 William jones…1783 …junior judge at calcutta             He was a linguist    [ French,english,greek,latin,persian,ara...
 Jones, Henry Thomas colebrooke &  Nathaniel Halhed formed ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL              and started a journa...
   They had deep respect for Indian cultures They felt that ancient Indian civilisation had lost  its past gloryfor futu...
 They discovered many Indian texts Understood their meaning Translated them found out the truth They thought that it ...
 They discovered many Indian texts Understood their meaning Translated them found out the truth They thought that it ...
 Madarasa - calcutta in [1781] to promote the study of arabic , persian , & islamic law Hindu college was established in...
 From the early nineteenth century many british  officials began to criticise the orientalist vision of  learning Easter...
 James mill : he was against the orientalism He declared that there should not be taught what the  “natives” wanted or w...
 Thomas babington macaulay :He was also against  orientalism. He saw INDIANS as uncivilised that neded to be  civilised....
 MACAULAY said that “a single shelf of a good  european library was worth the whole native  literature of INDIAN & ARABIA...
 So that it would make them aware of the  developments in western science & philosophy By following macaulays minute the...
 In 1854 the court of directors of the east india    company in london sent an educational despatch to    the governor –g...
 [Commerce : commerce is the activities and procedures involved buying and selling of the things] Economic : economic me...
 Woods despatch argued that european learning  would improve the moral characters of INDIANS. This would make them truth...
 Steps were taken to establish a system of university education. In 1857 the universities were being established in calcu...
 WILLIAM ADAM :in 1830 william adam a scottish  missionary toured the districts of bengal & bihar. He did this because h...
 He found that …. There were over 1 lakh schools in bengal and bihar . There were small institution with over 20 studen...
 In these pathshalas there were no :- No fixed fee No printed books No separate school building No benches or chairs...
 These classes were sometimes held under a banayan  tree In other places in the corner of a village ,shop or a  temple ,...
 The teaching was oral & the guru decided what to    teach   They taught according to the needs of the student.   All t...
 This meant that even children of peasent familioes could study
 Up to the mid 18 century , the company was    concerned primarily with higher education.   It also allowed the local pa...
 It appointed a number of government pandits , each    in charge of looking after 4-5 schools   There work was to visit ...
 Students were now asked to Pay regular fee Attened regular classes Sit on fixed seats And obey the new rules of disc...
 In the earlier system children from poor peasents  families had been able to go to pathshalas. Since the time-table was...
 The british officials were not the only people thinking  about education in INDIA. From the rarly nineteenth century ma...
 They urged the british to open more schools colleges  and universities and spend more money on education. Besides that…...
 Mahatma gandhi argued that colonial education  created a sense of inferiority in the minds of  indians. It made them se...
 Mahatma gandhi wanted an education that could    help indians to recover there self respect    During national movement...
 Education in english crippled indians , distanced them from there own social surroundings & and made them strangers in t...
 People had to work with their hands , learn a craft , & know how different things were operated . So , thought that thi...
 Rabindranath tagore started the institution in 1901 as a child tagore hated going to school. he found it suffocating an...
 Tagore felt that childhood ougth to be a time of self-  learning, outside the rigid & restricting discipline of the  sc...
 According to tagore the exsisting schools killed the natural  desire of the child to be creative her sense of wonder Ta...
 In many senses TAGORE^S & GANDHI JI’S thought  about education was similar But there were diffrences too. Gandhi ji wa...
 He emphassised the need to teach science and  technology at santiniketan along with art music and  dance. Many individu...
Copy of civilising the native educating the nation
Copy of civilising the native educating the nation
Copy of civilising the native educating the nation
Copy of civilising the native educating the nation
Copy of civilising the native educating the nation
Copy of civilising the native educating the nation
Copy of civilising the native educating the nation
Copy of civilising the native educating the nation
Copy of civilising the native educating the nation
Copy of civilising the native educating the nation
Copy of civilising the native educating the nation
Copy of civilising the native educating the nation
Copy of civilising the native educating the nation
Copy of civilising the native educating the nation
Copy of civilising the native educating the nation
Copy of civilising the native educating the nation
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Copy of civilising the native educating the nation

  1. 1.  William jones…1783 …junior judge at calcutta He was a linguist [ French,english,greek,latin,persian,arabic,skt] Intrested in grammar and poetry Studied ancient Indian text on law, philosophy, religion, politics, morality, arithmetic, medicine, and other sciences
  2. 2.  Jones, Henry Thomas colebrooke & Nathaniel Halhed formed ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL and started a journal called ASIATICK RESEARCHES
  3. 3.  They had deep respect for Indian cultures They felt that ancient Indian civilisation had lost its past gloryfor future devt…. study ancient textbook which could reveal the real ideas of laws of hindus and muslims
  4. 4.  They discovered many Indian texts Understood their meaning Translated them found out the truth They thought that it was usefull for others [ britishers as well as Indians ] Result Indians would rediscover their own heritage and understand their lost glories of past By all this process the british would become the guardians of Indian cultureas well as its masters British started promoting the western learnings .
  5. 5.  They discovered many Indian texts Understood their meaning Translated them found out the truth They thought that it was usefull for others [ britishers as well as Indians ] Result Indians would rediscover their own heritage and understand their lost glories of past By all this process the british would become the guardians of Indian cultureas well as its masters British started promoting the western learnings .
  6. 6.  Madarasa - calcutta in [1781] to promote the study of arabic , persian , & islamic law Hindu college was established in benaras in 1791 to encourage the study of ancient sanskrit texts that would be useful for the administration of country Not all oficials sharedatheir views . Many were very strong in their criticism of the orientalists.
  7. 7.  From the early nineteenth century many british officials began to criticise the orientalist vision of learning Eastern knowledge was full of errors and unscientific knowledge they thought that it was just waste of money Many officials criticised orientalism and orientalists
  8. 8.  James mill : he was against the orientalism He declared that there should not be taught what the “natives” wanted or what they respected. He said that the aim of of education ought to be teach what was practical. So Indians should be made familiar with the scientific and technical advances
  9. 9.  Thomas babington macaulay :He was also against orientalism. He saw INDIANS as uncivilised that neded to be civilised. no brach of eastern knowledge , according to him could be compared to what england had produced. He thought that the language produced by england was superior to other languages.
  10. 10.  MACAULAY said that “a single shelf of a good european library was worth the whole native literature of INDIAN & ARABIA. He urged that the british government in INDIA stop wasting public money in promoting the oriental language. MACAULY gave extra importance to english and felt the need of teaching the INDIANS english. So that they could read some of the finest literature the world had produced.
  11. 11.  So that it would make them aware of the developments in western science & philosophy By following macaulays minute the english education act of 1835 was introduced. They wanted to make english the medium of instructions for higher education & to stop the promotion of oriental institution like the calcutta madarassa & benaras sanskrit college. English textbooks started producing of schools.
  12. 12.  In 1854 the court of directors of the east india company in london sent an educational despatch to the governor –general of india It was issued by charles wood. He was the president of board of control of the company. It came to be known as WOODS DESPATCH. They gave more importnce to practical benefits
  13. 13.  [Commerce : commerce is the activities and procedures involved buying and selling of the things] Economic : economic means concerned with the organisation of,money,industry,& trade of a country, region and industry
  14. 14.  Woods despatch argued that european learning would improve the moral characters of INDIANS. This would make them truthfull,& honest &thus supply the company with civil servants who could be trusted and dependent upon. The literature of east could not develop the skills required for administration. Educational departments of the government were set up to extend control over all matters regarding education.
  15. 15.  Steps were taken to establish a system of university education. In 1857 the universities were being established in calcutta ,madrassa,& bombay. There were many attempts to bring changes in the system of the school.
  16. 16.  WILLIAM ADAM :in 1830 william adam a scottish missionary toured the districts of bengal & bihar. He did this because he was asked by the company to report on the progress of education in vernacular schools [vernacular school]: the vernacular is the language or dailect that is most widely spoken by ordinary people in a region or country
  17. 17.  He found that …. There were over 1 lakh schools in bengal and bihar . There were small institution with over 20 students each. The total nunber children being taught in these pathshalas were considerably over 20 lakhs. They were set up by wealthy people or local community.
  18. 18.  In these pathshalas there were no :- No fixed fee No printed books No separate school building No benches or chairs No blackboards No system of separate classes No roll call registers No annual exam No regular time-table
  19. 19.  These classes were sometimes held under a banayan tree In other places in the corner of a village ,shop or a temple , or at guru^s home.FEE STRUCTURE: Fee was dependent on the income of parents The rich had to pay more than the poor one.
  20. 20.  The teaching was oral & the guru decided what to teach They taught according to the needs of the student. All the students were sat toghether in one place But the the guru interacted with them seperately with groups of children with different levels of learning. & this was suitable for them there were no schools on the harvest time when rural children often worked in the fields The pathshalas started once again when the crops had been cut and stored.
  21. 21.  This meant that even children of peasent familioes could study
  22. 22.  Up to the mid 18 century , the company was concerned primarily with higher education. It also allowed the local pathshalas to function without much interference After 1854 the company decided to improve the system of vernacular education. They thought that this could be done by introducing order within the system imposing Routines Establishing rules & ensuring regular inspection.
  23. 23.  It appointed a number of government pandits , each in charge of looking after 4-5 schools There work was to visit the schools and try to improve the standard of teaching. Each and every guru was asked to submit perioudic reports & take classes according to the time-table Teaching was now to be based on textbooks Learning was to be tested through a system of annual exam.
  24. 24.  Students were now asked to Pay regular fee Attened regular classes Sit on fixed seats And obey the new rules of disciplin Pathshalas which accepted the new rules were supported through government grants Those who were unwilling to work within the new system recevied no government support.
  25. 25.  In the earlier system children from poor peasents families had been able to go to pathshalas. Since the time-table was fixed the discipline of the new system demanded regular attendence , even during the harvest time when children of poor families had to work in the fields. Inability to attend school came to be known as indiscipline as evidence of the lack of desire to learn.
  26. 26.  The british officials were not the only people thinking about education in INDIA. From the rarly nineteenth century many thinkers from different parts of india began to talk of the need for a widerspread of education. They said this because they were impressed with the developments in europe. Some indians felt that western education would help modernise india
  27. 27.  They urged the british to open more schools colleges and universities and spend more money on education. Besides that…… There were other indians, however who reacted against western education. MAHATMA GANDHI & RABINDRANATH TAGORE Were two such individuals.
  28. 28.  Mahatma gandhi argued that colonial education created a sense of inferiority in the minds of indians. It made them see western civilisation as superior ,and destroyed the pride they had in their own culture. Indians educated in these institutions beganadmiring the british rules.
  29. 29.  Mahatma gandhi wanted an education that could help indians to recover there self respect During national movement he urged students to leave educational institutes in order to show that indians were no longer willing to be enslaved. Mahatma gandhi strongly felt that indian languages ought to be the medium of teaching.
  30. 30.  Education in english crippled indians , distanced them from there own social surroundings & and made them strangers in their own lands. Mahatma gandhi said focused on reading and writing rather than oral knowledge ; it valued textbooks rather than lived experience & practical knowledge. Literacy or simply learning to read and write – by itself did not count as education
  31. 31.  People had to work with their hands , learn a craft , & know how different things were operated . So , thought that this thing would develop their mind and their capacity to develop their mind and capacity to understand. Rather than these other thinkers also began thinking of a system of national education which would be different from the one set up by the british
  32. 32.  Rabindranath tagore started the institution in 1901 as a child tagore hated going to school. he found it suffocating and oppressive the school appeared like a prison for he could never do what he felt like doing. On growing up , he wanted to set up school where the child was happy ,where she could be free & creative a place where she could explore her own thoughts & desires.
  33. 33.  Tagore felt that childhood ougth to be a time of self- learning, outside the rigid & restricting discipline of the schooling system set up the british. Teachers had to be imaginative understand the child & help the child develop her curiosity
  34. 34.  According to tagore the exsisting schools killed the natural desire of the child to be creative her sense of wonder Tagore had the view that creative learning could be encourged only in the natural enviorment So, he chose to set up his school 100 km away from calcutta, in rural setting. He saw it as an abode of peace [santiniketan]where living in harmony with nature a child could cultivate there creativity
  35. 35.  In many senses TAGORE^S & GANDHI JI’S thought about education was similar But there were diffrences too. Gandhi ji was highly critical of western civilisation and its worships of machine & technology Tagore wanted to combine elements of modern western civilisation with what he saw best within indian tradition.
  36. 36.  He emphassised the need to teach science and technology at santiniketan along with art music and dance. Many individuals and thinkers were thus, thinking about the way a national educational system could be fashioned . Some people wanted to extend the system to invite wider sections of people. The debate about what this ‘national education’ ought to be continued till after independence.

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