DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LWAs
NDTS
NDTS
1
DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LEARN AND WORK ASSIGNMENTS (LWAs)
Self-Reli...
DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LWAs
NDTS
NDTS
2
EExxeeccuuttiinngg
the action
process and
MMoonniittoorriinngg
PPllaannnni...
DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LWAs
NDTS
NDTS
3
TABLE 1: STAGES OF THE COMPLETE ACTION CYCLE IN LWA
Stage Apprentices’ Act...
DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LWAs
NDTS
NDTS
4
Stage Apprentices’ Activities Objectives Types of guiding questions/hints
...
DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LWAs
NDTS
NDTS
5
Role of Coach or Instructor
In all stages of the complete action cycle, th...
DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LWAs
NDTS
NDTS
6
“OPEN, INNOVATIVE” Learn and Work Assignments
(OILWAs)
Organisation-based ...
DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LWAs
NDTS
NDTS
7
Some LWAs can be designed in such a way that certain parts are completed a...
DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LWAs
NDTS
NDTS
8
STEPS IN DESIGNING LWAs
1. Choose a suitable assignment in your particular...
DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LWAs
NDTS
NDTS
9
Activities carried out
to complete the
assignment
(Steps done by a
skilled...
DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LWAs
NDTS
NDTS
10
• Apart from the technical competencies, the work process requires the ab...
DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LWAs
NDTS
NDTS
11
5. Write down the information sources in the third column.
Guidelines
• I...
DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LWAs
NDTS
NDTS
12
• Guiding questions may include terms which are unfamiliar to the apprent...
DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LWAs
NDTS
NDTS
13
EXAMPLES OF ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENTS
Checklist
Example 1
The checklist in t...
DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LWAs
NDTS
NDTS
14
Rating Scale
Example 2
In this assignment, the assessment criteria are cl...
DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LWAs
NDTS
NDTS
15
Planning
Logical sequence of work
Time management
Housekeeping
Presentati...
DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LWAs
NDTS
NDTS
16
Example 4
This rubric is used to assess students’ performance in designin...
DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LWAs
NDTS
NDTS
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SUMMARY OF THE STEPS FOR LWA DEVELOPMENT
STEP 8 Prepare the assessment sh...
DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LWAs
NDTS
NDTS
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USING LWAs IN TRAINING APPRENTICES
LWAs are used in training is to foster...
DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LWAs
NDTS
NDTS
19
• Describes the apprentices’, instructor’s and coach’s activities
• Estim...
DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LWAs
NDTS
NDTS
20
Specific
Assignments
Sets of
Specific
Assignments
Master LWAWork Activiti...
DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LWAs
NDTS
NDTS
21
TABLE 2: ACTION PLAN FOR LWA
TRAINING OCCUPATION
TYPE OF
COLLABORATION
SE...
DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LWAs
NDTS
NDTS
22
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DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LEARN AND WORK ASSIGNMENTS (LWAs)

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The excessive pace of technology change and increasing complexity at the workplace require that employees continuously learn new job skills. In today’s learning organizations, work and learning are integrated.

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DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LEARN AND WORK ASSIGNMENTS (LWAs)

  1. 1. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LWAs NDTS NDTS 1 DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LEARN AND WORK ASSIGNMENTS (LWAs) Self-Reliant Learning The excessive pace of technology change and increasing complexity at the workplace require that employees continuously learn new job skills. In today’s learning organizations, work and learning are integrated. Large companies may afford to provide formal training to their employees but the new competencies required at work are changing at a pace that makes it difficult for conventional classroom training to keep up. Learning has to take place when it is actually needed so that it can be applied immediately. The use of self-reliant learning in organizations presents the potential of a more cost- effective approach to training. Self-reliant learning has the potential to complement a great deal of formal training, enabling organizations to stretch their training budgets to meet their ever-growing training needs. Self-reliant learning is learning that takes place, without a teacher or mentor, where the learner performs his or her needs analysis, sets goals, identifies resources, plans and executes the learning exercise and assesses the learning outcomes. In self-reliant learning, the learners determine the objectives, select the means and evaluate the ends of their learning experiences. Learn and Work Assignments Learn and Work assignments (LWAs) are instructional tools to foster self-reliant learning and teamwork. They are closely related to assignments for workers at the workplace or they are real assignments from a specific workplace. For example apprentices produce real work pieces, design circuits that can be found in the company’s shop-floor or perform standard service based on job card instructions. The activities carried out in completing LWAs are those typical of an occupation, including social and organizational aspects as well as the specialized technical skills. LWAs can be designed for individual work In self-reliant learning, the learners determine the objectives, select the means and evaluate the ends of their learning experiences.
  2. 2. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LWAs NDTS NDTS 2 EExxeeccuuttiinngg the action process and MMoonniittoorriinngg PPllaannnniinngg the pathway for the action 2 EEvvaalluuaattiinngg action and its result 5 4 Setting GGooaallss 1 The Steps of the Complete Action Cycle DDeecciissiioonn MMaakkiinngg regarding utilization of plan and resources r 3 as well as teamwork. The workplace assignments are adapted for the learning process by formulating guiding questions, hints and instructions to guide the apprentices through each step of the complete action cycle. These questions also provide a focus for the underpinning theories of the practical work assignments. Thus theoretical knowledge of facts is covered when required in the practical part of the work (on-demand learning). Thus, as the name implies, LWAs combine and integrate the learning and working environments. The Complete Action Cycle LWAs integrate the actual workplace related assignments with the steps of the complete action cycle comprising of setting goal, planning, decision making, executing and monitoring, and evaluating. Apprentices are guided by the guiding questions and hints in the LWAs in going through these steps while solving the assignments. They have to set specific objectives, design their own work plan, decide on the best method, monitor their own progress and evaluate the course of action and its results. Thus, they are practicing self-reliant learning while solving the assignments. The stages of the complete action cycle are shown in Table 1.
  3. 3. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LWAs NDTS NDTS 3 TABLE 1: STAGES OF THE COMPLETE ACTION CYCLE IN LWA Stage Apprentices’ Activities Objectives Types of guiding questions/hints 1. Setting Goal Developing and setting out objectives for the assignment. Compiling information to resolve the assignment • Active participation in setting sub- goals and specific objectives of a problem or task rouses the interest of the learners and makes them get involved more. • Fostering the ability to know where and when to look for information. What needs to be done? What purpose does the assignment serve? 2. Planning Planning process for the work plan. Tasks are assigned to members of the group. The group is fully responsible for all activities. • Fostering the ability to plan the procedure autonomously with respect to contents, the methodology and division of labour. How to go about it? What operations or steps are required? By what means can the task be carried out? Why does it have to be done in this way and no other way? Where can the task be carried out? How long does it take to solve the task? 3. Decision Making The group members develop their own strategies for solving the problem and make decisions (almost always in prior agreement with the instructor) about which strategies to pursue. • Fostering social competences related to teamwork and negotiation Specific procedure/solution of task Justification for selecting method, materials, etc.
  4. 4. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LWAs NDTS NDTS 4 Stage Apprentices’ Activities Objectives Types of guiding questions/hints 4. Executing and Monitoring Each member implements his/her task according to plan or work- allocation schedule that is based on partial results. Self-control by apprentices. Possibility of identifying one’s own mistakes and, if possible, of correcting such mistakes • Allowing for actual autonomous, creative and responsible action. • Fostering technical, methodological, learning, human and social competences. • Learning how to evaluate better the quality of one’s own work. • Fostering the ability for reflective and critical self-assessment. Is there a need to change plan? What are the critical steps? What safety/preventive measures are taken? What actions are taken to troubleshoot? 5. Evaluating Combined monitoring (coach/nstructor and apprentices), discussion and assessment of project results. Theoretical consolidation of the results • Assessment of the learning experience. • Awareness for interdependencies between specialized theory and practice. • Identification of intersections with other learning contents. Does the work fulfill quality requirements and if so, up to what point? (self-assessment/external evaluation) How can the work be improved? What are the important learning experiences? Note: In all the stages in the complete action cycle, the role of the instructor or coach is as a facilitator. Activities of the instructor/coach include giving mini lectures, short demonstrations, preparing tasks for reinforcement or improvement, advising, guiding, counseling, providing references or be just a role model.
  5. 5. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LWAs NDTS NDTS 5 Role of Coach or Instructor In all stages of the complete action cycle, the role of the coach or instructor is as a facilitator or an adviser. The apprentices process the entire LWAs, guided by the questions, hints and instructions. Even the quality inspections of the product or work are carried out independently by the apprentices during the working process. Discussion and evaluation by the coach or instructor is done at progressive intervals to facilitate reflection on the learning process and provide feedback to the apprentices. The coach or instructor steps down from being a sage on the stage to become a guide by the side. Levels of LWAs LWAs are classified according to the complexity and difficulty level into three categories, namely Closed LWAs, Open LWAs and Open, Innovative LWAs. Closed LWAs consist of routine activities and the guiding questions and hints are more specific to provide structured guidance to the apprentices. They are given at the early stage of the training. Open LWAs are more complex LWAs which may require apprentices to identify alternative ways to solve their assignments. Apprentices are also provided with general and less guiding questions and hints as compared to closed LWAs. Open, innovative assignments require apprentices to do feasibility study, seek alternative, innovative solutions often through a teamwork approach and to establish decision-making and evaluation criteria by themselves. Planning Setting Goal Decision MakingExecuting & Monitoring Evaluating The coach or instructor steps down from being a sage on the stage to become a guide by the side.
  6. 6. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LWAs NDTS NDTS 6 “OPEN, INNOVATIVE” Learn and Work Assignments (OILWAs) Organisation-based on-the-job training styled assignments “OPEN” Learn and Work Assignments (OLWAs) OLWA have some general guiding questions & hints “CLOSED” Learn and Work Assignments (CLWAs) CLWAs contain detailed guiding questions and hints LLeevveellssooffCCoommpplleexxiittyyooffLLWWAA TThhee ccooaacchh// iinnssttrruuccttoorr ttaakkeess tthhee rroollee ooff mmooddeerraattoorr,, ccooaacchh,, ffaacciilliittaattoorr aanndd aaddvviissoorr Levels of Learn and Work Assignments Collaboration between Coach (Workplace) and Instructors (Training Institute) For successful implementation of the NDTS, close collaboration between the in- company coaches and instructors of training institutes is necessary and very important. Collaboration between the two parties can occur in many areas and the development of LWAs is one of the most important one. In-company coaches provide the inputs regarding the actual workplace assignments and together with the instructors can formulate the guiding questions and hints for the LWAs. The coaches can focus more on the practical and workplace requirements while the instructors can focus on the underpinning theories of the practical work. Some LWAs can be carried out completely either at the workplace or at the training institutes. TThhee SSeellff –– RReelliiaanntt AApppprrooaacchh ttoo LLeeaarrnniinngg IInnccrreeaasseess Coaches and instructors collaborate to develop the LWAs.
  7. 7. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LWAs NDTS NDTS 7 Some LWAs can be designed in such a way that certain parts are completed at the workplace and the other sections at the training institutes. For example, the apprentices design their work plan at the training institute, execute the work plan at the workplace and evaluate their results with both their coach and instructor.
  8. 8. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LWAs NDTS NDTS 8 STEPS IN DESIGNING LWAs 1. Choose a suitable assignment in your particular specialization or a typical work activity at the workplace. Write a clear description for the assignment. Guidelines • Identify work assignments or tasks that suit the abilities and level of the apprentices. • Assignments at an early stage consist mainly of routine activities which occur in almost all work orders. Assignments at a later stage include skills required at a previous stage plus additional and new ones. • The degree of difficulty gradually increases from one assignment to the next. • Compare the assignments with the requirements of the NOCC, particularly the Core Work Process, Core Competencies and Learning Objectives. • Check whether the assignment requires the steps of the complete action cycle (setting goal, planning, decision making, executing and monitoring and evaluating). An assignment which does not have these five steps may be too simple. • Include customers and manufacturer’s specifications. Specify regulations, environmental requirements and other necessary information. • Set an appropriate duration. • State the type of learn and work organization (individual, partnership or team work). • The description should be brief and clear. The full description may be written after the whole assignment has been designed. 2. Set up a matrix consisting of four columns (the fourth column wider than the others). Guidelines • LWAs can be developed individually or in a team. • The purpose of the design matrix is to assist the coach or instructor in the formulation of instructions, guiding questions and hints. By using this matrix, the coach or instructor will be able to get an overview of the whole assignment as well as how the work activities fit into the complete action cycle. • Write the titles at the top of the columns as shown in the table below:
  9. 9. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LWAs NDTS NDTS 9 Activities carried out to complete the assignment (Steps done by a skilled worker) Learning Objectives Information Source Instructions, Guiding questions and Hints 3. Fill in the first column by writing the steps that will be done by an expert worker. Guidelines • Consider that the worker has to do the five steps of a complete action. • Write the steps in details, including the contents of work, tools used, procedures and requirements to be met by work performed. • These steps are those which will be done by an expert worker and not the apprentices. They are written down to assist the coach when he/she is writing the questions and hints for the assignment. 4. Write down the learning objectives/outcomes to be achieved for each step. Guidelines • Consider the stage of the learning process and the performance level of the apprentices. • Ask yourselves: What do I intend to teach the apprentices? Which objectives should they achieve with their learning and work activities? Refer to Training Contents Outline of the NDTS curriculum. • Write the objectives for each step if possible. • Consider the taxonomy of educational objectives for the three domains: cognitive, affective and psychomotor. • You may also think in terms of knowledge, skill and attitude to be acquired or developed. • Since the NDTS aims at developing the k-worker competencies, consider technical competencies, learning and methodological competencies, and human and social competencies.
  10. 10. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LWAs NDTS NDTS 10 • Apart from the technical competencies, the work process requires the ability of working in teams, common planning, decision making, monitoring and evaluating, effective communication skills, mutual responsibility and learning skills. K-WORKER COMPETENCIES Technical Competence Learning Competence Methodological Competence Social Competence • Assure quality • Select procedures, tools or resources • Apply rules and procedures • Apply appropriate skills and technology • Conform to standards and regulations •Differentiate between important and unimportant things •Transfer knowledge and methods •Be motivated to learn •Transfer skills already learnt to new problems •Apply learning techniques • Select work procedures • Work in a goal oriented manner • Determine time frames for executing tasks • Find and evaluate alternatives • Change plans flexibly where necessary • Draw conclusions • Adapt flexibly to new situations • Share responsibility • Recognise problems and contribute to their solutions • Accept different view points • Actively take part in team work • Proceed in a manner based on the division of labour • Exercise self control Source: P. Gerds, 2000 • Technical competence comprises of knowledge and skills regarding work techniques, tools, materials, fault analysis, quality assurance, conformity to standards and regulations. • Social competence promotes development of character, social integration, awareness of ecological and safety considerations, responsibility and accountability. • Learning and methodological competences are linked with the other competences regarding responsibility for further training (lifelong learning), ability to learn independently and in a team, ability to solve complex problems, ability to plan, execute and monitor activities by applying various techniques.
  11. 11. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LWAs NDTS NDTS 11 5. Write down the information sources in the third column. Guidelines • In trainee centred teaching, the coach/instrucotr is no longer the master who gives all the information. • In modern teaching the idea is to allow the apprentices to learn as much as possible by themselves. • The coach/instructor gives hints and makes them aware of information sources. • Information sources may include reference books, training manuals, tables, internet, multi-media resources, reports, etc. 6. Formulate the guiding questions and hints. Guidelines • Put yourselves into the apprentices’ position or mindset. Go through the mental processes which could take place in their mind. You may have to answer the following questions: What prerequisite knowledge do they need to complete the assignment? What are the possible sources of information? How can the guiding questions motivate the apprentices to think in advance before making decisions or executing the actions? How can the apprentices be guided towards obtaining the knowledge for the execution of the assignment? How can the apprentices be motivated to monitor themselves? • The guiding questions or hints should always be clear and unambiguous, but not too easy. • It is pointless to set questions which only require the apprentices to copy what is stated in their reference material. • The questions should help them to understand the problems presented by the assignment. • Guiding questions can ask for acquired knowledge or information by asking the apprentices to write in the spaces provided in the assignment sheet. This is give the coach feedback on the learning stage of the apprentices. • Guiding questions should not be confused with examination questions: they are not supposed to test knowledge but instead ensure that the apprentices know or have found out all they need to know in order to deal with the assignment professionally.
  12. 12. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LWAs NDTS NDTS 12 • Guiding questions may include terms which are unfamiliar to the apprentices. Additional questions and hints should be set to help the apprentices find out what these new terms mean. • The formulation of guiding questions or hints must be related to a certain step of the action which was formulated in the first column and corresponds with the previously determined learning objectives in the second column. 7. Prepare the assignment sheet. Guidelines • For the assignment sheet, extract the following information from the design matrix (copy and paste): Description of the task Duration, level and type of collaboration Guiding questions, Hints and Instructions of Column 4 Information sources from Column 3 • Read through the assignment sheet and modify the guiding questions, hints and instructions if necessary. 8. Prepare the assessment sheet. Guidelines • The main function of the assessment sheets is to provide the opportunity for the apprentices to judge and assess their activities (individual or team) and the results of their learning and work processes. • The apprentices use the assessment sheet to monitor their own work at every stage of the complete action model. The coach and instructor will also assess the apprentices. A discussion and feedback session is held after the completion of the assignment. • Assessment sheets cover technical competence, human and social competence, learning and methodological competence. • Assessment sheets can be designed using a combination of different assessment instruments such as checklists, rating scales and rubrics with the predetermined areas for assessment. • Examples of assessment instruments are given below. 9. A complete set of LWA consists of the design matrix, assignment sheet and assessment sheet. Apprentices will be given the assignment and assessment sheets.
  13. 13. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LWAs NDTS NDTS 13 EXAMPLES OF ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENTS Checklist Example 1 The checklist in this example contains criteria listed in order that it will be most convenient to be checked. Essential criteria are denoted by squares and desirable criteria by circles. Assignment: Make a 450g tankard with a satin finish using appropriate tools. The objective of this assignment is to assess whether you have reached a basic standard in casting, soldering, turning and fitting. Duration: 2 hours Marking scheme: Each point below should be marked with a tick if it is satisfactory and a cross if it is not satisfactory. To pass, all the square boxes and 50% of the circles must be ticked. Tankard finished in not more than two hours. Weight of tankard 450g ± 7 g Body of tankard and soldered seams free from any holes Working area neat and tidy Used tools effectively Etc
  14. 14. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LWAs NDTS NDTS 14 Rating Scale Example 2 In this assignment, the assessment criteria are clustered into a few main areas. Each area is further detailed and weightage is allocated to each area depending on their relative importance. One column is for the apprentice to assess his/her own work and another column for the coach or instructor to assess the apprentice’s work. Assignment: You are given a vehicle with problem in the engine components/parts. Carry out diagnostic procedures to identify repair work according to manufacturer’s specifications and procedure. Prepare a presentation and documentation on your assignment. Rate the following areas on a scale of 10. 10 Excellent 8 Good 7 Satisfactory 5 Average 3 Below Average 0 Fail Areas for Assessment Details Weightage (%) Apprentice Coach/Instructor Safety at workplace Safety Adherence to safety rules and regulations Computer Skills (Software) Application of vehicle circuit diagram Usage of Tools and equipment Diagnostic Skills Technical Competencies (Practical) Rectifying Skills Computer Knowledge Knowledge of Automotive Fundamental related to assignment Knowledge of electrical symbol and circuit diagram Knowledge of vehicle components layout Technical Competencies (Theory) Knowledge of special tools and equipment handling
  15. 15. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LWAs NDTS NDTS 15 Planning Logical sequence of work Time management Housekeeping Presentation Skills Assignment Administration Documentation Neatness Accuracy Completeness Quality & Functionality Functionality Rubrics A rubric is a scoring guide that can be used to evaluate apprentices’ performance based on a set of predetermined criteria. The sum of the points or marks given to the set of criteria will be used as the overall mark. A rubric form is usually designed based on a matrix layout, where there are rows and columns. These rows and columns represent the criteria and description of the standard of achievement for each criterion. Example 3 This example is part of a marking scheme of a presentation. One of the areas is “Explanation” and this table shows the rubric of the rating scale for this area. RATING SCALE WITH RUBRIC 2. EXPLANATION weightage 1 Apprentice Coach/Instructor a. The explanations were well structured and clear b. The explanations were adequately presented c. The explanations were satisfactory d. The explanations were not very clear 8 9 10 5 6 7 2 3 4 0 1 8 9 10 5 6 7 2 3 4 0 1
  16. 16. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LWAs NDTS NDTS 16 Example 4 This rubric is used to assess students’ performance in designing a simple machine in a physics class. AREAS FOR ASSESSMENT DEVELOPING 1 -2 IN PROGRESS 3 -5 MEETS EXPECTATIONS 6 - 8 EXCEEDS EXPECTATIONS 9 - 10 Carried Out Plan Lacked a plan; not complete Completed with frequent assistance Completed with little help Followed through well; self- motivated Creativity Used others ideas Typical looking machine Creative, added more than the typical looking groups machine Unique ideas; novel; fresh Effort/task commitment Resistant Inadequate for task Appropriate effort and time on task Extensive effort; uses time well Group Cooperation Inappropriate; resistant Appropriate cooperation Listens well; help others; shares Encourages and redirects others back to task Integration of knowledge of Simple Machines Unable to apply skills Uses information and skills in only one subject area Uses information and skills in several subject areas Consistently integrates information and skills Problem Solving Inappropriate solution Incomplete or flawed Appropriate process application, and analysis Higher level solution; innovative; synthesizes Time Management Did not complete Task Needed frequent assistance Used Time appropriately Mature management Resources Inappropriate A few resources used appropriately Appropriate in number, kind, and use Extensive and varied; uses technology
  17. 17. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LWAs NDTS NDTS 17 SUMMARY OF THE STEPS FOR LWA DEVELOPMENT STEP 8 Prepare the assessment sheet. STEP 7 Prepare the assignment sheet. Include the description of the assignment, the information sources and the guiding questions, instructions and hints from the fourth column of the Design Matrix. STEP 6 Write guiding questions, instructions and hints corresponding to the activities in the first column and the learning objectives in the second column. STEP 5 List information sources in the third column. STEP 4 Write the learning objectives corresponding to the activities listed in the first column. Refer to the NDTS curriculum for these objectives which cover the k- worker competencies. STEP 3 List the activities of the assignment in the first column by assigning them to the complete action cycle (Setting Goal, Planning, Decision Making, Executing and Monitoring, Evaluating) STEP 2 Set up the LWA Design Matrix with the four columns: Activities carried out by a skilled worker, Learning Objectives, Information Sources and Guiding Questions, Instructions and Hints STEP 1 Identify and describe a workplace assignment related to the NDTS curriculum. For the training institute, the assignment is modified to suit the learning environment. State the specifications, duration and type of collaboration (individual, pair work or teamwork)
  18. 18. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LWAs NDTS NDTS 18 USING LWAs IN TRAINING APPRENTICES LWAs are used in training is to foster self-reliant learning and teamwork among the apprentices. This, however, does not mean that training by other methods is obsolete. The LWAs which are based on actual work assignments form the “anchor” for the teaching and learning process. In order to solve these assignments, apprentices need to understand the underpinning theories, acquire the relevant technical skills and apply problem solving skills. Mastery of technical skills also requires practice. Thus, coaches and instructors will also have to apply other appropriate methods and techniques in the teaching and learning process. These methods and techniques include demonstration, simulation, workshop practice, interactive lectures, discussion and problem-based learning. All these methods are integrated into a teaching and learning process which is predominantly trainee-centred. Guidelines for assisting the apprentices to become self-reliant include: • Sequence the LWAs (activities follow a logical order) based on the developmental and ability level of the apprentices (moving from simple to more complex tasks and building on prior learning). • Relate assignments to the other activities so that apprentices have a holistic perspective of the assignment they are solving. • Allow the apprentices to solve the assignments on their own as much as possible. • Provide hints on effective problem solving techniques • Provide guidance when apprentices request for assistance when they encounter problems • Review and confirm work results together with the apprentices • Learning should occur in a way that encourages ongoing, self-organized learning and includes a balance of action, reflection, and application Thus, learning involves independent activities requiring apprentices’ initiative and responsibility, as well as supportive coaching, advice, and demonstration by experienced workers, coaches and instructors. One important aspect of the LWAs is the practice of self and peer assessment. Coaches and instructors should encourage the apprentices to monitor and assess their own and peer’s work critically and honestly. Initially the apprentices may not be able to assess their work objectively but with practice and guidance from the coaches and instructors, they should eventually acquire the self-monitoring and assessing skills. Coaches and instructors can use the Action Plan in Table 2 to assist them in planning their training sessions using the LWAs. The Action Plan is a document that • States the learning objectives of the LWA
  19. 19. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LWAs NDTS NDTS 19 • Describes the apprentices’, instructor’s and coach’s activities • Estimates the expected duration of each stage of the LWA • Identifies appropriate training or teaching methods and techniques to complement the LWA • States follow-up activities of the LWA INTEGRATION OF K-WORKER OCCUPATIONAL COMPETENCES In solving the LWAs, apprentices do not only develop technical competence (skills and knowledge) but also learning and methodological competence as well as social and human competence. The guiding questions, hints and instructions guide apprentices in problem solving, searching and organizing information, planning workflow, setting timeline and delegating workload. Teamwork is an important part of LWAs. Apprentices will learn how to appreciate each other’s strengths and ways of solving assignments. They must learn to accept different viewpoints and solve conflicts professionally. To ensure efficient teamwork, a learning contract or agreement can be drawn up before work commences. A learning contract states the terms for working together in an assignment. These terms have to be agreed upon and abide by all members of a team. DESIGNING SPECIFIC LWAs FROM MASTER LWAs The Master LWA of each Core Work Process (CWP) has been developed based on the CWP as a whole. The assignments given cover all the core competencies (CC). Thus these assignments have a wide scope and require apprentices to carry out complex work processes. Depending on the level of the apprentices, availability of work assignments and resources, coaches and instructors can design a few specific LWAs based on the Master LWA. These specific LWAs may only cover a limited number of core competencies. Apprentices can start off with these simpler LWAs before carrying out the Master LWA. The diagram below illustrates this point.
  20. 20. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LWAs NDTS NDTS 20 Specific Assignments Sets of Specific Assignments Master LWAWork Activities Checking oil in the engine Checking the quality and the tension of the main belt Checking the adjustment of the headlights Checking the lubrication of the wheel suspension Servicing the engine Servicing the wheel suspension Servicing the car
  21. 21. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LWAs NDTS NDTS 21 TABLE 2: ACTION PLAN FOR LWA TRAINING OCCUPATION TYPE OF COLLABORATION SEMESTER VENUE DURATION ASSIGNMENT REFERENCES INTRODUCTION LEARNING OBJECTIVES APPRENTICES’ ACTIVITIES INSTRUCTOR/ COACH’S ACTIVITIES DURATION AVA/EQUIPMENT/ RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT LEARNING OBJECTIVES APPRENTICES‘ACTIVITIES INSTRUCTOR/ COACH’S ACTIVITIES DURATION AVA/EQUIPMENT/ RESOURCES SETTING GOAL PLANNING DECISION MAKING EXECUTING & MONITORING EVALUATING CONCLUSION LEARNING OBJECTIVES APPRENTICES’ ACTIVITIES INSTRUCTOR/ COACH’S ACTIVITIES DURATION AVA/EQUIPMENT/ RESOURCES
  22. 22. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LWAs NDTS NDTS 22

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