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THE SPECIALITY OF COMMUNITY MEDICINE
1. Community Medicine Definition
Community Medicine is concerned with the application of
medical, social and behavioral sciences for studying, analyzing
and diagnosing the health status of the population in a given
community, and the elaboration of appropriate measures and
interventions for the solution of the identified problems with the
ultimate goal of (promotion and protection of
community's health) health promotion and disease
prevention in that community.
2. Tasks of the Community Medicine Specialist
2.1. Diagnosing and characterizing of the health status of the
2.2. Identifying the biological, socio-economic, behavioral and
environmental factors influencing the health-disease process in
individuals, social groups and community.
2.3. Assessment of the health needs of the population:
different age groups, social groups, and occupational groups.
2.4. Planning, organizing and managing health care
programmes for health promotion, disease prevention, health
recovery and rehabilitation.
2.5. Planning, organizing and managing health care
institutions: centers, polyclinic, and hospitals.
2.6. Training and management of health manpower.
2.7. Establishing an adequate link with community leaders and
local authorities for securing inter-sectoral collaboration and
community participation in different health programme and
2.8. Evaluation of health care services and programmes and
identifying relevant interventions for promoting their efficiency.
2.9. Design and conduct health system research and epidemic
and epidemiological studies.
3. Objectives of the Training Programme
At the end of training programme, the trainee should be able
3.1.1. Identify the sources of information at the local, national,
regional and international level.
3.1.2. Describe the natural history, distribution, and
determinants of health problems.
3.1.3. List and describe the different modes of transmission of
3.1.4. Indicate the opportunities for preventing, controlling
and management of disease/health problems in individuals,
population groups, and community.
3.1.5. Describe the demographic, socio-economic, cultural,
behavioral and environmental characteristics of the community
where (s) he is working.
3.1.6. Be familiarized with the health system, organization and
health institutions in the community.
3.1.7. Be familiarized with the medico-legal legislation and its
impact on the health organization and the health of the
3.1.8. Characterize the health policies and strategies at the
local, national, regional and global levels.
3.2.1. Choose, apply and interpret appropriate descriptive and
analytical statistical methods and techniques.
3.2.2. Analyze the social, cultural and economic factors
prevalent in the community and their impact on the of health
status of the population.
3.2.3. Evaluation health risks and hazards in the natural and
social environment and indicate appropriate methods for their
3.2.4. Evaluate the accessibility and utilization of health
3.2.5. Plan, organize, and manage healthcare programmes.
3.2.6. Plan, organize, and manage healthcare institutions and
3.2.7. Assess the effectiveness and efficiency of health
services and health programme, and indicate the appropriate
interventions for their promotion.
3.2.8. Design and conduct scientific research, particularly
applied research focused on the main health problems in the
community that (s) he serves.
3.2.9. Establish adequate communication with the health team
members, health authorities and community.
3.2.10. Mobilize individuals, groups and community for active
participation in health programmes.
3.2.11. Plan, organize and conduct a training programme for
3.3.1 Demonstrate true commitment to health promotion and
3.3.2 Appreciate the role of community Medicine Specialist as
an agent change.
3.3.3 Emphasize the importance of teamwork and
demonstrate willingness to offer advice and assistance to the
members of the health team.
3.3.4 Advocate the integral approach to health problems
analysis and management.
3.3.5 Critically interpret medical and health literature.
3.3.6 Accept the possible emergence of conflict of intersects
between various agencies and react properly according to the
3.3.7 Critically evaluate one's own work, and demonstrate
determination to overcome shortcomings and self-limitations.
3.3.8 Recognize the need for continuing education.
4. Period of Training
The training specialty of Community Medicine covers a
minimum period of four years.
5. Organization of the Training Programme:
Specialist training in Community Medicine is organized in two
5.1. Part I: Academic programme
This part extends for one calendar year. It includes an academic
course of a minimum of 30 credit hours that cover the sciences
of epidemiology, health statistics, behavioral and social
sciences, environmental health, occupational health, and
planning management of health services.
5.2.1. Specification of the Academic Programme
a. Principles of epidemiology
b. Epidemiology of communicable
c. Epidemiology of non-communicable
d. Primary health care programmes
2. Health Statistics and research methodology
a. Principles of demography
c. Health information system
d. Research methodology
e. Computer applications in health
3. Health Administration
a. Organization theory and management
b. Health planning
c. Management of health services and
health care institutions
d. Management of Human Resources
e. Health economics
4. Social and behavioral dimensions of Health
a. Social and psychological determinants
b. Health promotion: concepts, policies
c. Health education
d. Education methodology
e. Ethical issues in health policy and
5. Environment and Health
a. Environmental factors as determinants
b. Promoting healthy environment
c. Occupational health
6. Evidence-based Medicine
a. What evidence-based health care?
b. Searching strategy
c. Critical appraisal
d. Evidence-based health care practice
5.2 Part II: field Training and Research
This part extends for two calendar years. It covers advanced
residency rotations in four major areas (programmes) of
community Medicine that are individually organized for each
trainee. The selection of the training programmes should take
into account the trainee's experience and interests, as well as
the available opportunities for training and supervision. The
training areas (programmes) include:
a. Health information.
b. Epidemiology and surveillance.
c. Planning and management of health manpower.
d. Administration of health services and healthcare institutions.
e. Environmental health.
f. Maternal and child health.
g. School health.
i. Control of endemic diseases.
j. Chronic diseases
k. Occupational health.
l. Mental health.
m. Care of elderly.
o. International health.
5.2.1. The trainee should spend specified period in each
selected programme (see log Book) and carry out the following
i. Provision of services:
1. Participate in the daily activities of the programme,
including the provision services, health education and
ii. Education and training:
1. Participation in the education and training of the health
2. Participation of relevant teaching/learning materials.
3. Use of appropriate visual aides in the presentation of
lectures and seminars in topics related to the program.
iii. Planning, organizing, and managing:
1. Description and analysis of the demographic,
socioeconomic, cultural and environmental characteristics of the
target population served by the programme, using appropriate
a. Critical appraisal of the different components of the
programme: structural organization, current plan of activities,
managerial procedures, availability and efficiency of utilization
2. Identification of administrative and/or organizational
obstacles as well as the relevant interventions to resolve them.
3. Active participation in different committees of the
programme and related activities.
1. Critical literature review of the historical and theoretical
background of the training programme, and its current tends.
2. Describe the demographic, social and cultural characteristics
of the target population served by the programme.
3. Critical appraisal of two published papers related to the
4. Prepare a research proposal on a relevant health problem.
5. Participate in different scientific activities: workshops,
seminars and conferences related to the training program.
5.2.2. At the end of each rotation the trainee should submit a
scientific report according to the established specification.
5.2.3. During this period the trainee should carry out a planned
scientific research and submit a dissertation.
Recommended References:1. Maxcy-Rosenau-Last.
Public Health and Preventive Medicine
John M. Last and Robert B. Wallace (Eds)
Appelton and Kange, 1997
2. Foundations of Epidemiology
David E. Lilienfeled. Paul D. Stolley
Oxford University Press, 1994
3. Epidemiology Biostatistics and Preventive Medicine
James F. Jekel, John G. Elmore & David L Katz
W. B. Saunders Company, 1996
4. Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics
Rebecca G. Knapp & M. Clinton Miller III
Williams & Wikins
5. Society and Health
Graham Moon & Rosemary Gillespie
Routledge, London, 1996
6. Macroeconomic Environment and Health
WHO, Geneva, 1993
7. Education for Health: A manual on health
education in primary health care
WHO, Geneva, 1998
8. on being in Charge: A guide to management in
primary health care
WHO, Geneva, 1992
9. Health Promotion: Models and values
R.S. Dowine, Carol Tnnahill
Oxford University Press
1. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal
WHO � EMRO
2. Bulletin of the World Health Organization: The
International Journal pf Public Health
WHO � Geneva
3. International Journal of Epidemiology
4. International Journal of Health Services
Baymood Publishing company, inc
5. Journal of Medical Ethics
6. Journal of Epidemiology and community Health
Students will be subject for two examinations in addition to
The students have to carry out 80% or above of the assigned
activities to be eligible for part 1 or 2 examination.
Part 1 examination consists of MCQs, problem solving and
Part 2 examination consists of MCQs, problem solving, short
notes and OSCE in addition to thesis evaluation.