Frequent: to associate with, be in, or resort to often or habitually (Merriam)Routine: a regular course of procedure, mechanical performance of an established procedure example: the routine of factory work
What is serial transfer? Serial transfer is the knowledge of a team has gained from doing a task in one situation is transferred when the team do the same task but in a different situation. Let’s refer to the picture as an example.A group of engineer is trying to replace a power generator in a chemical plant. While doing the job they learnt that to change a power generator one should consider some aspects that should be followed and some aspects that should be avoided. The group then conduct a brief meeting to reflect, document and discuss what they have learnt while solving the task. A month after that, the same team was instructed to replace a power generator in a factory. The task of replacing power generator is a similar task but the context or environment is different. Using knowledge that they have aquired when replacing power generator in chemical plants, theam then replace the power generator in the factory. But this time, they avoid any don’ts that they have found when replacing power generator in the chemical plant. By using the do’s and don’t knowledge they gained from replacing the earlier power generator, the team had manage to finish their job quickly. This led to work efficiency and time reduction. The characteristic of serial transfer is similar task, different situation, same team, frequent and non routine knowledge.
In near transfer, a team that gained knowledge from doing a frequent and repeated task is transferred and used by different team that is doing the same task and situation. Let’s focus on the picture.Let’s say, you, Ali, sarah, hamada and zul is working in a toyota factory. Your task is to install brakes. Since the task is your daily task therefore the nature of your job is routine and frequent. Of course in doing the job you already mastered the steps and procedures of installing the brakes. You also learn how to install the brakes within 10 seconds. One day, toyota company open a new factory in Thailand and they hired a group of worker name Herni, nariman, Tina and Samad. They have to do the same job in Thailand. So their job is similar task and situation with you. But because of their little experience, they can only manage to install a car brake 20 minutes per car. The management does not happy with this situation because the production time has become longer and this reflect the Thailand Toyota efficiency. To increase their speed to install the car brake, Herni, Nariman, Tina and Samad has to learn from your group. Samad and his team went to Toyota Knowledge System portal to retrieve knowledge of installing break within 10 seconds that your group have contributed in the KM system. By reading the documen they learnt the steps that they should follow and avoid. Samad and his team also made a video conferencing with your team get a clear picture of their job. This video conferencing is part of personal interaction. By going through the learning process, Samad, Herni, Nariman and Tina learn to work faster. By doing this, the company productivity has increased. Near transfer is alsi known as best practices. As a summary, there are five characteristics of near transfer, similar task and situation but different team. Frequent and routine task and Explicit knowledge.
In far transfer, is about transferring tacit knowledge that a team has gained from doing a non-routine task to a different team that is doing a similar task but in a different situation or environment. For example, Marwan is a very experience engineer for Petronas. He has been working as a leading engineer to search for potential oil in south china sea. One day, another leading engineer named Mahyar who is doing a similar task in the red sea face a unique problem. He found petroleum in red sea area but it is impossible to drill the oil using normal procedures. Not knowing what to do, because this is a non-routine task, he seek help from Marwan the super experience engineer. Since the knowledge and experience that Marwan has could not be transferred through document, Marwan has to meet Mahyar face to face. Marwan look into the problem and shows Mahyar the possible solutions to get to the petroleum resources. By working close together, Mahyar has manage to solve the problem. At the same time by communication, observing and analyzing the way Marwan work mahyar learns the instinct of locating the right place to drill for petroleum. This has avoid Mahyar by making mistake of drilling the wrong spot for petroleum and by practising near transfer it has saved Petronas millions of dollar.As conclusions, far transfer is about similar task, different situation, different team and tacit knowledge.
Strategic transfer is a collective knowledge of an organization that is needed to accomplish a strategic task that rarely happen but is crucial to the whole organization. Example of strategic task is bank merger, change management or retrenchment.For example, because of the wavering world economy situation, MIB bank is thinking of a merger with another bank. Various aspects of situations have to be look through before making the crucial decision. Human is a CEO for the MIB bank. Before he could make the bank merger decision, he held meeting with Raheleh and Keihan, his senior managers. He instruct them to take necessary actions. Keihan and Raheleh conduct meetings with managers from the finance, human resource, marketing and other departments. They both identify all the knowledge that they needed to know so that the decision of bank merger could be done. Raheleh and Keihan collect all the financial situation the bank are in, they also collect the number of staff and their performance that they believe is important in making the crucial decision. At the same time Human also hired Intan who is a knowledge specialist who collect crucial knowledge. Intan collected all the knowledge of the bank such as MIB bank financial situation, the amount of debt and the amount of profits the bank is making. Based on the information she gained, she then produced a report of suggesting the future of the bank. The information and knowledge they gained are not solely based on data, information and documentation. They also held interviews with employees to get opinions about the bank financial situation.Both Knowledge specialist and senior managers have meetings with Human the CEO. By looking on the information, they then make decision of having a bank merger. As conclusion, strategic transfer consist of different team, tacit and explicit knowledge, non frequent and non routine task.Strategy may be defined as the long term direction and scope of an organisation to achive competitive advantage through the configuration of resources within a changing environment for the fulfilment of stakeholders aspirations and expectations.Strategic transfer takes place when a team has taken on a task that happens only infrequently - a one-off project - and wants to benefit from the experience of others within the same organization. This transfer mechanism often involves the senior-level managers who define what kind of knowledge is needed to solve the task. The knowledge that is transferred can be both tacit and explicit.Management has to identify strategic knowledge and knowledge gaps
A team facing a technical question beyond the scope of its own knowledge seeks the expertise of others in the organization. The receiving team does a different task from that of the source team, but in a similar context. For example, Shahrul is a young technician in XYZ company. As shahrul is new staff in the company, he has been given an out-of-date computer to key in data for his company. The computer brightness was very bad and he is not familiar with an out dated pc before, he does not know how to change the monitor brightness. To solve his problem, Shahrul then upload a note in an online forum to help him how to adjust the pc brightness. 10 minutes later he received several answers to solve the problem. And he did solve the problem and he can continue with his work in more efficient. The example shown that expert transfer focused on technical knowledge and it can be solved via online such as email or forum as the type of knowledge required is explicit knowledge.
Knowledge transfer process Week 5
Common Knowledge Team explores Outcome is the relationshipTeam performs achieved between action a task and outcome Common Team performs knowledge is a task gained Receiving team adapts knowledge for Knowledge its own use transfer system Knowledge is is selected translated into a form usable by others
Far Transfer Strategic Transfer Near Transfer Expert TransferSerial Transfer Types of Knowledge Transfer
First I will introduce Nancy Dixon.This woman largest contribution to KMis his 5 theory of Knowledge transfer. Question asked to Nancy Dixon : What is Common Knowledge (in organization) ? Nancy Dixon : Common knowledge is the organization’s most important knowledge. It is the knowledge asset that makes it competitive in the marketplace. It is knowledge the organization creates from the experience of carrying out its own tasks and projects. It is unique to that organization, whereas much of the other knowledge an organization has is learned out of books, knowledge that its engineers learned in school, and so forth. But when people actually do a task, they learn what it takes, what equipment works best, where you run into problems, what can be done about those problems, and that knowledge is the “common knowledge” of the organization. It is knowledge gained from the experience of doing unique tasks.
Knowledge transfer process• Dixon has developed a theory of five knowledge transfer mechanisms, using the following criteria: different situation – Who is the intended receiver, similar task – what is the nature of the task F R – the type of knowledge to be transferred.• Intended Receiver = Frequent: to associate with, be in, or resort to different situation similar often (Merriam) task• Nature = Frequent VS Routine: a regular course of procedure, Routine mechanical performance of an established• Knowledge Type = Tacit or procedure. Example: the routine of factory Explicit work
Serial Transfer• “The knowledge a team has gained from doing its task in one setting is transferred to the next time that team does the task in a different setting.”• An example would be a group that replaces a power generator in a chemical plant and uses the knowledge it gains to replace a different situation F NR generator in a refinery. similar task Meetings are regular and brief Method used to transfer knowledge Receiving team
example Example: Ronaldo work at Oil Serial transfer – The knowledge a Power Plant maintenance for team has gained from doing its Exxon mobile. Then he change jobtask in one setting is transferred to to be Telecommunication Power the next time that team does the Plant maintenance for TM net. But task in a different setting he still do the same work that is Power Plant management.
Criteria: Different situation and Explanation: The key here is the similar task, Frequent and non receiver and sender is the same routine, Tacit or explicit, and person. That mean thesender and receiver is the same transferring of knowledge only person. happen to one person. Answer for that is, even though no other person involved but theIf it focus on the same person, use of knowledge is differentwhy is it called a transfer? since because of the “different no other party involved?. situation”. The knowledge is transferred from one situation to other situation.
Frequent but non routine, why?. Since routine task/workwont have any difference even though it is located atdifferent situation.• For example a machine operator in air conditioner department(task) for LG Cyberjaya branch. For instance he being transferred to LG Sungai Petani(different situation) branch but still in the same department, doing the same job(routine). In this situation he didn’t need to transfer the “knowledge” because everything is still the same(job scope). Compared to frequent task that operate differently in new situation.Since its a “one” person transferring, it means the entireknowledge regarding to the task will involve. Either tacit orexplicit.
Near Transfer• Explicit knowledge a team has gained from doing a frequent and repeated task is reused by other teams doing very similar work• An example is a team at an auto similar situation plant in Chicago that learns how to install brakes more efficiently F R by studying the methods used by a team in Atlanta similar task Method used to transfer knowledge Knowledge database Personal interaction Receiving team
example Near transfer – Explicit Example – Exxon Mobile in knowledge a team has Africa sent workers to Exxon gained from doing a mobile in Alaska to learnfrequent and repeated task handling mining machine is reused by other teams efficiently. doing very similar workKM Tools : Documentation + This is because the worker “classroom”. A simple that want to capture the manual or SOP + some knowledge already mix well explanation in “classroom” with the task. On the otherenvironment is sufficient in side, video is also a good this transfer. tools.
Criteria : Similar situation similar task, Frequent or Routine, Sender and receiveris different and Explicit knowledgeExplanation : The easiest transfer. Explicit knowledge that is captured than beingreused on the same task in other part of the organization.The task is the same, situation also remain the same. Furthermore knowledge isderived from routine and frequent task, so it don’t have any significant valuedirectly and also easier to capture because the worker already blend well withtask. • In addition the knowledge captured is explicit, so they wont have any problem capturing.
Far Transfer• Tacit knowledge a team has gained from doing a non-routine task is made available to other teams doing similar work in another part of the organization.• Workers with experience in oil exploration travel to meet with colleagues who are dealing with a unique exploration project similar task NR different situation Method used to transfer knowledge People carry theknowledge across the organization Source team knowledge is translated Receiving team
Criteria : Non routine, Tacit, Sender and receiver isdifferent, and similar task different situationExplanation : The key here is tacit knowledge iscaptured and then made available to others inanother part of the organization.• Furthermore the knowledge captured is from an activity that is non routine or in other word is disticnt or unique. Even though the activity is distinct but it have relation or similarity with the task that the receiver are focusing .
Reason to that is the tacit knowledge captured. Even tacit knowledge have This type of knowledge transfer is it own “value” level, and if it comevery valuable because it will boost the from a non routine activity for sure it performance of the organization. have competitive advantage or uniqueness compared to routine tacit knowledge. In addition the knowledge is This will help the branch of the transferred “far” away through the organization to develop in linear with organization. other branches.
exampleTacit knowledge a team has gained from doing a non-routine task is made available to otherteams doing similar work in another part of the organizationExxon mobile in Alaska have found relation between environment and mining of petroleum. Thisnew theory derived from the long live research they conduct. Based on this research, it concludethat environment will increase productivity if manipulated well. So Exxon mobile branch in Africahave sent their workers to capture this knowledge and bring it back, so they can also use it toenhance their perofrmance.KM tools – in my opinion, they may used Mentoring systems because usually this transferinvolve highly tacit knowledge.
Strategic Transfer• The collective knowledge of the organization is needed to accomplish a strategic task that occurs infrequently but is critical to the whole organization• Senior level managers are often involved and define what kind of knowledge is needed to solve the task.• When an organization is conducting a one-off project, wants to benefit from the experience of others within the organization, the senior level managers sometimes have to define the knowledge that is needed.• Strategic transfer develops needed knowledge rather than taking advantage of existing knowledge. This knowledge is Collective knowledge 1 preferably shared to multiple units of the organization rather than on the source. 3 Knowledge specialists 2 collect and interpret the knowledge NR Knowledge needed is identified by senior-level Receiving team managers. Bank Merger
exampleStrategic transfer – The collective knowledge of the organization isneeded to accomplish a strategic task that occurs infrequently but iscritical to the whole organizationExample: Exxon Mobile is facing problem with their Cooperate socialresponsibility. They have announce that they will go “green”,however they Oil Silo is not linear with that. Thus Exxon CEO havemake a throughout research on how to make that Silo operate in the“Green” manners. He have hired several consultant and “Green”expert to help him solve this problem.
Criteria : Sender and receiver is different, Tacit and Explicit, Non routineand Infrequently.Explanation: This type of knowledge transfer rely heavily on the task,which is infrequently and non routine. In other word this transfer ismade when the task exist. Usually the task is related towards Decisionmaking. Strategic transfer need a lot of knowledge as a basis, thus itinclude all of the related knowledge to it (Either tacit or explicit). Usuallythe sender of the knowledge is the whole organization(collectively) andthe receiver is the Top management(Decision maker)
Strategic transfer is needed when or in other word in the Knowledge is not tally with the disequilibrium mode. situation anymore, Top manager will seek for this knowledge, they will have toSo new “knowledge” is needed to integrate, analyze, interpret, resear solve the disequilibrium, ch existing knowledge then create a new knowledge that can solve the problem.
Expert Transfer technical question• A team facing a technical question beyond the scope of its own knowledge seeks the expertise of others in the organization• An example would be a technician who sends an e-mail to a network of colleagues and asks how to increase the brightness on out-of-date monitors. R different task similar situation Method used to transfer knowledgeElectronic forums are segmented by topicElectronic forums are monitored and supported
Expert transfer – A team facing a technical question beyondthe scope of its own knowledge seeks the expertise ofothers in the organizationExample: Exxon Mobile technician have problem with theirDrilling routine, it look like the Drill have heated way fasterthan it should be. Thus they have consult expert on this fieldand also the Drill manufacturer to get the gist of theproblem
Explanation: This transfer happenCriteria: Sender and receiver is in the “technical” field. Reason todifferent, Explicit , Routine and that? – task is routine butInfrequently, Different task and infrequent. This means that the similar situation workers are facing new problem while doing their routine task. However, the problem arise Thus that relate why thedidn’t require tacit knowledge to knowledge transferred(needed) issolve because it is still related to explicit. Worker will still work intheir “routine” job. Since routine the similar situation but they will job is repetitive so it wont face a “new” or different task that develop or integrate itself. relate to their routine.
presentation• Please provide a slide presentation with a good sample of your ‘Knowledge Transfer Type’• Each group have only 15 minutes (another 5 marks)• Net week we will learn about KM Enabler - everyone favorite topic ;)• Enjoy Ramadhan -Azmawati Mohd Lazim-