Scientific report_about_standards


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This paper is divided in two sections, Section I Europe and Section II Spain. Its section has three major parts which examine the current situation of TT and TT-TVET in
Europe and Spain. The analysis is done through competencies and conditions lenses.

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Scientific report_about_standards

  1. 1. Asia-Link Project Scientific Report about Standards Current Situation of Competencies on Teacher Training and Teacher Training of Vocational Education Teachers Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona
  2. 2. 2 Summary Scientific Report Introduction 3 Section I Europe 1. Framework 4 2. Teacher Training in Europe 9 3. Teacher training-Trainers of Vocational Education Teachers in Europe 10 Section II Spain 1. Framework 14 2. Teacher Training in Spain 17 3. Teacher Training-Trainers of Vocational Education Teachers in Spain 20 Bibliography 24
  3. 3. 3 Scientific Report Literature Review INTRODUCTION Beginning from general to particular, the aim of this paper is to: • provide a framework • illustrate teacher training (TT) and, • depict teacher training of vocational education teachers (TT-TVET), TT- TVET TT FRAMEWORK This paper is divided in two sections, Section I Europe and Section II Spain. Its section has three major parts which examine the current situation of TT and TT-TVET in Europe and Spain. The analysis is done through competencies and conditions lenses. In Section I Europe, we begin by describing the current situation of university in Europe. We introduce the “Dublin Descriptors” followed by the European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education (ENQA) report on Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area. The second part examines teacher training through Steve’s perspective (2006) and the Eurydice report. Finally, the third part illustrates the profile of teacher training of vocational education teachers using the study of Bünning and Shilela (2006) and the Progress Report (2004). In Section II Spain, we introduce the framework that depicts the situation in Spain through the article “The Integration of the Spanish University System in the European Higher Education Space” (2003) and the University Report 2000 so called “Bricall Report”. The second part, examines teacher training in Spain based on The III Education Deans and Directors Conference of November 2005 and the I ANECA Forum of University Professors of 17 December 2004. We then present a review of two studies from Navio and the Cifo group devoted to acquire deeper knowledge of TT- TVET.
  4. 4. 4 Section I Europe 1. FRAMEWORK 1.1 University in Europe 1.1.1 Competencies: ‘DUBLIN’ DESCRIPTORS The complete set of ‘Dublin descriptors’ is set out below: Bachelor’s degrees are awarded to students who: Qualifications that signify completion of the higher education short cycle (within the first cycle) are awarded to students who: • have demonstrated knowledge and understanding in a field of study that builds upon general secondary education and is typically at a level supported by advanced textbooks; such knowledge provides an underpinning for a field of work or vocation, personal development, and further studies to complete the first cycle; • can apply their knowledge and understanding in occupational contexts; • have the ability to identify and use data to formulate responses to well-defined concrete and abstract problems; • can communicate about their understanding, skills and activities, with peers, supervisors and clients; • have the learning skills to undertake further studies with some autonomy. Qualifications that signify completion of the first cycle are awarded to students who: • have demonstrated knowledge and understanding in a field of study that builds upon and their general secondary education, and is typically at a level that, whilst supported by advanced textbooks, includes some aspects that will be informed by knowledge of the forefront of their field of study; • can apply their knowledge and understanding in a manner that indicates a professional approach to their work or vocation, and have competences • typically demonstrated through devising and sustaining arguments and solving problems within their field of study; • have the ability to gather and interpret relevant data (usually within their field of study) to inform judgements that include reflection on relevant social, scientific or ethical issues; • can communicate information, ideas, problems and solutions to both specialist and non-specialist audiences; • have developed those learning skills that are necessary for them to continue to undertake further study with a high degree of autonomy.
  5. 5. 5 Master’s degrees are awarded to students who: Qualifications that signify completion of the second cycle are awarded to students who: • have demonstrated knowledge and understanding that is founded upon and extends and/or enhances that typically associated with Bachelor’s level, and that provides a basis or opportunity for originality in developing and/or applying ideas, often within a research context; • can apply their knowledge and understanding, and problem solving abilities in new or unfamiliar environments within broader (or multidisciplinary) contexts related to their field of study; • have the ability to integrate knowledge and handle complexity, and formulate judgements with incomplete or limited information, but that include reflecting on social and ethical responsibilities linked to the application of their knowledge and judgements; • can communicate their conclusions, and the knowledge and rationale underpinning these, to specialist and non-specialist audiences clearly and unambiguously; • have the learning skills to allow them to continue to study in a manner that may be largely self-directed or autonomous. Doctoral degrees are awarded to students who: Qualifications that signify completion of the third cycle are awarded to students who: • have demonstrated a systematic understanding of a field of study and mastery of the skills and methods of research associated with that field; • have demonstrated the ability to conceive, design, implement and adapt a substantial process of research with scholarly integrity; • have made a contribution through original research that extends the frontier of knowledge by developing a substantial body of work, some of which merits national or international refereed publication; • are capable of critical analysis, evaluation and synthesis of new and complex ideas; • can communicate with their peers, the larger scholarly community and with society in general about their areas of expertise; • can be expected to be able to promote, within academic and professional contexts, technological, social or cultural advancement in a knowledge based society.
  6. 6. 6 Differentiating between cycles Cycle Knowledge and understanding: 1st Bachelor Is supported by advanced text books with some aspects informed by knowledge at the forefront of their field of study. 2nd Master Provides a basis or opportunity for originality in developing or applying ideas often in a research context. 3rd Doctorate Includes a systematic understanding of their field of study and mastery of the methods of research associated with that field. Cycle Applying knowledge and understanding: 1st Bachelor Through devising and sustaining arguments 2nd Master Through problem solving abilities applied in new or unfamiliar environments within broader or multidisciplinary contexts. 3rd Doctorate Is demonstrated by the ability to conceive, design, implement and adapt a substantial process of research with scholarly integrity. Is in the context of a contribution that extends the frontier of knowledge by developing a substantial body of work some of which merits national or international refereed publication. Cycle Making judgments: 1st Bachelor Involves gathering and interpreting relevant data. 2nd Master Demonstrates the ability to integrate knowledge and handle complexity, and formulate judgments with incomplete data. 3rd Doctorate Requires being capable of critical analysis, evaluation and synthesis of new and complex ideas. Cycle Communication: 1st Bachelor Of information, ideas, problems and solutions. 2nd Master Of their conclusions and the underpinning knowledge and rationale restricted scope to specialist and non-specialist audiences. 3rd Doctorate With their peers, the larger scholarly community and with society in general dialogue about their areas of expertise. Cycle Learning skills: 1st Bachelor Have developed those skills needed to study further with a high level of autonomy. 2nd Master Study in a manner that may be largely self-directed or autonomous. 3rd Doctorate Expected to be able to promote, within academic and professional contexts, technological, social or cultural advancement.
  7. 7. 7 1.1.2 Conditions: EUROPEAN ASSOCIATION FOR QUALITY ASSURANCE IN HIGHER EDUCATION European standards for internal quality assurance within higher education institutions European standards for the external quality assurance of higher education European standards for external quality assurance agencies • Policy and procedures for quality assurance Institutions should have a policy and associated procedures for the assurance of the quality and standards of their programmes and awards. They should also commit themselves explicitly to the development of a culture which recognises the importance of quality, and quality assurance, in their work. To achieve this, institutions should develop and implement a strategy for the continuous enhancement of quality. The strategy, policy and procedures should have a formal status and be publicly available. They should also include a role for students and other stakeholders. • Approval, monitoring and periodic review of programmes and awards Institutions should have formal mechanisms for the approval, periodic review and monitoring of their programmes and awards. • Assessment of students Students should be assessed using published criteria, regulations and procedures applied consistently. • Quality assurance of teaching staff Institutions should have ways of verifying that staff • Use of internal quality assurance procedures External quality assurance procedures should take into account the effectiveness of the internal quality assurance processes described in Part 1 of the European Standards and Guidelines. • Development of external quality assurance processes The aims and objectives of quality assurance processes should be determined before the processes themselves are developed, by all those responsible (including higher education institutions) and should be published with a description of the procedures to be used. • Criteria for decisions Any formal decisions made as a result of an external quality assurance activity should be based on explicit published criteria that are applied consistently. • Processes fit for purpose All external quality assurance processes should be designed specifically to ensure their fitness to achieve the aims and objectives set for them. • Use of external quality assurance procedures for higher education The external quality assurance of agencies should take into account the presence and effectiveness of the external quality assurance processes described in Part 2 of the European Standards and Guidelines. • Official status Agencies should be formally recognised by competent public authorities in the European Higher Education Area as agencies with responsibilities for external quality assurance and should have an established legal basis. They should comply with any requirements of the legislative jurisdictions within which they operate. • Activities Agencies should undertake external quality assurance activities (at institutional or programme level) on a regular basis. • Resources Agencies should have adequate and proportional resources, both human and financial, to enable them to organise and run their external quality assurance process(es) in an effective and efficient manner, with appropriate provision for the development of their processes and procedures.
  8. 8. 8 involved with teaching students is qualified and competent to do so. They should be available to those undertaking external reviews, and commented upon in reports. • Learning resources and student support Institutions should ensure that the resources available for the support of student learning are adequate and appropriate for each programme offered. • Information systems Institutions should ensure that they collect, analyse and use relevant information for the effective management of their programmes of study and other activities. • Public information Institutions should regularly publish up to date, impartial and objective information, both quantitative and qualitative, about the programmes and awards they are offering. • Reporting Reports should be published and should be written in a style which is clear and readily accessible to its intended readership. Any decisions, commendations or recommendations contained in reports should be easy for a reader to find. • Follow-up procedures Quality assurance processes which contain recommendations for action or which require a subsequent action plan, should have a predetermined follow-up procedure which is implemented consistently. • Periodic reviews External quality assurance of institutions and/or programmes should be undertaken on a cyclical basis. The length of the cycle and the review procedures to be used should be clearly defined and published in advance. • System-wide analyses Quality assurance agencies should produce from time to time summary reports describing and analyzing the general findings of their reviews, evaluations, assessments, etc • Mission statement Agencies should have clear and explicit goals and objectives for their work, contained in a publicly available statement. • Independence Agencies should be independent to the extent both that they have autonomous responsibility for their operations and that the conclusions and recommendations made in their reports cannot be influenced by third parties such as higher education institutions, ministries or other stakeholders. • External quality assurance criteria and processes used by the agencies The processes, criteria and procedures used by agencies should be pre-defined and publicly available. These processes will normally be expected to include: • a self-assessment or equivalent procedure by the subject of the quality assurance process; • an external assessment by a group of experts, including, as appropriate, (a) student member(s), and site visits as decided by the agency; • publication of a report, including any decisions, recommendations or other formal outcomes; • a follow-up procedure to review actions taken by the subject of the quality assurance process in the light of any recommendations contained in the report. • Accountability procedures Agencies should have in place procedures for their own accountability.
  9. 9. 9 2. TEACHER TRAINING IN EUROPE 2.1 Competencies With respect to curricular content of initial teacher training, many European countries have specific training programs in which prospect teachers need to master these new responsibilities (Esteve, 2006): • Basic expertise in new information and communication technologies. • Acquisition skills for educational institutions’ management and administration. • Capacity to integrate students with special educational necessities into ordinary institutions. • Expertise in integrating students from diverse cultural backgrounds. • Acquisition of social skills to successfully confront difficult coexistence management. 2.2 Conditions In the last thirty years, European educational systems have obtained spectacular advances making the current educational systems one of the best that Europe has ever had. It exists among people, however, a social image that European educational systems are in crisis. The key to understand this apparent paradox relies in the fact that the advances of the European educational systems have created new problems, which the system has been unable to assimilate. This may be due to the lack of a general vision of those advances as well as the new challenges generated by such a deep educational change (Esteve, 2006). The enormous acceleration of social change has rapidly modified the ways of life, introducing new economic conceptions, new scientific and technological developments, and new social values. Therefore, many teachers are disoriented by these new changes. However, this is only the beginning of a period of changes where the new challenge of integrating electronic and Internet learning will enhance the demands of changing the European educational systems in the years to come (Esteve, 2006). And besides this, new exigencies of adaptation will increase in European societies, requesting educational systems to respond to the unforeseeable demands of a society in which the process of social change has been accelerated in the last few years. Thus, the quick transformation of an industrial society towards a knowledge society is already raising new requirements of adaptation of European’s educational systems. In the last years, in all European countries there has been a succession of reforms to improve the initial teacher training as an attempt to respond to the new educational realities resulting from the acceleration of the social changes. These reforms have been made considering two realities: first, the awareness that Europeans were preparing teachers for an educational system that was already finished, and secondly, the evidence of which most of the European teachers who began to work in secondary school had a good academic education, but lacked the social and communicative skills necessary to survive at the educational relationship within the classrooms. There are two extended and general tendencies in Europe: the first is the increase of years of the required training to become Secondary school teacher. This is the
  10. 10. 10 consequence of recognising that European teachers must now confront new difficulties to exercise their profession. Secondly, the tendency is to integrate teacher training within the university’s framework, leaving non-university institutions of training aside, and accepting the necessity in all European countries of a long university training program to become secondary school teachers. Within the framework of the tendencies described above, the structure of the initial teacher training in Europe follows a variety of models, although there is a basic norm that regulates the initial teacher training to guarantee minimum levels of homogeneity in the degrees that are obtained. In all Europe, it is a requirement to all secondary school teachers to obtain a university degree of at least five years of study. Besides this and independently of the followed model, the necessity of specific training of practical and professional character is already accepted in all European countries. Most of European countries establish mandatory subjects as minimum requirements of curricular content, whereas others must fulfil specific objectives. The existing initial training norm usually stipulates the mandatory inclusion of at least the following areas: pedagogy, theory of education, psychology, subject knowledge and subject learning, and teaching practice (Eurydice, 2002, p.70). Countries that define objectives, instead of subjects, indicate minimum levels that teachers need to acquire when finalizing their initial training, and those levels are generally focused in two aspects: subject knowledge and educational skills. “Usually, a relation of aptitudes are included, whose acquisition would be recommendable, such as social skills and the capacity to take care of the individual development of students” (Eurydice, 2002). 3. TEACHER TRAINING -TRAINERS OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION TEACHERS IN EUROPE 3.1 Competencies Models in TVET Teacher Training: In a recent study, Bünning and Shilela (2006) identify three emerging models of TVET Teacher Training in German universities: • The Consecutive Model • The Top-Up-Model • The Blended Model The Consecutive Model In this model the three educational strands of major, minor, and vocational education/didactics are integrated to Bachelor’s programme and major and minor are continued at Master level. The model offers a programme that focuses on teacher training with the result that the graduates at Bachelor’s level are experts in their (teacher training) field. The specialization on their teaching training field could be a disadvantage if graduates try to find employment, with their Bachelor’s degree alone, outside the teaching domain.
  11. 11. 11 Regarding Bünning and Shilela (2006) “employers may not value the emphasis on teacher training in the first degree portfolio. Moreover employment opportunities in the public sector are currently limited. These factors alone mean that graduates emerging from the Consecutive Model with a Bachelor’s degree from a university could be faced with limited options for employment, which could be seen as a direct contradiction of one of the envisaged benefits of restructuring” (p. 21). The Top-up-Model The Top-up-Model introduces just one strand of teacher training at the Bachelor’s level and Master programme builds up on a Bachelor’s degree (e.g. in a technical field). In this model the major results from the field studied at Bachelor’s level, which is continued at Master’s level. Minor and vocational education/didactics are exclusively studied at Master’s level. This model offers a Bachelor’s programme which is mainly focused on subject expertise in a given field. Graduates emerging from the Top-Up-Model could be considered to have the advantage over their peers graduating from the Consecutive Model, when seeking employment outside teaching. However, they will be disadvantaged if they were to seek employment in education due to the limited pedagogical training offered at Bachelor’s level (Bünning & Shilela, 2006). The Blended Model The Blended Model offers a two cycle degree system which introduces two strands (major and minor) of teacher training at Bachelor level. There is a single module of vocational education and didactics which is offered in all subject fields at bachelor’s level and is open to students from other faculties. Master’s degree offers opportunities to deepen understanding of studies of major, minor and vocational education/didactics. Bünning and Shilela (2006) perceive the Blended Model as a compromise model between the first two. These authors say that the Blended Model: “aims to provide graduates with alternative career options by focussing on areas which are relevant for employment outside teaching while simultaneously introducing pedagogy and didactics at the Bachelor’s level, thus offering a compromise between the Consecutive and the Top–Up- Models. The Bachelor’s graduates from this model may not possess the equivalent subject expertise as their counterparts from the Top- Up-Model, but their command of subject knowledge would enable them to compete for jobs in a non-teaching environment” (p.21). Intended outcomes of restructuring TVET Teacher Training: The three models intend to provide: • Transfer between programmes • Shorter study periods • Enhancement of practical training • Internationalisation of degree programme Transfer between programmes
  12. 12. 12 When considering the flexibility offered by TVET Teacher Training programmes to transfer between any given programmes, the Consecutive Model offers limitations since only allows students to transfer to a programme that follows the Consecutive Model. However, Top-up-Model offers most flexibility in terms of transferring from one programme to another. And the Blended Model is the only one that opens up to graduates from different models, being the prerequisite that graduates should have followed a module of vocational education and didactics in their Bachelor’s studies. Shorter study periods Regarding Bünning and Shilela (2006) graduates emerging from three years of Bachelor’s study and who want to gain employment will most likely still need to continuo on studying for two more years of Master’s. Therefore, the objective of shorter study periods would have not been achieved in Germany since the new study period of five years is longer than the former system. Enhancement of practical training One of the aims of the Bologna Declaration was to strengthen the practical elements of TVET Teacher Training through the restructuring exercise; however, “the three emerging models do not demonstrate evidence of a strategic approach to restructuring which would ensure the inclusion of more intensive periods or stronger links with practical training” (Bünning & Shilela, 2006, pp. 20-21). Internationalisation of degree programme The Bologna Process provides an excellent opportunity for universities to develop international programmes, however very few universities in Germany have design programmes that encompass an international perspective. 3.2 Conditions The European Commission Expert Group underlined on their Progress Report (2004) the general guiding principles that should be taken into account in the development of a common framework supporting the development of quality teacher and trainer education in Europe. • Teaching/training should be seen as a profession based on a professional, tertiary level, university, or equivalent, research-based initial education for teachers and/or other appropriate professionally recognised levels for trainers; • The issue of competences in teacher /trainer education should be seen in a lifelong learning perspective; • The process of continuous professional development should be ‘owned’ by both individuals and institutions in a context of partnership between teachers, their constituent organisations, employers, parents’ associations and education authorities; • Mobility should be seen as an integral part of professional development at initial training and continuing professional development stages. It should be seen as contributing a European added-value to the development of optimum learning
  13. 13. 13 environments for all young people and should be appropriately recognised and accredited; • The European dimension should have a much stronger presence in initial teacher education curricula and programmes; • Appropriate professional support should be provided for those responsible for the education of teachers and trainers; • Effective support structures are necessary at European level in order to promote the European dimension of the professional development of teachers and trainers and build new knowledge in the field of educational research.
  14. 14. 14 Section II Spain 1. FRAMEWORK 1.1 University in Spain 1.1.1 Competencies: The Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports published a framework-document (2003) in which they present the plan of adaptation of Spanish universities and their official tittles into the schema proposed by the Bologna Declaration. We illustrate the characteristics of graduate and postgraduate degrees below: Graduate degrees The educational objectives of official graduate degrees in Spain will have, in general, a professional orientation that should provide a university education in which are harmonically integrated: • basic generic competencies, • cross-sectional competencies related to people ‘s integral education and, • more specific competencies that make possible a professional orientation that allow university degree holders to integrate into the labour market. These degrees will have to be designed based on professional profiles with a national and European perspective, and on objectives that must mention generic, cross-sectional, and specific competencies (knowledge, capacities, and abilities) that should be reached. It should be possible to allow for certain flexibility to universities for diversifying its programs, intensifying or personalizing some of the specific competencies related to professional orientation, as well as to establish itineraries of free curricular configuration. But, in no case, these itineraries could be recognized as specialties nor be reflected in the official Graduate title. Postgraduate degrees In agreement with the established in the Bologna Declaration, postgraduate degrees, for whose access it will be required to have passed first level of higher education (Graduate degrees), will lead to the acquisition of Masters and/or Doctoral degrees. The design of this level’s structure is done in several effective ways in other countries and all of them present advantages and disadvantages. In general, however, it could be advisable to establish a Master-Doctoral structure that has a sequential character so that, for the set of degrees, the access to the doctoral thesis elaboration period could only be possible after acquiring a Master’s degree. In any case, this exigency should be necessary in Masters which are not oriented towards investigation, and that are strictly professional. But, it can also be understood that this structure is too rigid and, thus, it
  15. 15. 15 should open up the possibility to design postgraduate programs in which students, after having coursed a significant number of credits, could be admitted by a Department or a University Institute of Investigation in order to initiate their doctoral investigation. For that reason, it is under consideration of the University Coordination Council (Consejo de Coordinación Universitario): A) If the acquisition of a Master’s degree should be a requirement for accessing to doctoral levels, B) if this exigency must be a standard while opening the possibility to regulate the extraordinary circumstances that allow postgraduate programs, in which access requirements are established, for instance, to have completed a number of credits of the program, but without having completed and acquired a Master’s degree, C) or if this possibility does not have to be considered of extraordinary character but generalizeable to certain types of Masters based on its objectives and educational contents. In any case the Government will establish, with previous report of the University Council of Coordination, the general requirements to access to Postgraduate and Doctoral studies. 1.1.2 Conditions: Under section VII “Quality and Accreditation of the Spanish High Education” of the report “Bricall Report”, it is described the evaluation experience in Spain in which since 1990 with the objective to favour the incorporation of concrete measures to improve quality in university, the Universities Council (Consejo de Universidades) impelled an alternative line oriented to favour the elaboration of guidelines of evaluation based on an analogous conception of foreign models of evaluation, whose first result was the Experimental Evaluation Programme of Quality in Universities (1992-1994), and immediately later the participation in the European Union Pilot Project. This process had an institutional continuity in the National Evaluation of Quality Plan. The stages of the system of evaluation in Spain are summarized below: University Field Administrative Field University Council Activities European Union Activities 1990 - 1991 • Debate on level of evaluation reached (studies, seminars, publications) oriented towards quality improvement. 1992 - 1994 • ESMU Programme • Experimental Evaluation Programme
  16. 16. 16 1994 - 1995 • National Evaluation Plan • Experimental programme review. • Agreement of Universities Council by which proposes the Government the adoption of a National Evaluation Plan. • European Pilot Project coordination • European Pilot Programme • Final conference on European Pilot Programme 1996 - 1997 • 1st Call for the National Evaluation Plan. • Direct participation in the Plan of some Autonomous Communities. • Evaluation Plan development. • 1st Report on Quality in Universities. • European Union Commission recommendation proposal on guarantee the quality of higher education. 1998 - 1999 • 2ond and 3rd Call for the National Evaluation Plan. • Constitution of regional Evaluation agencies. • Development of Evaluation Plan • European Evaluation Model • Creation of network of European Evaluation Agencies. The National Evaluation Plan of Quality in Universities was based on different arguments: • First of all, organizations must incorporate policies oriented to improve the quality of products and services that justify their creation. Universities cannot remain in the margin of this tendency, especially when by nature they are institutions with academic and scientific excellence. • In addition, the incorporation of Spain into the European Union has also demanded a homologation according to the educational policies within the Union. University quality evaluation constitutes a policy impelled by diverse communitarian guidelines and recommendations. • Finally, university institutions financed from public resources are required to provide account on performance and use of founds. Following the European Commission criterion, quality evaluation methods are conceived as procedure rules. This means that they define the procedure of quality evaluation in institutions (subject and modalities of participation, aspects to examine, etc.), but do not establish definitive criteria of quality based on standards. It is each university’s responsibility to decide its own notion of quality tied to its objectives.
  17. 17. 17 The integrated process of evaluation that each Spanish university must follow is made up of three main stages: • Internal Evaluation: It begins with the collection and systematization of information referred to the evaluation object unit. This information is made up of statistics, management data and indicators on inputs, processes and results of the unit activity. The study elaborated by the internal evaluation Committee integrates this information with the observations, opinions, and evaluations generated in the process. • External Evaluation: An external Committee of evaluation analyzes the study and visits the evaluated unit. From their observations, information, opinions and evaluations collected during interviews, emit an external report. This report is put under consideration by the evaluated unit in order for them to present their allegations or considerations. • Evaluation report: The synthesis of the study and the external report provides the definitive report of the evaluated unit which must be diffused and published appropriately. The “Bricall Report” states that the process of evaluation of Spanish quality in universities needs to take a step forward and to replace the strict program of evaluation by another one of evaluation and accreditation. The balance of the National Evaluation Plan of Quality in Universities must serve as base for the accomplishment of later programs with more concrete and selective objectives and to increase the degree of exigency in the results. 2. TEACHER TRAINING IN SPAIN 2.1 Competencies The Spanish educational system does not contemplate the competencies of teachers but their functions. Therefore, we thought appropriate to include in this section “The Functions of Teachers” (2/2006: 17183) which are specified under Article 91 of the Education Act 2/2006 May 3, of Education. The complete set of functions is set out below: a) Planning and education of all areas, subjects, and modules that have been entrusted to them. b) Evaluation of students’ learning process, as well as evaluation of educational processes. c) Guardianship of students, direction and orientation of their learning, and their support in their educational process in collaboration with families. d) Educational, academic, and vocational orientation of students, in collaboration with specialized departments or services. e) Attention to students’ intellectual, affective, psychological, social, and moral development.
  18. 18. 18 f) Promotion, organization, and participation in complementary activities, inside and outside the educational enclosure, programmed by the school. g) Contribution to the development of schools’ activities in a climate of respect, tolerance, participation, and freedom in order to promote the values of democratic citizenship within students. h) Periodic report to families of learning process of their daughters and suns, as well as to provide guidance to the families of how they can cooperate. i) Coordination of educational activities, management, and direction that have been entrusted to them. j) Participation in the general activity of the school. k) Participation in the evaluation plans determined by educational Administrations or schools. l) Research, experimentation, and continuous improvement of corresponding learning processes. 2. Teachers will carry out these functions, precise in the above section, under the principle of collaboration and teamwork. Even though, the Spanish educational system does not contemplate the competencies of teachers on the III Conference of Education Deans and Directors (November 2005) were underlined the professional profile that teachers need to acquire in their initial teacher training. Conference speakers agreed that in order to obtain this profile, Spain needs an initial teacher training of teachers of Secondary Education that offers to future teachers, theoretical tools and practical skill to think and to act in the exercise of their profession like true educators and not only like experts in a curricular area. It was said that in order to make initial teacher training a professionalizing instrument for teachers, it must be based on the capacity to integrate knowledge of several areas and typologies, achieving a constant interaction and integration between theoretical knowledge and practice. This capacity to integrate different knowledge into the classroom defines the basic competency of teachers and it indicates their professionalism. Thus, the profile of teachers of Secondary Education must: • dominate the scientific field that they will teach • acquire a global vision of the curriculum of Secondary Education and know in depth the curriculum field • dominate specific didactics of their scientific field • know their students’ cognitive and cultural characteristics of diversity and know them from different secondary stages (ESO/Bachillerato) • learn to integrate theoretical knowledge (disciplinary or cross-sectional) with practical professional competencies
  19. 19. 19 • acquire a global vision of knowledge or holistic thinking • know to work in a team 2.2 Conditions Initial training that tries to compact all learning in a period of three or four years still prevails in Spain today. Zabalza (2006) thinks that this approach makes Spanish initial training superficial and prevents from building up a knowledge model in which theory and practice are integrated. In that sense “the connection of initial training and in- service training should be a requirement” (p.53). The political objective of Spain is to design a high-level training plan that prepares prospect teachers to confront the new educational challenges they face now and will face in the future. In response to these new challenges, Spain has decided to incorporate new requirements for the teachers’ professional profile such as: languages, multiculturalism, questions of gender and coexistence, diversity of students, new technologies, learning difficulties and work with families (OCDE). Along those lines, Imbernón (2006) states that Spain also needs a change in the profile of teachers to include greater pedagogical competencies and skills to work with their colleagues. The I Forum of ANECA (National Evaluation Agency of Quality and Accreditation) about University Professors tried to make some reflections on the European convergence process. Forum speakers agreed that this process is an excellent opportunity to improve the effectiveness and the efficiency of the actual system of education-learning that still prevails in most of Spanish universities. Forum speakers agreed that during the period of the two organic laws (LRU and LOU), which has framed university way of work in Spain; teachers’ research activity has been over-evaluated not favouring teaching work, which has become a "load" practically without stimulus. According to them, Spanish universities urgently need to favour a cultural and strategic change to revitalize teaching, without that, failure of the implantation of the European high education space is guaranteed. However, they state that recognition and stimulus of educational activity cannot be increased without training and evaluation of teachers. Those are two pending challenges that need to be urgently approached. Few systematic teacher training programs are implemented at Spanish universities. Therefore, it is important to implement teacher training programs regularly. Forum speakers concluded that teacher training towards the European high education space must be guided by general principles such as: a) emphasis not only in aptitude but also in attitude; b) establishment of networks based on teacher training in order to favour training in all teachers; c) implication of mixed trainers, some of which should belong to teacher training field; d) technical and economic support; d) permanent evaluation and improvement; and f) provide incentive systems for teachers. In this context, it is very important the selection of teacher training contents, being the main ones: design and evaluation of competencies, active participation of students, team work between teachers, personalized tutoring, evaluation of students and the new education- learning system, among others.
  20. 20. 20 Quality agencies can also play a main role in the advancement of university teaching, contributing to the indispensable cultural change. Thus, if criteria, indicators, and standards are established, they will stimulate teaching indirectly (e.g. criteria for teacher evaluation, where teaching must have a greater weight) as well as directly (e.g. university programs that support teacher training). Within this context, however, Zabalza (2006) thinks that the successive Spanish educational reforms have not made changes in initial teacher training. Initial teacher training programs are still not in conditions to prepare future generations of teachers in those competencies that teaching requires. Spanish universities continue to work and focus things in similar ways as they did twenty or twenty-five years ago. Indeed, the needs of the Spanish educational system have evolved in such ways that, at present, lack the required "competent" teachers prepared to provide answers to the new educational context and its new challenges. 3. TEACHER TRAINING -TRAINERS OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION TEACHERS IN SPAIN 3.1 Competencies Every day new social needs appear. In order to guarantee that those needs are covered, new professional profiles are required. This makes very difficult to define a professional profile. Therefore, the study (Ferrández, Tejada, Jurado, Navío, and Ruiz, 2000) addresses this question by applying the concepts of flexibility and versatility while defining the professional profile. Professional profiles are redefined according to the dynamics of society, thus the literature review presented below will depict the functions, roles, and competencies of teacher training and teacher training of vocational education, considering their mutability. Professional profile of teacher training professionals: Trainers of vocational education teachers are well characterized as a group, since they all share a well-defined function as instructors of vocational education. These professionals have acquired, through professional experience or through initial teacher training, a series of pedagogical competencies on a technical field, even though, some of them may have few or no industrial experience which questions their authentic specialization. In most countries these professionals, identified as teachers who instruct practical, technical, and theoretical aspects, work mainly as teachers. These professionals teach vocational education under the educational system. There are few differences between those who teach at public and private sectors. Public sector Trainers of vocational education teachers who teach at public sectors are required to possess a university diploma or a high level degree (higher technician). Furthermore, they are required to succeed in a standardized public contest to become trainers of vocational education teachers. However, there are also provisional trainers of vocational education teachers who are called “interinos”. In both cases, they work only as teachers and they cannot combine their teaching activity with any other remunerated activity.
  21. 21. 21 Depending on their sort of education, they are grouped into teacher training trainers of practical, technical, and theoretical courses. Technical and theoretical teacher training instructors are required to obtain high level degrees, whereas practical teacher training instructors only need an intermediate level degree. Private sector Trainers of vocational education teachers who teach at private sectors have a similar degree level, professional categories, and functions. The only differences that we encounter are the access to permanent positions, recruitment, and sociolabour conditions. In both cases, their lack of professional experience acts as a barrier that prevents innovation, access to new conceptions of techniques or procedures. Fortunately, the tendency is to grant more emphasis to pedagogical questions of didactical, organizational and educational orientation, and to emphasise the link between scholar and labour fields. Functions, tasks, and competencies: Functions are set out below (Ferrández et al. 2000): • To offer different types of training related to specific necessities. • To define, to design, and to fit training courses of formation according to the learning level of the groups. • To teach training courses according to a previously established program. • To design didactic materials in relation to the activities developed. • To evaluate the learnings taught, using evaluation tools to collect the information needed. On the other hand, most of the studies define the role of teacher training according to four competency fields (Bunk, 1994; Liepmann, 1992, cited by Ferrández et al., 2000): • Technological competencies • Teaching competencies (psychopedagogical) • Work competencies • Social competencies However, Danau (191, p.53, cited by Ferrández et al., 2000) reveals in his study that trainers of vocational education teachers were aware of the importance of social competencies and interpersonal skills. However, most of those willing to develop their profile or change it, preferred to improve their technological competency. Thus, although they turned into teachers due to their high level of technical experience and knowledge, they did not identify themselves as teachers. Others thought that to become teachers was important, but only as a temporary stage in the course of their career. Most trainers of vocational education teachers see themselves as technicians that work temporarily in teaching hence Ferrández (1995, p.168, cited by Ferrández et al., 2000) says that one can infer from the data that in-service trainers may not have (nor intend to have) proper initial teacher training.
  22. 22. 22 The different unities of competency of teacher training proposed by INEM are the following: • To program educational actions linking them to the rest of actions related to the organization of learning, in agreement with the surrounding’s requirements. • Provide learning opportunities adapted to individuals or group characteristics and their qualification needs. • Attend and orient their learning process and qualifications. • Verify the level of qualification reached, the programs, and the actions in order to make decisions to improve the education level. • Actively contribute to the improvement of the quality of education. 3.2 Conditions Navío’s (2006) thesis seeks to delimit the functions, roles, and competencies of teacher training professionals illustrating different authors’ perspectives on this matter. Our purpose here is to present a synthesis of functions, roles, and competencies of trainers of vocational education teachers extracted from the author´s work. The main functions: • To program the learning process • To manage and coordinate the learning process • To transmit and exercise knowledge, skills and attitudes. • To adapt individual and group characteristics of participants to the process and to help them to identify themselves with preset objectives and their chosen ways of work. • To define, design, and adapt training courses according to learning groups. Four main roles: • Teacher training as a catalyst: facilitates others to reach their conclusions and goals. • Teacher training as mentor: works as a role model for other people. • Teacher training as coach: helps people learn through their work experience reflections in order to better understand the processes implied. • Teacher training as advisor: help participants to manage their learnings as well as to reach their goals. Specific pedagogical competencies: • Diagnostic competency: Related to the identification of problems and problem solving. • Achievement competency: Suitable organization of context for problem solving. • Integration competency: The acquired knowledge is integrated and transferred to the workplace.
  23. 23. 23 • Competencies linked to personality: They make reference to a set of specific and generic transversal competencies required from both the person and the professional. • Competencies on Didactical-methodological expertise: Everything that concerns adult’s psychopedagogy at the level of groups, contents, objectives and methodological strategies. • Team manager competency: Related to group dynamics. • Advising competency: Providing advice to individuals and groups through their education. • Cooperative work competency: Given by the specific needs of the organisation of work and the organisation of the education and learning of adults. • Competencies in the expertise on political and organizational conditions: Programming, development, evaluation, merchandising, work and industry context, administration, law/legislation, personal, etc. These are aspects that from the in-service training point of view, must be considered fundamental.
  24. 24. 24 BIBLIOGRAPHY Agencia Nacional de Evaluación de la Calidad y Acreditación. (Diciembre 2004). I Foro ANECA sobre El profesorado universitario. Universidad de La Laguna. Bologna Process Committee: The European Higher Education Area/Joint declaration of the European Ministers of Education convened in Bologna on 19 June 1999 (The Bologna Declaration). Bricall, J.M. (Marzo 2000). Informe Universidad 2000. Conferencia de Rectores de las Universidades españolas (CRUE).Barcelona. Bunk, G.P. (1994). La transmisión de las competencias de la formación y perfeccionamiento profesionales de RFA. Revista Europea de Formación profesional, Vol. 1, pp.8-14. Bünning, F. & Shilela, A. (2006). The Bologna Declaration and Emerging Models of TVET Teacher Training in Germany. Inwent. Germany. Danau, D. (1991). Los formadores en el entorno de cambio: el caso EUROTECNET. Revista de formación professional, Vol.1, pp. 52-55. European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education. (2005). Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area. Helsinki: Finland. European Commission. (September 2004). Education & Training 2010 work programme. Working Group A Improving the Education of Teachers and Trainers. (Progress Report). Eurydice. (2004).The teaching profession in Europe: Profile, trends and concerns. Report IV: Keeping teaching attractive for the 21st century. Brussels, Eurydice. Esteve, J.M. (2006). La profesión docente en Europa: perfil, tendencias y problemática. La formación inicial. Revista de Educación, Vol. 340, pp.19-86. Ferrández, A. (1995). El Formador. II Congreso Internacional de Formación Ocupacional. Barcelona. Ferrández, A., Tejada, J., Jurado, P., Navío, A., & Ruiz, C. (2000). El formador de Formación Profesional y Ocupacional. Barcelona: Octaedro. Imbernón, F. (2006). La profesión docente desde el punto de vista internacional ¿qué dicen los informes? Revista de Educación, Vol. 340, pp. 19-86 Joint Quality Initiative informal group. (2004). Shared ‘Dublin’ descriptors for Short Cycle, First Cycle, Second Cycle and Third Cycle Awards. Dublin.
  25. 25. 25 Liepmann, D. (1992). Fundamentos del desarrollo de las cualificaciones clave:cualificaciones socials y técnicas de los formadores. Herramientas, Vol. 19, pp.44-49. Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte. “La integración del sistema universitario español en el espacio europeo de enseñanza superior”. Documento-marco. Febrero 2003. Navío. A. (2006). Las competencias del formador de formación continua. Análisis desde los programas de formación de formadores. Tesis de doctorat en Ciències de l’Educació departament de Pedagogia Aplicada, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Tribó, G. (2005). La formación inicial del profesorado de secundaria ante la Convergencia Europea: propuestas para un debate. III Conferencia de Decanos y Directores de Magisterio y Educación, Universidad de La Laguna. Zabalza, M. A. (2006). Buscando una nueva hoja de ruta en la formación del profesorado. Revista de Educación, Vol.340, pp. 19-86.