chew Man Persatuan Sains Sosial Malaysia10. Dr. Mohd Hazim Shah Persatuan Sains Sosial Malaysia11. Datin Dr. Sharifah Munirah Al Atas Persatuan Sains Sosial Malaysia12. Prof. Dr. Wan Zawawi Ibrahim Persatuan Sains Sosial Malaysia Towards Excellence 251
  • 280. Appendix VLIST OF COUNTRIES ANDINSTITUTIONS VISITED ONINTERNATIONAL BENCHMARKINGAND BEST PRACTICES STUDY
  • 281. List of Countries and Institutions APPENDIX V: LIST OF COUNTRIES AND INSTITUTIONS VISITED ON INTERNATIONAL BENCHMARKING AND BEST PRACTICES STUDY1. INTRODUCTION1.1 The international benchmarking and best practices study was carried out in line with the third item in the Terms of Reference, which required the Committee to propose recommendations for Malaysian IHE to achieve world class status. Hence, it was imperative that these international best practices in higher education had to be studied and benchmarked for higher education in Malaysia.1.2 The Committee therefore formed study groups from within the members of the Main Committee and the Ministry of Higher Education officers to study best practices in selected institutions, as a guide to formulate recommendations to the Government. The findings from these studies became a basis for the views expressed and the recommendations made in this Report.1.3 A separate report of the study visit had to be prepared because of the overwhelming number of important and pertinent findings of each study group which were beyond the scope of the Terms of Reference of this Committee. Thus, the Committee is of the opinion that the findings of these study groups should be perceived as separate from the views and recommendations of this Committee.2. COUNTRIES AND INSTITUTIONS VISITED2.1 China2.1.1 Ministry of Education China2.1.2 Tsinghua University, Beijing2.1.3 Peking University, Beijing2.1.4 China Agricultural University, Beijing2.2 South Korea2.2.1 Ministry of Education and Human Resources, South Korea2.2.2 Seoul National University, Seoul2.2.3 Dongyang Technical College, Seoul2.2.4 Institute of Science and Advanced Technology South Korea Towards Excellence 253
  • 282. Appendix V2.3 Australia2.3.1 TAFE College Global, Sydney2.3.2 Universiti New South Wales, Sydney2.3.3 Australia National University, Canberra2.3.4 Australian University Quality Agency (AUQA), Melbourne2.3.5 Monash University, Clayton, Melbourne2.3.6 Box Hill Institute, Melbourne2.3.7 Department of Education Western Australia, Perth2.3.8 University of Western Australia, Perth2.4 United Kingdom2.4.1 Department of Education and Skills2.4.2 Oxford Brookes University, Oxford Brookes2.4.3 Oxford University, Oxford2.4.4 Oxford Islamic Centre2.4.5 Bristol University, Bristol2.4.6 London School of Economics and Political Science, London2.4.7 Imperial College, London2.4.8 University College of London2.4.9 Cambridge University, Cambridge2.4.10 University of Luton, Luton2.4.11 Higher Education Funding Council for England. (HEFCE)2.4.12 The Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education (QAA)2.4.13 Engineering Council of United Kingdom (ECUK)2.5 France2.5.1 Ecole Normale Supérieure2.5.2 Université Pierre Marie Curie2.5.3 Université Paris – SUD II2.5.4 Ecole Polytechnique France2.6 Belgium2.6.1 Catholic University LEUVEN2.7 Netherlands2.7.1 Ministry of Education, Den Haag, Netherlands2.7.2 Wageningen University and Research Centre2.7.3 Erasmus University Rotterdam 254 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 283. List of Countries and Institutions2.8 Switzerland2.8.1 State Secretariat for Education and Research SER2.9 Germany2.9.1 Federal Ministry of Education and Research2.9.2 Technical University of Berlin2.9.3 Humboldt University2.10 Sweden2.10.1 Stockholm University2.10.2 Royal Institute of Technology2.10.3 National Agency for Higher Education2.11 Finland2.11.1 Helsinki University2.11.2 Ministry of Education2.12 Ireland2.12.1 Trinity College, Dublin2.13 Canada2.13.1 Canada Education Centre Network, Vancouver, British Columbia2.13.2 University of British Columbia, Vancouver2.13.3 Vancouver University Community College, Vancouver2.13.4 Ministry of Advanced Education, Victoria2.13.5 University of Toronto, Toronto2.13.6 Ryerson University, Toronto2.13.7 Queen’s University, Kingston2.13.8 Canadian Innovation Foundation, Ottawa2.13.9 Associations of Universities & Colleges, Ottawa2.13.10 McGill University, Montreal Towards Excellence 255
  • 284. Appendix V2.14 USA2.14.1 Massachusetts Institute of Technology2.14.2 Harvard University2.14.3 Dartmouth College2.14.4 Boston University2.14.5 Temple University2.14.6 University of Pennsylvania2.15 India2.15.1 University Grants Commission2.15.2 Ministry of Higher Education2.15.3 Madras University2.15.4 AU-KBC Research Centre2.15.5 Jawaharlal Nehru University2.15.6 Anna University2.15.7 Technology Business Centre for Biotechnology2.15.8 Indira Ghandi National Open University2.16 Jordan2.16.1 Ministry of Education Jordan2.16.2 University of Jordan2.16.3 Jordan University of Science and Technology2.16.4 University of Yarmouk2.17 Egypt2.17.1 Al-Azhar University2.17.2 University of Cairo2.17.3 Ain Shams University 256 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 285. Appendix VISTATISTICS OF MALAYSIA’SPOPULATION, PUBLICAND PRIVATE INSTITUTIONSOF HIGHER EDUCATION
  • 286. Statistics of Malaysia’s Population, Public and Private Institutions of Higher Education APPENDIX VI: STATISTICS OF MALAYSIA’S POPULATION,PUBLIC AND PRIVATE INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION A. POPULATION OF MALAYSIA ESTIMATED POPULATION OF MALAYSIA AS AT MID 2004 Million Percentage Malaysia 25.58 100 Ethnic Group Malay 12.89 50.40 Other Bumiputera 2.81 11.00 Chinese 6.07 23.73 Indian 1.81 7.10 Others 0.30 1.20 Non-Citizen 1.69 6.60 Age Group (Year) Less than 10 5.81 22.70 10 to 19 5.12 20.00 20 to 29 4.40 17.19 30 to 39 3.71 14.49 40 to 49 3.01 11.76 50 to 59 1.91 7.46 60 to 69 1.03 4.02 More than 69 0.63 2.46 Source: Malaysia Statistics Year Book 2004 Towards Excellence 257
  • 287. Appendix VI PUBLIC IHE NUMBERS University 11 University College 6 College 1 Polytechnic 20 Community College 34 PRIVATE IHE Private IHE with University Status 11 Private IHE with University College Status 10 Branch Campuses of Foreign Universities 5 Private IHE without University Status 533 Total Number of Private IHE 559 Source: Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia C. STUDENT ENROLMENT AT PUBLIC AND PRIVATE IHE 2004 Certification Level Public IHE Private IHE Total Ph.D 5,068 108 5,176 Masters Degree 27,316 2,981 30,297 Advanced Diploma 530 - 530 Bachelors Degree 192,288 105,325 297,613 Diploma 69,157 130,255 199,412 Certificate - 84,212 84,212 Total 294,359 322,881 617,240 Gender Public IHE Private IHE Total Male 116,041 (39.43%) 160,287 (49.6%) 276,328 (44.8%) Female 178,318 (60.57%) 162,604 (50.4%) 340,922 (55.2%) Total 294,359 322,891 617,240 Source: Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia 258 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 288. Appendix VIILIST OF INSTITUTIONSOF HIGHER EDUCATIONIN MALAYSIA
  • 289. List of Institutions of Higher Education in Malaysia APPENDIX VII: LIST OF INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN MALAYSIAA. PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES, PUBLIC UNIVERSITY COLLEGES AND PUBLIC COLLEGES 1. University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 2. Science University of Malaysia, Pulau Pinang 3. National University of Malaysia, Selangor 4. Putra University of Malaysia, Selangor 5. University of Technology Malaysia, Johor 6. Northern University of Malaysia, Kedah 7. University of Malaysia Sarawak, Sarawak 8. University of Malaysia Sabah, Sabah 9. MARA University of Technology, Selangor 10. Sultan Idris Teaching University, Perak 11. Tun Hussein Onn University College of Technology, Johor 12. Islamic University College of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur 13. University College of Science & Technology Malaysia, Terengganu 14. National Technical University College of Malaysia, Melaka 15. Northern Malaysia University College of Engineering, Perlis 16. University College of Engineering & Technology Malaysia, Pahang 17. International Islamic University Malaysia, Selangor 18. Tunku Abdul Rahman College, Kuala LumpurSource: Department of Private Education, Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia, Malaysia: Centre of Educational Excellence, version 3 Towards Excellence 259
  • 290. Appendix VIIB. PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES AND PRIVATE UNIVERSITY COLLEGES 1. Multimedia University, Putrajaya 2. Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Selangor 3. Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Perak 4. International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur 5. Universiti Tun Abdul Razak, Selangor 6. Universiti Industri Selangor, Selangor 7. Open University Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur 8. Malaysia University of Science & Technology, Selangor 9. Asian Institute of Medicine, Science & Technology, Kedah 10. Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Selangor 11. Universiti Kuala Lumpur, Kuala Lumpur 12. Kolej Universiti Teknologi & Pengurusan Malaysia, Selangor 13. Limkokwing University College of Creative Technology, Selangor 14. University College Sedaya International, Kuala Lumpur 15. Kuala Lumpur Infrastructure University College, Selangor 16. International University College of Technology Twintech, Kuala LumpurC. BRANCH CAMPUSES OF FOREIGN UNIVERSITIES 1. Monash University Malaysia, Selangor 2. Curtin University of Technology Sarawak Campus Malaysia, Sarawak 3. University of Nottingham in Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur 4. FTMS - De Montfort University Malaysia Campus, Kuala LumpurSource: Department of Private Education, Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia, Malaysia: Centre of Educational Excellence, version 3 260 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 291. List of Institutions of Higher Education in MalaysiaD. POLYTECHNICS 1. Politeknik Ungku Omar, Ipoh, Perak 2. Politeknik Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah, Kuantan, Pahang 3. Politeknik Sultan Abdul Halim Mu’adzam Shah, Jitra, Kedah 4. Politeknik Kota Bharu, Ketereh, Kelantan 5. Politeknik Kuching, Matang, Sarawak 6. Politeknik Port Dickson, Si Rusa, Negeri Sembilan 7. Politeknik Kota Kinabalu, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah 8. Politeknik Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah, Shah Alam, Selangor 9. Politeknik Johor Bahru, Pasir Gudang, Johor 10. Politeknik Seberang Perai, Permatang Pauh, Pulau Pinang 11. Politeknik Kota Melaka, Plaza Pandan Malim, Melaka 12. Politeknik Kota Kuala Terengganu, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu 13. Politeknik Dungun, Dungun, Terengganu 14. Politeknik Merlimau, Merlimau, Melaka 15. Politeknik Tanjong Malim, Behrang, Perak 16. Politeknik Kulim, Kulim, Kedah 17. Politeknik Sabak Bernam, Sg. Lang, Selangor 18. Politeknik Perlis, Arau, Perlis 19. Politeknik Muadzam Shah, Muadzam Shah, Pahang 20. Politeknik Mukah, Mukah, SarawakSource: Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia, www.mohe.gov.my/info_kpt.php, 3 March 2006 Towards Excellence 261
  • 292. Appendix VIIF. COMMUNITY COLLEGES 1. Kolej Komuniti Arau, Perlis 2. Kolej Komuniti Bandar Darulaman, Kedah 3. Kolej Komuniti Sungai Petani, Kedah 4. Kolej Komuniti Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang 5. Kolej Komuniti Bayan Baru, Pulau Pinang (Branch: Kolej Komuniti Bayan Baru 6. Kolej Komuniti Teluk Intan, Perak 7. Kolej Komuniti Gerik, Perak 8. Kolej Komuniti Pasir Salak, Perak 9. Kolej Komuniti Chenderoh, Perak 10. Kolej Komuniti Sungai Siput, Perak 11. Kolej Komuniti Sabak Bernam, Selangor 12. Kolej Komuniti Hulu Selangor, Selangor 13. Kolej Komuniti Selayang, Selangor 14. Kolej Komuniti Kuala Langat, Selangor 15. Kolej Komuniti Hulu Langat, Selangor 16. Kolej Komuniti Jempol, Negeri Sembilan 17. Kolej Komuniti Jelebu, Negeri Sembilan 18. Kolej Komuniti Bukit Beruang, Melaka 19. Kolej Komuniti Alor Gajah, Melaka 20. Kolej Komuniti Selandar, Melaka 21. Kolej Komuniti Jasin, Melaka 22. Kolej Komuniti Segamat, Johor 23. Kolej Komuniti Bandar Penawar Kota Tinggi, Johor 24. Kolej Komuniti Ledang, Johor 25. Kolej Komuniti Segamat 2, Johor 26. Kolej Komuniti Kuantan, Pahang 27. Kolej Komuniti Mentakab, Pahang 28. Kolej Komuniti Rompin, Pahang 29. Kolej Komuniti Bentong, Pahang 30. Kolej Komuniti Paya Besar, Pahang 31. Kolej Komuniti Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu 32. Kolej Komuniti Tawau, Sabah 33. Kolej Komuniti Kuching, Sarawak 34. Kolej Komuniti Mas Gading, SarawakSource: Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia, www.mohe.gov.my/info_kpt.php, 3 March 2006 262 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  • 293. Appendix VIIIRANKING OF THE TOP 500UNIVERSITIES IN THE WORLD2004
  • 294. Ranking of the Top 500 Universities in the World 2004 APPENDIX VIII: RANKING OF THE TOP 500 UNIVERSITIES IN THE WORLD 2004 (By The Institute of Higher Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai)RANKING INSTITUTION COUNTRY1 Harvard University USA2 Stanford University USA3 University of Cambridge UK4 University California - Berkeley USA5 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) USA6 California Institute Technology USA7 Princeton University USA8 University Oxford UK9 Columbia University USA10 University Chicago USA11 Yale University USA12 Cornell University USA13 University California - San Diego USA14 Tokyo University Japan15 University of Pennsylvania USA16 University of California - Los Angeles USA17 University of California - San Francisco USA18 University of Wisconsin - Madison USA19 University of Michigan - Ann Arbor USA20 University of Washington - Seattle USA21 Kyoto University Japan22 Johns Hopkins University USA23 Imperial College London UK24 University of Toronto Canada25 University College London UK26 University of Illinois - Urbana Champaign USA27 Swiss Fed Institute of Technology - Zurich Switzerland28 Washington University - St. Louis USA29 Rockefeller University USA30 Northwestern University USA31 Duke University USA32 New York University USA33 University of Minnesota - Twin Cities USA34 University of Colorado - Boulder USA35 University of California - Santa Barbara USA36 University of British Columbia Canada37 University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center USA38 Vanderbilt University USA39 University of Utrecht Netherlands Towards Excellence 263
  • 295. Appendix VIII40 University of Texas - Austin USA41 University of Paris 06 France42 University of California - Davis USA43 Pennsylvania State University - University Park USA44 Rutgers State University - New Brunswick USA45 Technology University of Munich Germany46 Karolinska Institute Stockholm Sweden47 University of Edinburgh UK48 University of Paris 11 France49 University of Southern California USA50 University of Pittsburgh - Pittsburgh USA51 University of Munich Germany52 University of Rochester USA53 Australian National University Australia54 Osaka University Japan55 University of California - Irvine USA56 University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill USA57 University of Zurich Switzerland58 University of Maryland - College Park USA59 University of Copenhagen Denmark60 University of Bristol UK61 McGill University Canada62 Carnegie Mellon University USA63 University of Leiden Netherlands64 University of Heidelberg Germany65 Case Western Reserve University USA66 Moscow State University Russia67 University of Florida USA68 University of Oslo Norway69 University of Sheffield UK70 Tohoku University Japan71 Purdue University - West Lafayette USA72 University of Helsinki Finland73 Ohio State University - Columbus USA74 Uppsala University Sweden75 Rice University USA76 University of Arizona USA77 King’s College London UK78 University of Manchester UK79 University of Goettingen Germany80 Michigan State University USA81 University of Nottingham UK82 Brown University USA83 University of Melbourne Australia84 University of Strasbourg 1 France85 Ecole Normale Super Paris France86 University of Vienna Austria87 Boston University USA 264 Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations