Wages paid Year 1999-2000: wages paid = RM 17, 461.7 million Year 2000-2001: wages paid = RM 17,947.2 million
The world of educaton and training, currently focussing on learning in protected environments and care for the individual will be linked by means of mediating agencies with suitable structures and programmes with the world of work, which has primarily efficiency, productivity and profitability in mind.
Types of learning and corresponding learning environment
Going dual means bridging the gap from total separation to integration. Total separation is not considered a phase as such, but the state of most academic-oriented schools. It usually starts with communication followed by small steps such as mini experiences via more complex activities toward fully fledged traineeship and apprenticeship programmes.
Component 1 is currently conducting the first step of a “Take-off” phase by maintaining contacts with a number of training institutions as well as companies (shown here is just a selection) with the aim to initiate, facilitate and coach the partners to go dual in training. By applying the tools - which are currently being developed - both partners will jointly implement pilot projects and create, enhance and intensify a dual TEVT culture.
The Dual System Gert Loose GTZ
NATIONAL HRD CONFERENCE 2002Pembangunan Sumber Manusia Berhad (PSMB)The Need For A Dual System Of Training Gert Loose in cooperation with Fadzliah Kamaruddin The Dual System Project Sheraton Subang Hotel and Towers, Subang 15th and 16th October 2002
Table of Contents 1. Orientation Marks for National Training Policies in Malaysia 2. A Shift of Paradigm in TrainingKL/ Slide 3. Meeting Today‘s Qualification Requirements at the Workplace:HRDC- The Dual System Approach2 4. Training K-Workers: The Outline of a Didactic Concept 5. PSMB‘s Role in Securing the Necessary Quantity and Quality in Training for Malaysia
Orientation Marks for Training Malaysia’s Economic Position In A Worldwide Perspective • As an exporting nation, Malaysia is ranked 17 internationally, at US $ 98 billion, behind Russia at US $ 105 billion and ahead of Sweden at US $ 87 billion. (WTO data, 2001) Malaysia is a top exporting nation •KL/ Slide Malaysia’s gross national income for 2000: US $ 78.7 billion, comparedHRDC- to New Zealand US $ 49.7 billion. (World Development Indicators database, World Bank, April 2002). Exxon Mobil, the largest globally operating company, generated an income of US $ 210.4 billion for 20003 (Fortune Global 500 - 06.06.2002) Malaysia (like all other countries) has to accept the fact that we are part of a global market and have to observe the market rules and mechanisms
Effects Of Globalization Borderless world of business competitors Accelerated pace of information flow CAUSES Accelerated pace ofKL/ Slide technological changeHRDC- Increased workplace complexity4 More work process-oriented Skills become obsolete k-workers needed faster How are we affected? to compete in a Skills increasingly dynamic market need to have a ‘knowledge base’
Training Is The National Priority The Emphasis: High Productivity To Maintain Malaysia‘s Competitive Edge Change in % Over the Prior Year for Wages Paid and Wage increase 2000-2001 : 2.8% Productivity (2000-2001) Productivity drop 2000-2001 : 0.4% 2000-2001 Increase in Wages Paid This trend has to be broken Decrease in to ensure Malaysia’s positionKL/ Slide Productivity to compete on a high levelHRDC- with other countries5 -1 -0.4 0 1 2 2.8 % (Source: Department of Statistics, Malaysia, "Monthly Manufacturing Statistics, Malaysia: December 2001“, www.statistics.gov.my) Consequently: Training of high-performing k-workers must be an absolute development priority for Malaysia
Table of Contents 1. Orientation Marks for National Training Policies in Malaysia 2. A Shift of Paradigm in TrainingKL/ Slide 3. Meeting Today‘s Qualification Requirements at the Workplace:HRDC- The Dual System Approach6 4. Training K-Workers: The Outline of a Didactic Concept 5. PSMB‘s Role in Securing the Necessary Quantity and Quality in Training for Malaysia
Traditional Training Approach The „Static” Situation Of Becoming Qualified For WorkKL/ Slide Pre-Service ActualHRDC- Qualification Situation at the Process Students Prospective Workplace7 Employees Emphasis on One-time Training Source: Reinhard Zedler, IW, 1997 (with modifications)
K-Worker Training Approach The „Dynamic“ Situation Of Becoming Qualified For Work Feedback Controlling Follow up Immediate Immediate Training Training New Actual Pre-Service ActualKL/ Slide Needs In-Service Needs Situation at Qualification Situation at theHRDC- Qualification the Workplace Process Prospective Process Students Workplace Employees Employees Employees8 Changes Changes Process Chain Emphasis on Lifelong Further Training After Less Extensive Initial TrainingSource: Reinhard Zedler, IW, 1997 (with modifications)
The Increasing Complexity At The Workplace Of The Car Mechanic An Illustration: The Increase in the No. of Pages Volume of Repair Manuals for 13,866 Opel Cars 1933-1998 8,012KL/ Slide 4,526HRDC- 1,175 710 1,727 210 470 1,2539 130 990 663 1,213 255 202 170 1.2 L 1.3 L Olympia 53 Record B Year 1933 1951 1966 1983 Omega A 1998 Olympia 1.3 Olympia 47 Record P1 Record A Record C Record E Omega B Olympia 1.5 Olympia 50 Record P2 Record DSource : Georg Spöttl, The Dual System Project, 2002
The Extremely Rapid Pace Of Knowledge Needed Technological Change to Be in Charge is 100% The „Decay” Of Knowledge 100% Knowledge in Higher Education 50%KL/ SlideHRDC- 0 5 10 15 Years10 100% Technological 100% Computer Knowledge Knowledge 3 years 1 year 50% 50% 0 1 2 3 4 5 Years 0 1 2 3 4 5 YearsBased on data from IBM, 1994
Table of Contents 1. Orientation Marks for National Training Policies in Malaysia 2. A Shift of Paradigm in TrainingKL/ Slide 3. Meeting Today‘s Qualification Requirements at the Workplace:HRDC- The Dual System Approach11 4. Training K-Workers: The Outline of a Didactic Concept 5. PSMB‘s Role in Securing the Necessary Quantity and Quality in Training for Malaysia
The Process And Outcome Of Training Competency-Based Training Experience-Based Training Process of Teaching and Learning Assessment of Competencies (“Learning Curve”) (Sequence of Defined Competencies) LEVEL OF DESIRED SKILLSKL/ Slide(CompetenceHRDC- according to CBET)12 Contents of Skills TrainingSource: “Verification” 1998, n.p. (modified) Time
Workplace And Classroom As The Fundamental Domains In The “Dual System” Tapping The Best Training Potential Of Both Domains: This Is The Strength of The „Dual System“ In Training Classroom In The Training Institution Workplace In The Enterprise Classroom etc.KL/ SlideHRDC- Coordinating Agent Production13 Learning Efficiency Protected Zone Profitability Individual Care Workplace etc.
The Workplace As The Supreme Learning Environment Correlation Between Different Types Of Vocational Learning And Selected Learning Environments Type of Learning Learning Environment Abstract Learning Classroom Learning Structured Contents Laboratory through Demonstration and Doing Learning Basic Functional Skills School WorkshopKL/ SlideHRDC- Learning Complex / Rare Functional Skills Central Training Facility (with Expensive Equipment)14 Training Facility at Workplace Learning Basic or More Complex Functional Skills (with Expensive Equipment) Training Corner at Workplace Learning Functional and Extra-Functional Workplace Skills in Real Work EnvironmentSource: Gert Loose, Forschungsbericht, 1988, updated 2002
Enhancement Of the ‘Dual System Culture’: The RationaleKL/ SlideHRDC-15 To deliver 1st rate training, the actual workplace must be encompassed as a learning environment. This is the place where massive change happens and only there it can be sufficiently comprehended.
Dual TEVT Culture - The "Tools" INTEGRATION Integration of learning and working at the place of work Joint Operation of Dual Traineeship & Apprenticeship Schemes Implementation of Regulating Instruments for Dual TEVT Schemes Establishment of Dual TEVT Coordination Offices Appointment of Dual TEVT Coordinators & Supervisors The Core Joint Career Guidance & Counselling ConceptKL/ Slide Hosting of Recurrent EventsHRDC- Cooperation: Part-time Teachers, Teaching Aids, Special Services Occupational Practise Programmes16 Company Practise Programmes Mini Experiences e.g. Regular Industry Excursions Regular Formal Contacts Separation 0 100 %Source: Wolfram Pforte, The Dual System Project, 2002
The Way Forward: The Need To Tap The Potential Of The Workplace Specific and rapidly changing manpower needs can only 1 1 be determined quickly enough by and within companies Public and private training institutions always lag behind 2 2 in their adjustments to technological changeKL/ SlideHRDC- Behavior patterns, attitudes and specific work procedures 3 3 can best be trained under actual work conditions17 The steadily rising costs of TEVT call for strong and committed partnerships to ensure the delivery of efficient, 4 4 economically affordable, effective and high quality training solutionsSource: Wolfram Pforte, DSP, 2001, modified 2002
Table of Contents 1. Orientation Marks for National Training Policies in Malaysia 2. A Shift of Paradigm in TrainingKL/ Slide 3. Meeting Today‘s Qualification Requirements at the Workplace:HRDC- The Dual System Approach18 4. Training K-Workers: The Outline of a Didactic Concept 5. PSMB‘s Role in Securing the Necessary Quantity and Quality in Training for Malaysia
The Changing Paradigms of Training 1 The urgent need that due to permanent technological development tomorrow`s requirements, which have to be anticipated need to be addressed. Hence, learning has to be anticipatory.KL/ SlideHRDC- 2 The urgent need to realize that due to complexity and specialization of work individuals can no longer be responsible for a complete work19 process. We have to work in changing teams (networks). Hence, learning has to be participatory. To enhance the capacity for “anticipation “ and readiness for “participation“ as the key qualifications for the workplace.Source: James W. Botkin, Mahdi Elmandjra, Mircea Malitza. No limits to learning. Oxford: Pergamon Press. 1978.
Training the K-Worker:KL/ Slide A New Concept Of Learning For TEVTHRDC- Networking of the individual at the workplace between20 - selected formal qualifications and - in-depth content-based knowledge and know-how (Outlined on the basis of findings from research in “expertise” and in “problem solving learning”)Source: Jochen Gerstenmaier, Denken benötigt Wissen, GdWz, 10 (1999)2, 65-67
Objectives For Training K-Workers I With Regard To Competence In All High-tech Occupations Or Areas Of Activity The Following Objectives Are Recommended Complex 1: Formal QualificationsKL/ Slide • Capacity for thinking: problem-solving • Social attitude, readiness to deal with co-HRDC- thinking workers of all levels • Creativity: e.g. generating ideas • Ability to cooperate in teams21 • Capability to master decision making: • Personal involvement: e.g. commitment e.g. readiness for calculated risks for achievement, reliable, willingness to • Capacity for assessing situations: e.g. participate capacity for self-criticism • Straightforwardness • Permanent willingness for continuous learning: lifelong learning
Objectives for Training K-Workers II In Addition to the Formal Qualifications (Complex 1), In-Depth Content-Based Knowledge And Know-How In Particular Occupations Or Areas Of Activity Are Always Needed For Training K-Workers Complex 2: Work Process KnowledgeKL/ SlideHRDC- - Orientation knowledge22 - Comprehensive knowledge of systems - Detailed functional knowledge - Extended specialized knowledgeSource: Ulrich Beck, a + l / Wirtschaft, No 10, 1998, p.8
Responding Directly To Requirements Of The Actual Situation At The Workplace Networking of the individual at the workplace between selected formal qualifications and in-depth content-based knowledge and know-how. Competitiveness in a Global World ThinkingKL/ Slide CreativityHRDC- Decision- Social attitude Orientation making Teamwork Straightforward Systems23 Assessing Personal Functional Learning involvement Specialized The National Training Endeavour
Table of Contents 1. Orientation Marks for National Training Policies in Malaysia 2. A Shift of Paradigm in TrainingKL/ Slide 3. Meeting Today‘s Qualification Requirements at the Workplace:HRDC- The Dual System Approach24 4. Training K-Workers: The Outline of a Didactic Concept 5. PSMB‘s Role in Securing the Necessary Quantity and Quality in Training for Malaysia
The Crucial Role Of Dual Structures: The DSP Cone National TEVT Network in synergy with modern technology „The Assets“ concepts Network Technical teacher and instructor Quality Teacher training covering pre- and in- Quality curricula curricula Training service training and Instructional Materials Dual System Structure“The DSP Cone”- the overall „The DSP Cone“ direction and main thrustKL/ Slide concerning creation andHRDC- enhancement of a Dual Technical Education and Vocational Training25 (TEVT) Culture. Directly involves all partners at all levels “The Holder”- the foundation that deals with Values social values, esteem for work and the image of TEVT „The Holder“Source: Oliver Haas, DSP, 2001, modified 2002
Pembangunan Sumber Manusia Berhad (PSMB)’s Role In Securing Quantity And Quality In Training • PSMB’s tremendous achievements in securing the quantity of training for the Malaysian workforce.KL/ Slide • A suggested agenda for the future: PSMB’s role in developing high-HRDC- quality training arrangements emphasizing “smart” collaborations of “training institutions” and the “workplace” as learning environments.26 Maintaining Malaysia’s Competitive Edge In A Global Market
The Dual Training Take Off … TERIMA KASIH THANK YOU DANKE SCHÖN
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