Biomass for power generation 2Presentation Transcript
Biomass for Power GenerationGreg GrotvikBA 205-02, Fall TermDecember 6, 2012
Biomass Technician: Introduction• Biomass Technician: Job Duties, Outlook• Biomass: How it Works• Biomass Power plants in the United States• Types and uses of Biomass• Biomass Technician: Conclusion
Biomass Plant TechnicianJob Duties and Work Environment• Job Duties ▫ Operate biomass fuel-burning….• Work Environment ▫ Mill Setting
Biomass Plant TechnicianJob Outlook, Wages, & Education• Outlook: 3700 jobs in the United States• Wages: Median wages $25.58 hourly, 53,200 Annually.• Education Required: Bachelors degree gives applicant the advantage in the labor market. Long term on the job training required.
Biomass to Electricity: How it works • Biomass is sized and dried • Once dried, biomass is gasified into a bio-gas. • Bio-gas is sent through a gas filter and travels through a combustion turbine • After the combustion turbine, biogas is sent through a generator to a substation and then sent to end users via transmission lines
Biomass Power Plants in the UnitedStates Facility Name Company Name City/County State Capacity 6th Street Aliant Energy Cedar Rapids MI 85mw Bay Front Xcel Energy Inc Ashland WI 76mw Colbert TVA Tuscumbia AL 190mw Gadsden 2 Alabama Power Co Gadsden AL 70 mw Greenridge AES Dresden NW 161mw Tacoma Steam Plant Tacoma PUD Tacoma WA 35mw
Biomass powerQuestion ResponseQuestion 1: What are the pro’s and con’s of The Pro’s are that Biomass is renewable,biomass for the generation of energy abundant, and readily available. Biomass is also dispatchable and can reduce the dependence on fossil fuelsQuestion 2: What are the barriers to adoption of Barriers to utilization are primarily economic. Thebiomass? current pay rate to utilities is marginal at best. One of the contributing factors is that to reach the scale that encourages positive returns on power production facilities tend to be larger than the end-users needs.Question 3: How can these barriers be mitigated? For power generation it would be mitigated by power purchase rate that reflects a better market value. Some states have tried to encourage a better power purchase rate through renewable energy standard. In Oregon, the need has been met for beyond the next decade • Responses courtesy of John Pine, Biomass Resource Specialist, Oregon Department of Forestry
Types of Biomass used for powergeneration • Agriculture • Energy Crops • Forestry • Urban Wood Waste • Garbage
Types of Biomass used: Agriculture• Rural communities could be entirely self-sufficient by utilizing energy from locally grown crops• Uses of the residue of this type of biomass ▫ Used as fuel for cars, trucks and farm machinery ▫ Used to heat homes and buildings• Based on a 2002 Farm Bill, up to $20 Billion available in new income to farmers and rural communities ▫ Used for reduction of global emissions ▫ Which equates to removing 70 million vehicles off the road.
Types of Biomass used: Forestry• The costs related to the distribution of forest energy crops (e.g. wood chips) changes dramatically depending on location ▫ Primary roads ▫ Secondary roads• Additional charge of $10 per dry ton was added
Types of Biomass used: Forestry(continued)• The study analyzed the following data types: ▫ Forestry inventory ▫ Logging costs ▫ Chipping ▫ Distance hauled ▫ Wood densities ▫ Terrain slope ▫ Equipment operating issues
Types of Biomass used: Energy CropsTrees Grasses• Examples include: • Examples include: ▫ Willow ▫ Switch grass ▫ Reed ▫ Poplar ▫ Canary ▫ Sycamore ▫ Wheat ▫ Sorgum ▫ Cottonwood • Grasses are native to Oregon • These crops are also profitable• These trees grow up to 40 • If an average sized farm feet in less than 8 years changes crops from corn to switch grass, over 66 tract• Trees are harvested after 10- loads of soil could be saved 20 years and then replanted from erosion.
Types of Biomass used: Urban WoodWasteTypes of Urban wood waste General Factsinclude: • National average freight cost• Wood yard trimmings is $0.24 per ton mile• Demolition wood residue• Construction wood debris • Average distance hauled is 50-• Other wood waste 100 miles per dry ton• Costs include: • Local trucking companies had ▫ $0-$8 per wet tons for mill estimated that 506 billion ton residues miles have been hauled in one ▫ $10-$14 per wet ton for year. urban wood waste residues
Types of Biomass used: Garbage• Three methods in processing garbage into biomass power ▫ Combustion technologies ▫ Cogeneration ▫ Cofiring
Types of Biomass used: Garbage -Combustion• Combustion technology ▫ Garbage is placed into a furnace, which converts o biomass to heat energy at 2200 (Fahrenheit) ▫ As this biomass is burned, hot gas is released. ▫ Gas contains 85% of fuels energy
Types of Biomass used: Garbage –Co-generation• Co-generation Technology ▫ From garbage, co-generation produces biomass electricity from steam driven turbine generators ▫ Turbine generators have an efficiency of 17-25% ▫ If a boiler is added to an turbine, efficiency increases to 85%
Types of Biomass used: Garbage –Co-firing• Co-firing Technology ▫ Co-firing is a back-up fuel in a coal burning power plant. ▫ Carbon dioxide emissions are decreased from a co-firing power generation plant ▫ To maintain efficiency, wood fuel or a modification of the boiler might be required.
Biomass for Power Generation• Conclusion:• Biomass is a more sustainable power source, and employment opportunities will exist with living wage jobs.• “Some states have tried to encourage this renewable energy standards, but in Oregon, we have met the need for the next decade or more” – John Pine, Biomass Resource Specialist, Oregon Department of Forestry
Referencesn.d. 2 december 2012. <www.EIA.gov>.One net online. n.d. 3 December 2012.<http://www.onetonline.org/find/industry>.Pine, John. Biomass Specialist, OregonDepartment of Forestry Greg Grotvik. 3 December2012.