Copy of civilising the native educating the nation
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  • 1.  William jones…1783 …junior judge at calcutta He was a linguist [ French,english,greek,latin,persian,arabic,skt] Intrested in grammar and poetry Studied ancient Indian text on law, philosophy, religion, politics, morality, arithmetic, medicine, and other sciences
  • 2.  Jones, Henry Thomas colebrooke & Nathaniel Halhed formed ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL and started a journal called ASIATICK RESEARCHES
  • 3.  They had deep respect for Indian cultures They felt that ancient Indian civilisation had lost its past gloryfor future devt…. study ancient textbook which could reveal the real ideas of laws of hindus and muslims
  • 4.  They discovered many Indian texts Understood their meaning Translated them found out the truth They thought that it was usefull for others [ britishers as well as Indians ] Result Indians would rediscover their own heritage and understand their lost glories of past By all this process the british would become the guardians of Indian cultureas well as its masters British started promoting the western learnings .
  • 5.  They discovered many Indian texts Understood their meaning Translated them found out the truth They thought that it was usefull for others [ britishers as well as Indians ] Result Indians would rediscover their own heritage and understand their lost glories of past By all this process the british would become the guardians of Indian cultureas well as its masters British started promoting the western learnings .
  • 6.  Madarasa - calcutta in [1781] to promote the study of arabic , persian , & islamic law Hindu college was established in benaras in 1791 to encourage the study of ancient sanskrit texts that would be useful for the administration of country Not all oficials sharedatheir views . Many were very strong in their criticism of the orientalists.
  • 7.  From the early nineteenth century many british officials began to criticise the orientalist vision of learning Eastern knowledge was full of errors and unscientific knowledge they thought that it was just waste of money Many officials criticised orientalism and orientalists
  • 8.  James mill : he was against the orientalism He declared that there should not be taught what the “natives” wanted or what they respected. He said that the aim of of education ought to be teach what was practical. So Indians should be made familiar with the scientific and technical advances
  • 9.  Thomas babington macaulay :He was also against orientalism. He saw INDIANS as uncivilised that neded to be civilised. no brach of eastern knowledge , according to him could be compared to what england had produced. He thought that the language produced by england was superior to other languages.
  • 10.  MACAULAY said that “a single shelf of a good european library was worth the whole native literature of INDIAN & ARABIA. He urged that the british government in INDIA stop wasting public money in promoting the oriental language. MACAULY gave extra importance to english and felt the need of teaching the INDIANS english. So that they could read some of the finest literature the world had produced.
  • 11.  So that it would make them aware of the developments in western science & philosophy By following macaulays minute the english education act of 1835 was introduced. They wanted to make english the medium of instructions for higher education & to stop the promotion of oriental institution like the calcutta madarassa & benaras sanskrit college. English textbooks started producing of schools.
  • 12.  In 1854 the court of directors of the east india company in london sent an educational despatch to the governor –general of india It was issued by charles wood. He was the president of board of control of the company. It came to be known as WOODS DESPATCH. They gave more importnce to practical benefits
  • 13.  [Commerce : commerce is the activities and procedures involved buying and selling of the things] Economic : economic means concerned with the organisation of,money,industry,& trade of a country, region and industry
  • 14.  Woods despatch argued that european learning would improve the moral characters of INDIANS. This would make them truthfull,& honest &thus supply the company with civil servants who could be trusted and dependent upon. The literature of east could not develop the skills required for administration. Educational departments of the government were set up to extend control over all matters regarding education.
  • 15.  Steps were taken to establish a system of university education. In 1857 the universities were being established in calcutta ,madrassa,& bombay. There were many attempts to bring changes in the system of the school.
  • 16.  WILLIAM ADAM :in 1830 william adam a scottish missionary toured the districts of bengal & bihar. He did this because he was asked by the company to report on the progress of education in vernacular schools [vernacular school]: the vernacular is the language or dailect that is most widely spoken by ordinary people in a region or country
  • 17.  He found that …. There were over 1 lakh schools in bengal and bihar . There were small institution with over 20 students each. The total nunber children being taught in these pathshalas were considerably over 20 lakhs. They were set up by wealthy people or local community.
  • 18.  In these pathshalas there were no :- No fixed fee No printed books No separate school building No benches or chairs No blackboards No system of separate classes No roll call registers No annual exam No regular time-table
  • 19.  These classes were sometimes held under a banayan tree In other places in the corner of a village ,shop or a temple , or at guru^s home.FEE STRUCTURE: Fee was dependent on the income of parents The rich had to pay more than the poor one.
  • 20.  The teaching was oral & the guru decided what to teach They taught according to the needs of the student. All the students were sat toghether in one place But the the guru interacted with them seperately with groups of children with different levels of learning. & this was suitable for them there were no schools on the harvest time when rural children often worked in the fields The pathshalas started once again when the crops had been cut and stored.
  • 21.  This meant that even children of peasent familioes could study
  • 22.  Up to the mid 18 century , the company was concerned primarily with higher education. It also allowed the local pathshalas to function without much interference After 1854 the company decided to improve the system of vernacular education. They thought that this could be done by introducing order within the system imposing Routines Establishing rules & ensuring regular inspection.
  • 23.  It appointed a number of government pandits , each in charge of looking after 4-5 schools There work was to visit the schools and try to improve the standard of teaching. Each and every guru was asked to submit perioudic reports & take classes according to the time-table Teaching was now to be based on textbooks Learning was to be tested through a system of annual exam.
  • 24.  Students were now asked to Pay regular fee Attened regular classes Sit on fixed seats And obey the new rules of disciplin Pathshalas which accepted the new rules were supported through government grants Those who were unwilling to work within the new system recevied no government support.
  • 25.  In the earlier system children from poor peasents families had been able to go to pathshalas. Since the time-table was fixed the discipline of the new system demanded regular attendence , even during the harvest time when children of poor families had to work in the fields. Inability to attend school came to be known as indiscipline as evidence of the lack of desire to learn.
  • 26.  The british officials were not the only people thinking about education in INDIA. From the rarly nineteenth century many thinkers from different parts of india began to talk of the need for a widerspread of education. They said this because they were impressed with the developments in europe. Some indians felt that western education would help modernise india
  • 27.  They urged the british to open more schools colleges and universities and spend more money on education. Besides that…… There were other indians, however who reacted against western education. MAHATMA GANDHI & RABINDRANATH TAGORE Were two such individuals.
  • 28.  Mahatma gandhi argued that colonial education created a sense of inferiority in the minds of indians. It made them see western civilisation as superior ,and destroyed the pride they had in their own culture. Indians educated in these institutions beganadmiring the british rules.
  • 29.  Mahatma gandhi wanted an education that could help indians to recover there self respect During national movement he urged students to leave educational institutes in order to show that indians were no longer willing to be enslaved. Mahatma gandhi strongly felt that indian languages ought to be the medium of teaching.
  • 30.  Education in english crippled indians , distanced them from there own social surroundings & and made them strangers in their own lands. Mahatma gandhi said focused on reading and writing rather than oral knowledge ; it valued textbooks rather than lived experience & practical knowledge. Literacy or simply learning to read and write – by itself did not count as education
  • 31.  People had to work with their hands , learn a craft , & know how different things were operated . So , thought that this thing would develop their mind and their capacity to develop their mind and capacity to understand. Rather than these other thinkers also began thinking of a system of national education which would be different from the one set up by the british
  • 32.  Rabindranath tagore started the institution in 1901 as a child tagore hated going to school. he found it suffocating and oppressive the school appeared like a prison for he could never do what he felt like doing. On growing up , he wanted to set up school where the child was happy ,where she could be free & creative a place where she could explore her own thoughts & desires.
  • 33.  Tagore felt that childhood ougth to be a time of self- learning, outside the rigid & restricting discipline of the schooling system set up the british. Teachers had to be imaginative understand the child & help the child develop her curiosity
  • 34.  According to tagore the exsisting schools killed the natural desire of the child to be creative her sense of wonder Tagore had the view that creative learning could be encourged only in the natural enviorment So, he chose to set up his school 100 km away from calcutta, in rural setting. He saw it as an abode of peace [santiniketan]where living in harmony with nature a child could cultivate there creativity
  • 35.  In many senses TAGORE^S & GANDHI JI’S thought about education was similar But there were diffrences too. Gandhi ji was highly critical of western civilisation and its worships of machine & technology Tagore wanted to combine elements of modern western civilisation with what he saw best within indian tradition.
  • 36.  He emphassised the need to teach science and technology at santiniketan along with art music and dance. Many individuals and thinkers were thus, thinking about the way a national educational system could be fashioned . Some people wanted to extend the system to invite wider sections of people. The debate about what this ‘national education’ ought to be continued till after independence.