Stressors for bus drivers It is estimated that approximately 20% of the time involved in bus operations is occupied with these non-driving tasks: servicing, administration, and vehicle control. There are stresses related to the control of the bus and providing transit services. There are stresses from both the internal and external environments. Okay, I admit it; I could not drive a school bus. Hats off to those folks. It's difficult enough without passenger distraction
Silly question…I mean all you are doing is sitting there listening to me….right….and I’m not all that distracting, I don’t look like brad Pit or tom Cruize.
In most groups, 50% of the subjects did not report seeing the gorilla.
Ambiguous illusions are pictures or objects that elicit a perceptual 'switch' between the alternative interpretations. The Necker cube is a well known example; another instance is the Rubin vase. Distorting illusions are characterized by distortions of size, length, or curvature. A striking example is the Café wall illusion. Another example is the famous Müller-Lyer illusion. Paradox illusions are generated by objects that are paradoxical or impossible, such as the Penrose triangle or impossible staircases seen, for example, in M. C. Escher's Ascending and Descending and Waterfall . The triangle is an illusion dependent on a cognitive misunderstanding that adjacent edges must join. Fictional illusions are defined as the perception of objects that are genuinely not there to all but a single observer, such as those induced by schizophrenia or a hallucinogen. These are more properly called hallucinations.
What we are talking about today is: Inattentional blindness , also known as perceptual blindness , is the phenomenon of not being able to see things that are actually there. I call it a brain filter
For change blindness to occur, the change in the scene typically has to coincide with some visual disruption such as a eye movement or a brief obscuration of the observed scene or image.
All three are about visual and cognitive distractions to “trick” the brain For the next slide, is this crash caused by optical illusion, Inattention Blindness, or Change Blindness?
Example of Inattention Blindness
Adrian Perez, the driver of the VIA bus, was texting for at least six minutes right before he crashed into the back of her SUV. Eyes off the road= change blindness
Old. Been around since the passengers began riding in cars. In terms of devices since 1913 with windshield wipers when people argued that their rhythm would hypnotize drivers. Distractions have always been a factor in the safe operation of a vehicle and the use of mobile phones and telematics devices are only two of many activities that distract today’s drivers. During the past century a host of innovations designed to enhance motorists’ comfort, safety and convenience drew negative response until their benefits were understood and accepted and people learned to manage the distractions they engaged in. Distractions have always been a factor in the safe operation of motor vehicles and they were actually discussed back in 1913 with the invention of the windshield wiper, which was thought to possibly hypnotize drivers. The challenge before us is is to maximize the benefits and reduce the distractions associated with their use. Data gathering efforts are underway to help us understand the level of distraction associated with mobile phones and other in-vehicle telecommunication devices and to help us determine if and to what extent regulation may be appropriate.
Driver distraction is our oldest new problem! Today’s fast-paced world has raised the expectation for multi-tasking and always being connected. And not just in the business world – this is the age of immediate response, with friends and family often expecting instant accessibility. The explosion of mobile communications and electronic devices allows us to do things in our vehicles that were unimaginable only a few short years ago – talking, texting, working from the car, even hosting a TV game show (Cash Cab)! Many of these activities are potential much more distracting than the old issues of eating and personal grooming. And with our population growing faster than any other industrialized nation, and more traffic and congestion on our roadways, today the risks from distracted driving are higher. Compounding this, the fastest adopters of new activities like texting have been the younger age groups with the least driving experience. But at it’s core Distracted Driving is a behavioral issue, resulting from drivers overestimating their ability to multi-task, and underestimating the variable demands of the driving task.
Many different types of distraction Rapid changes in technology and potential for complex tech to distract merits attention Teen passenger effects, group texting Most insidious source of distraction concerns shift in role of person—primary responsibility should but isn’t always driving Taking on the role of driver can distract one from making good business decision
complexity of “old” technologies (radios, sound systems, vehicle displays, etc) New technologies (navigation systems, traveler information systems, etc.) People spending more time in cars Explosion in cell phone use Hot media topic Fear of new technology
Most distractions a combination of the three Visual and demanding manual (reaching) are particularly dangerous Tasks high on all three pose a severe danger—texting (perfect storm of v c and m) Length of the bars is a visual representation of the magnitude of Dynamic and rapidly changing with new technology entering car Spare capacity of driver and traffic eroded by increasing demands 83% of U.S. mobile teens use text-messaging and 56% use MMS/picture messaging. The average U.S. mobile teen now sends or receives an average of 2,899 text-messages per month compared to 191 calls. The average number of texts has gone up 566% in just two years Intexticated Consequence of lots of small demand Consequence of lots of drivers with lots of demands?
Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) 5870 fatalities due to distraction 16% of all fatalities Up from 12% in 2007
General Estimates System (GES) 515000 injured people due to distraction about 100times more inj then deaths 22% of all crash-related injuries
Permission and permits one observer for each side of the road Face traffic to avoids tint Every car that passes through the active school zone should be recorded Do not only record cars with distracted drivers Data should be collected during the entire active school zone time Data must be collected 3 times during morning hours and 3 times during afternoon hours First Round Observations October 20 th -November 20 th Install sign (go to next slide) Sign Installation no later than November 20 th Do not install sign until all first round observations have been completed Second Round Observations April 1 st -April 30 th
Sign Installation no later than November 20 th Do not install sign until all first round observations have been completed Second Round Observations April 1 st -April 30 th
1 out of every ten cars
>10,000 cars per day vs. <10,000 vehicles per day
Distracted Driver in Active School Zones
Distracted Drivers in Active School Zones: A National Study
Follow schedule Vision and lighting Traffic congestion and hazards Noise and vibration Road and lane configuration Bus maintenance issues Climate control Communication with dispatch Constrained driving position Supervise passengers Passenger information John Inglish, General Manger, Utah Transit Authority
<ul><li>Are you distracted right now??? </li></ul>
<ul><li>So an optical illusion is defined as a perception of something different than it actually exists </li></ul><ul><li>Often times it doesn’t correspond to physical reality. </li></ul><ul><li>By the way, the word illusion comes from the Latin verb illudere meaning, "to mock." </li></ul>
Inattentional blindness , not being able to see things that are actually there.
<ul><li>Change blindness : when a person viewing a visual scene apparently fails to detect large changes in the scene. </li></ul>
So how does… <ul><li>Optical illusions </li></ul><ul><li>Inattention Blindness </li></ul><ul><li>Change Blindness </li></ul>… relate to distracted driving?
Distracted crash – Alexandria, VA Slide by Bruce Magladry, Director, Office of Highway Safety, National Transportation Safety Board 12’ 4” Warning 10’ 2” Clearance
New Issue or Old? Cell Phones and Driving. AAA Foundation
Driver Distraction is Not New, but Temptation has Increased <ul><li>Common Factor in Driver Distraction is the Driver! </li></ul>
Distraction Sources in 2009 <ul><li>Driving and non-driving </li></ul><ul><li>Built-in, carried-in, and outside the vehicle </li></ul><ul><li>Passengers—attractions and distractions </li></ul><ul><li>Role of person behind the wheel: driver or mother, boyfriend, diner, worker... </li></ul>Slide by Dr. J. D. Lee, Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Why All the Attention Now? <ul><li>People spending more time in cars </li></ul><ul><li> complexity of “old” technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Explosion in cell phone use </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of new technology </li></ul><ul><li>New technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Hot media topic </li></ul>Cell Phones and Driving. AAA Foundation
So what does driver distraction look like: Visual – Eyes off the road Manual- Hands off the wheel Cognitive – Mind off the road
Distraction types Visual Manual Cognitive Concept by Dr. J. D. Lee, Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison
All distractions are not created equal Concept by Dr. J. D. Lee, Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison Radio C V M Reaching C V M Texting C V M Hands Free Phone C V M
Slide by Dr. Tom Dingus, Director, Virginia Tech Transportation Institute
Slide by Dr. Tom Dingus, Director, Virginia Tech Transportation Institute
Do you know how many deaths and injuries occurred due to distracted drivers in 2008?
5,870 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS)
515,000 NHTSA’s General Estimates System (GES)
Study Objectives…. <ul><li>To determine prevalence of distracted drivers passing through active school zones </li></ul><ul><li>To determine if sign messaging is an effective intervention method </li></ul><ul><li>To advance knowledge in this subject matter </li></ul>Distracted Drivers in active school zones: A national report. Jurek Grabowski & Stephanie Goodman. Safe Kids Worldwide 2009.
Study protocol- The Basics <ul><li>Middle school evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Stand roadside 6 times, 3 in the morning 3 in the afternoon both during active school zone hours </li></ul><ul><li>Collect data noting driver behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Enter data from form into excel database </li></ul><ul><li>Email the database and mail the forms to SKW </li></ul>