Overview on the German discussion on standards/frameworks related to TVET teacher education


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Background analyses and related measures to support policy implementation

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Overview on the German discussion on standards/frameworks related to TVET teacher education

  1. 1. 1 Pekka Kämäräinen & Joachim Dittrich: Overview on the German discussion on standards/frameworks related to TVET teacher education 1. Background analyses and related measures to support policy implementation Contributor/ Platform Points for the analysis Wissenschaftsrat 2001: Empfehlungen zur künftigen Struktur der Lehrerbildung The Science Council 2001: Recommendations for the future structure of teacher education Hochschulrektorenkonferenz (HRK) Service-Stelle Bologna (Bologna service unit of the German University Rectors Conference) Who and Why? Background/ Key actors The Science Council is a joint advisory body of the Federal Government and the Federal States. It was requested in January 1999 (by the Federal State of Lower Saxony) to undertake an analysis of the current stand of teacher education and to prepare recommendations for future development. The request was motivated by the need to examine the complementarity or division of labour between Universities, other Higher Education Institutes and practical training at schools. Equally there was a need to examine the role of research as support for pedagogic and professional development. The German (University) Rectors' Conference/ Hochschulrektorenkonferenz (HRK) is the joint cooperation body of universities and other higher education institutions (Polytechnics) in Germany. HRK has launched a separate service unit that supports the introduction f the common European frameworks and patterns that have been agreed by national governments in the Bologna process. The service unit works in close collaboration with the Bologna-coordinators of universities, domain- specific monitoring activities and with specific initiative groups. What (in general)? Intervention/ Aims The Science Council set up expert group and the report was adopted as “The recommendations for the future structure of teacher education” in 2001. The report consisted of a state-of-the-art analysis, of deficit analysis and of the recommendations. These focused on challenges for the teachers’ profession, on the future structure of studies, on institutional reforms, on professional development and on the role of research. The main thrust of the HRK Bologna service unit is to raise awareness of the new frameworks and patterns by transversal support activities (e.g. the Bologna-readers), focal activities (the Bachelor- Master monitoring) and with domain-specific measures (e.g. the specific events dedicated to the issues on teacher education). Equally, domain- specific interest groups and initiatives have the possibility to use the forums of the service unit.
  2. 2. 2 How? Approach/ Focal points or Milestones The deficit analyses highlighted the encapsulation of the teacher education curricula into traditional institutional and conceptual barriers, isolation of different phases of studies from each other and conceptual gaps between research disciplines and teacher education curricula. As a response the report took the course to bring the relation with the occupational field (Berufsfeldbezug) back to the centre of teacher education curricula, related disciplines and attached research activities. This leading idea becomes manifest in the following specific recommendations. Regarding the field of teacher education the service unit has produced a comprehensive overview on the implementation of the Bachelor- Master structures in the Federal states (and on the related issues) by May 2005. Parallel to this, the service unit has gathered the statements of teachers’ unions and the national forums of the representatives of educational faculties. Finally, the service unit has provided links to regional initiatives and their resource bases, such as the consortium for promoting BaMa-structures in the universities of Lower Saxony and Bremen. Which directions? Perspectives or measures/ Current stand The main recommendations (from the perspective of the TT-TVET project) are the following: a) Reshaping career pathways and curriculum structures with the help of consecutive Bachelor- and Masters programmes (that enable successive specialisation and focused professionalisation); b) Shaping a pattern of continuing professional development that links the pre-service education, in-service training and continuing professional development to an integrative career model; c) Reconsidering the institutional arrangements to make a stronger link between educational research and knowledge transfer (incl. cooperation between general pedagogics, subject disciplines and practical training at schools and colleges); d) Launching inter-institutional cooperation between universities and other HE institutions (Polytechnics) to create new synergy across the discipline structures and knowledge transfer. From the perspective of teacher education the work of the service unit has provided among others the following possibilities a) to monitor the implementation at different Federal States and in parallel areas (e.g. the “Ländermodelle” catalogue) b) to put the proposed structural rearrangements into public debate, c) to link specific pedagogic innovations into the structural development, d) to disseminate the views of specific evaluation studies and expertise studies. (Regarding the last mentioned point an evaluation report of the Scientific Commission of the Federal State of Lower Saxony examines the teacher education provisions from the perspectives of ‘vocational disciplines of teacher education’ (“Berufswissenschaften der Lehrerbildung”) along the lines laid down by the Science Council.
  3. 3. 3 What (in detail)? Specific proposals/ Positions The specific recommendations of the Science Council on the future structures of teacher education are the following ones: The main model to be recommended for most parts of the teacher education (upper secondary, lower secondary) is a consecutive model that is grounded on a broad and transversal Bachelor- phase (which is open for several options regarding the successive specialisation) and completed by specialisation phase at the Masters level and with a specific focus on the teacher’s profession. As a complementary model the Science Council recommends that the education of teachers for primary education and for the “Hauptschule” track an integrative and modular curriculum that leads to a Bachelor degree. However, for this track there is also a need to develop a progression route to higher degrees (based on a consecutive model). In addition to the general support services for the German implementation of the Bologna process HRK launched a working group for preparing recommendations on the future of teacher education in Universities and HE institutes. The recommendations were approved in the 206. Plenary session of the HRK in February 2006. The working group was launched to draw conclusions from the somewhat controversial debate on the future of teacher education in the context of the Bologna process. The working group mapped the balance between consensual vs. controversial issues and drew attention to the open questions that need to be addressed in the further reform process. A more detailed overview of the recommendations of the HRK will be prepared in a later section of this document. Additional remarks from the perspective of the TT-TVET project The Science Council didn’t address explicitly the field of TVET and most of the recommendations are dealing with general education. Yet, the above mentioned points are important for the specific discussion on the future role of TVET teacher education within changing structures. The service unit provides a general platform and links to different initiatives. The interesting point with the current debate and the specific inputs on teacher education is that they bring into picture further links between the approach of the Science Council and the field of TVET.
  4. 4. 4 2. Debate between the Conference of Cultural Ministers and the educational faculties & teachers’ unions Contributor/ Platform Points for the analysis Kultusministerkonferenz (KMK) – the Standing Conference of Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of the Federal States Public discussion on the basis of the policy documents of the KMK Who? Background/ Key actors The Standing Conference of Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs (KMK) is a joint coordinating body between Federal States in matters of education and culture (that are regulated by the Federal States). In the German implementation of the Bologna process it is the central body for national policy development. At this point it is worthwhile to note that the public discussion on the KMK documents is very much overshadowed by critical issues and by concerns of a) the national teachers’ unions and associations and by b) the national cooperation forum of the representatives of educational faculties. What? Intervention/ Aims Regarding the support for Bologna process, the responsibility for the awareness-raising measures and the resources for operative support have been handed to the HRK (and its Bologna Service unit). Consequently, the role of the KMK has been that of formulating national policy positions (based on a consensus between the Federal States). These organisations have formulated the general concerns concerning a) the perception of teachership and of the status of teachers in the light of new degree structures and b) the sustainability of educational research disciplines in the light of proposed reorientation of educational degree programmes. How? Approach/ Milestones The KMK has produced at certain intervals policy documents that support joint policy shaping among Federal States and give inputs to public debate. Regarding the reforming of teacher education the two crucial documents have been the following KMK resolutions: a) “Ten theses on Bachelor-Master structures in Germany “ (12.6.2003) and b) “Cornerstones for the mutual recognition of Bachelor and Master degrees in … teacher education (2.6.2005). The teachers unions and associations have contributed to the debate with a joint statement that has been approved by all several national associations that cover all levels of education. The national cooperation forum of the educational faculties (EWFT) has launched a comprehensive study to review the position of the discipline- based main subject curricula in educational sciences (Erziehungswissenchaftliche Hauptfachstudium).
  5. 5. 5 Which directions? Perspectives or measures/ Current stand The “Ten theses” has defined some common pointers for future policy development in the context of Bologna process (e.g. the autonomous status of Bachelor and Masters degrees, the consecutive degree structure, profiling, quality development and the European compatibility). The “Cornerstones” has pushed the policy process further towards making common agreements on the criteria for mutual recognition (e.g. internal structures and scope of studies, accreditation process, transitional regulations). At the same time the KMK document have been taken as points of reference for the positioning and critical debate of the educational actors and for related public events. The joint position of the teachers’ associations focuses primarily on the risk that the Bachelor- Master structure would be used to downgrade the basic qualification of teachers to Bachelor level. The argument of the associations is that Bachelor graduates can neither be seen as conceptually advanced nor professionally prepared to undertake the teachers’ responsibilities. The position of the national forum of the educational faculties focuses on the risk that the educational sciences would lose their scientific core structures and academic progression prospects if the shift to ‘professionalisation’ is promoted as a radical contrast to ‘academisation’. What (in detail)? Specific proposals/ Positions In this context it is essential to note the points that are considered as the most critical ones in the ongoing process: a) The division of the formerly unified degrees to autonomous Bachelor and Master degrees, b) The differentiated profiling and status of the new Bachelor and Master levels in terms of academic vs. professional recognising, c) The status of (general) pedagogic, discipline- oriented and subject didactic studies in the reformed curricula. The joint position of the teachers’ associations focuses on making the point that teacher education should be maintained at the level of university-based Masters degrees. The position of the national forum of the educational faculties examines thoroughly different developmental proposals which may contribute to the transparency or blurring of the educational discipline structures. It also makes a strong point on the need to secure a general (and not restricted) progression to doctoral studies. Additional remarks from the perspective of the TT-TVET project The contributions of the KMK cover the whole scope of HE studies and the whole variety of teacher education curricula. Therefore the specific issues for the field of TVET are not addressed. Yet, in the public discussion representatives of diverse fields of teacher education raise common concerns. Regarding the education of TVET professionals it is worthwhile to note that the above mentioned positions raise many concerns that are linked to the field of TVET. It seems that there is a broader need to discuss the diverse options and prospects for ‘professionalisation’ in teacher education.
  6. 6. 6 3. Positions of the scientific/professional communities in the field of TVET Contributor/ Platform Points for the analysis Deutsche Gesellschaft für Erziehungswissenschaft (DGfE)/ Sektion Berufs- und Wirtschaftspädagogik (BWP) Gesellschaft für Arbeitswissenschaft (GfA)/ Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gewerblich- Technische Wissenschaften (GTW) Who? Background/ Key actors The DGfE is the academic association for pedagogical sciences in Germany. Its section “Berufs- und Wirtschaftspädagogik” (BWP) claims the same role for the field of vocational education and training. The literal translation of “Berufs- und Wirtschaftspädagogik” is “Vocational and Industrial Pedagogy”. The term “Wirtschafts…”, however, could also be translated as “…of economics” which coincides with the fact, that the majority of TVET scientists in Germany deal with the economic discipline. GTW is a group of members of the Gesellschaft für Arbeitswissenschaft e.V. who are active in teaching, research and/or development of a vocational discipline or it’s didactics. GTW stands for the development of scientific disciplines which a) carry out research on occupational work- processes with view on prospective development of technical and vocational education and training (TVET) processes b) analyse, shape and evaluate TVET processes c) develop academic education of TVET professionals in vocational disciplines What? Intervention/ Aims Purpose and goal of the DGfE is the further development of R&D and education in the field of science-based pedagogy. The section BWP aims to develop research and academic teaching on pre-vocational and vocational education and training, putting special emphasis on institutional development, learning theories, historical and comparative TVET research. BWP follows the concept of linked scientific subjects, e.g. economic sciences for economic VET or engineering sciences for technically oriented VET. The section BWP therefore concentrates on The main goals of GTW are the professionalisation of the TVET profession and its members, as well as the development of academic disciplines, that create knowledge about the interrelation between work, technology, and education and training. These interrelations are specific to each vocational discipline and thus can only be understood with profound knowledge of the work-processes and the technology in question while considering learning potentials offered in these settings. TVET teachers and trainers have to be educated in a way, that they
  7. 7. 7 the pedagigic core of TVET without paying too much attention to subject-specific differences. Essentially, BWP wants assure the quality of TVET teacher education and thus always references the traditional models of TVET teacher education. are able to exploit these options in their daily work in vocational education and training. That is why GTW works for an academic TVET teacher education which is grounded in the vocational disciplines. A mere pedagogical add-on to e.g. engineering sciences is considered not to be adequate. How? Approach/ Milestones The section BWP developed a core curriculum for the vocational pedagogy part of academic TVET teacher education courses in 2003. As the most influential German academic association in TVET BWP regularly issues recommendations to policy- makers, to take this core curriculum also as guideline in the restructuring process of TVET teacher education to Bachelor/Master-structures (Bologna-Process). GTW has developed framework curricula for teacher education in the technically oriented vocational disciplines which, however, up to now do not adhere to Bachelor/Master structures. GTW was not able to develop a common framework for Bachelor/Master structures before universities in Germany were forced to restructure their TVET teacher education study programmes. Also an attempt to join forces with the relevant section of DGfE failed in early 2006 partly due to mismatch in philosophical concepts for TVET teacher education. Which ways? Perspectives or measures/ Current stand BWP also observes critically the activities of the policy-makers. Among others they propose to introduce new models of TVET teacher education only after soundly evaluated pilot studies. Especially they oppose to “out-of-university” upgrading for in-service personnel, as long as the quality is not guaranteed. Meanwhile they cope in a more constructive manner with the inevitable Bologna process. Nevertheless they still stick to the core curriculum and suggest transferring traditional structures as much as possible into the new Bachelor/Master models. Development of common Bachelor/Master framework curricula for selected vocational disciplines is under way but face considerable difficulties because accreditation processes at various universities are already running. The perspectives for a nation-wide unified TVET teacher education is influenced by several influences/developments: a) In Germany a reform of the distribution of competences between the federal government and the governments of the federal states is under way, which will assign responsibility for academic education to the states
  8. 8. 8 Thus, the allegation of BWP policy-makers would let out the opportunity to modernise and enhance the qualification of TVET teachers in and by means of the restructuring process could be also made to BWP. governments. b) The upcoming European Qualification Framework will tend to unify TVET in Europe and thus pose some pressure on the unification of TVET teacher education. c) There is some incentive for globalisation of academic education in Germany, so that also in TVET teacher education opportunities for international cooperation will play a growing role. What (in detail)? Specific proposals/ Positions BWP suggests 3 models for TVET teacher education: Consecutive model: The Bachelor phase is mostly dedicated to the linked subject, teacher qualifications are mainly acquired during the Master study. Non-consecutive model: On the basis of a Bachelor degree (related to the specific subject) the necessary competences are acquired during the Master study phase. 2nd Master degree: On the basis of a Master degree or equivalent (related to the specific subject) and some work experience the necessary competences are acquired during the Master study phase which can be shorter than in the above two cases. At the moment the members of GTW are concerned with restructuring curricula at the individual universities to Bachelor/Master structures. A joint effort to unify approaches cannot be observed at the moment (mid of 2006). However quite a number of members are targeting international cooperation at their institutions. Additional remarks from the perspective of the TT-TVET project The core curriculum on vocational pedagogy defines less than 20% of a TVET teacher academic curriculum. Even though named “berufliche Fachrichtung” (vocational discipline) the studies of the (technical) subject are done in traditional academic disciplines, thus are likely to Because of the apparent need for activity, results elaborated by the TT-TVET project could enter easily in the work of GTW, provided the project results are oriented towards the UNIP portfolio of vocational disciplines and are based on the work- process approach.
  9. 9. 9 lack the relation to occupational work-processes and are not really linked to the field of vocational pedagogy. At most of the universities in Germany, however, this model seems to be the only feasible one due to constraints for the development of real vocational disciplines. Web links (to original sources in German language) A. Key actors/Platforms 1) Kultusministerkonferenz (KMK) – The Standing Conference of Cultural Ministers http://www.kmk.org 2) Wissenschaftsrat (WR) – The Science Council http://www.wissenschaftsrat.de 3) Hochschulrektorenkonferenz (HRK ) http://www.hrk.de/de/home/home.php (HRK Main page) http://www.hrk-bologna.de (HRK Service-Stelle Bologna) 4) Deutsche Gesellschaft für Erziehungswissenschaft (DGfE), Sektion Berufs- und Wirtschaftspädagogik (BWP) http://www.bwp-dgfe.de/aktuelles/neuigkeiten.html 5) Gesellschaft für Arbeitswissenschaft (GfA), Sektion Gewerblich-Technische Wissenschaften (GTW) http://www.itb.uni-bremen.de/gtw 6) Bundesverband der Lehrerinnen und Lehrer an beruflichen Schulen e.V. http://www.blbs.de
  10. 10. 10 7) Gewerkschaft Erziehung und Wissenschaft (GEW) http://www.gew.de/Wissenschaft.html B. Positions on Teacher education B1) Wissenschaftsrat – The Science Council Empfehlungen zur künftigen Struktur der Lehrerbildung (Presseerklärung, Empfehlungstext als pdf-Datei, Anhang zur Empfehlung) B2) Kultusministerkonferenz (KMK) – The Standing Conference of Cultural Ministers 10 Thesen zur Bachelor- und Masterstruktur in Deutschland (Beschluss der Kultusministerkonferenz vom 12.06.2003) - The KMK theses on Bachelor-Master structures in Germany Eckpunkte für die gegenseitige Anerkennung von Bachelor- und Masterabschlüssen in Studiengängen, mit denen die Bildungsvoraussetzungen für ein Lehramt vermittelt werden (Beschluss der KMK vom 02.06.2005) - The KMK cornerstones on mutual recognition of Bachelor-Master programmes in teacher education B3) Hochschulrektorenkonferenz (HRK) Empfehlung zur Zukunft der Lehrerbildung in den Hochschulen Beschluss in der Kurzfassung und Beschluss Lehrerbildung (lang) B4) Reactions to the KMK positions (Teachers and educationalists in General education) Bachelor qualifiziert nicht für Lehrerberuf, Stellungnahme des Deutschen Lehrerverbands, des Allgemeinen Fakultätentag, des Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultätentag, des Philosophische Fakultätentag und des Deutschen Hochschulverbands, 11.07.05 Der Erziehungswissenschaftliche Fakultätentag der Hochschulen in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland Beschluss 3/2004 Beschluss zur Einführung konsekutiver Studiengänge in der Erziehungswissenschaft. Stellungnahme 19.11.2004 Konsekutive Studiengänge GEW-Stellungnahme zum Bologna-Prozess Dok-HuF-2004-11.pdf (160,55 KB)
  11. 11. 11 9/2003 Gemeinsame Stellungnahme des Bundesverbandes der Lehrerinnen und Lehrer an beruflichen Schulen e.V. (BLBS) und des Bundesverbandes der Lehrerinnen und Lehrer an Wirtschaftsschulen e.V. (VLW) August 2003 C. Positions with a focus on TVET teacher education C1) Wissenschaftliche Kommission Niedersachsen Forschungsevaluation an Nds. Hochschulen und Forschungseinrichtungen / Berufswissenschaft der Lehrerbildung /Stand: März 2002 (575 KB) C2) Deutsche Gesellschaft für Erziehungswissenschaft (DGfE), Sektion Berufs- und Wirtschaftspädagogik (BWP) Frankfurter Beschluss: Stellungnahme der Sektion Berufs- und Wirtschaftspädagogik zum Abschlußbericht der KMK-Arbeitsgruppe "Neustrukturierung der Ausbildung zum Lehramt an berufsbildenden Schulen" (21 kb) Stellungnahme zur Einrichtung gestufter Studiengangsmodelle als Ersatz für die existierenden berufs- und wirtschaftspädagogischen Diplom- und Studiengänge für das Lehramt an berufsbildenden Schulen (Beschluss der Mitgliederversammlung in Zürich am 22. März 2004) (41 kb) C3) Gesellschaft für Arbeitswissenschaft (GfA), Sektion Gewerblich-Technische Wissenschaften (GTW) Stellungnahme vom 6.1.2003 Beschreibung: Stellungnahme der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gewerblich-technische Wissenschaften und ihre Didaktiken (GTW) in der Gesellschaft für Arbeitswissenschaft e. V. (GfA) zum Entwurf für eine neue KMK-Rahmenvereinbarung für die Ausbildung und Prüfung der Lehrämter für berufliche Schulen vom 6.1.2003 Hamburger Erklärung Beschreibung: Hamburger Erklärung der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gewerblich-Technische Wissenschaften (GTW) in der Gesellschaft für Arbeitswissenschaft e.V. (GfA) zur Professionalisierung der Berufspädagogen im internationalen Kontext und zur aktuellen Situation des deutschen Berufsbildungssystems vom 5.10.2004